May S.M.,University of Cologne |
Engel M.,University of Cologne |
Brill D.,University of Cologne |
Cuadra C.,Project NOAH Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards |
And 6 more authors.
Earth Surface Dynamics | Year: 2015
Fields of dislodged boulders and blocks record catastrophic coastal flooding during strong storms or tsunamis and play a pivotal role in coastal hazard assessment. Along the rocky carbonate coast of Eastern Samar (Philippines) we documented longshore transport of a block of 180 t and boulders (up to 23.5 t) shifted upslope to elevations of up to 10 m above mean lower low water level during Supertyphoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. Initiation-of-motion approaches indicate that boulder dislocation occurred with flow velocities of 8.9-9.6 m s-1, which significantly exceeds depth-averaged flow velocities of a local coupled hydrodynamic and wave model (Delft3D) of the typhoon with a maximum < 1.5 m s-1. These results, in combination with recently published phase-resolving wave models, support the hypothesis that infragravity waves induced by the typhoon were responsible for the remarkable flooding pattern in Eastern Samar, which are not resolved in phase-averaged storm surge models. Our findings show that tsunamis and hydrodynamic conditions induced by tropical cyclones may shift boulders of similar size and, therefore, demand a careful re-evaluation of storm-related transport where it, based on the boulder's sheer size, has previously been ascribed to tsunamis. © 2015 Author(s).