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Barancekova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Krojerova-Prokesova J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Sustr P.,NP and PLA Sumava | Heurich M.,Nationalparkverwaltung Bayerischer Wald
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

The composition of roe deer diet in the Bohemian Forest was analysed with the aim to assess its role in forest habitat altered by bark beetle outbreaks and wind calamities. The annual diet of roe deer was studied at both, Czech and German, sides of the Bohemian Forest using microscopic analyses of faeces. On average, the largest part of the roe deer diet consisted of forbs (32%), followed by three other components-grasses (17%), coniferous trees (13%) and broadleaved trees (11%). Overall the results show that the composition of roe deer diet in the Bohemian Forest is that of a typical concentrate selector. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Krop-Benesch A.R.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Berger A.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Hofer H.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Heurich M.,Nationalparkverwaltung Bayerischer Wald
Italian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

The investigation of activity patterns provides crucial information on the ecology of a species, yet there are very few long-term data available from free-ranging species. Here, we present the first continuous activity data of free-ranging roe deer covering an entire calendar year. Six male and five female roe deer in the National Park Bavarian Forest, Germany, were equipped with GPS collars containing a two-axis accelerometer. Activity data were analysed for daily activity patterns and their seasonal changes. Daily activity patterns resembled the patterns described in earlier VHF-telemetry based studies, but instead of a pure active/inactive discrimination, the level of activity was obtained continuously, allowing a more precise study of activity intensity.Activity was observed at all daytimes, but was most intense at twilight. These twilight peaks were less pronounced in winter. The intensity of activity showed stronger seasonal changes than the number and duration of activity bouts. Mean daily activity levels and the number of activity peaks per day were lower in winter than in spring and summer. Mean duration of activity peaks did not change during the year. At all seasons, activity had a significant 24-hour periodicity, but the time of its emphasis changed. The roe deer was most diurnal during winter, and most nocturnal in autumn. In spring and summer, activity was evenly distributed between day and night. Seasonal changes in activity could be explained by seasonal changes in physiological parameters and in environmental changes, especially food supply and climate. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Unione Zoologica Italiana. Source

Hofner B.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Muller J.,Nationalparkverwaltung Bayerischer Wald | Muller J.,TU Munich | Hothorn T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Ecology | Year: 2011

Flexible modeling frameworks for species distribution models based on generalized additive models that allow for smooth, nonlinear effects and interactions are of increasing importance in ecology. Commonly, the flexibility of such smooth function estimates is controlled by means of penalized estimation procedures. However, the actual shape remains unspecified. In many applications, this is not desirable as researchers have a priori assumptions on the shape of the estimated effects, with monotonicity being the most important. Here we demonstrate how monotonicity constraints can be incorporated in a recently proposed flexible framework for species distribution models. Our proposal allows m notonicity constraints to be imposed on smooth effects and on ordinal, categorical variables using an additional asymmetric L2 penalty. Model estimation and variable selection for Red Kite (Milvus milvus) breeding was conducted using the flexible boosting framework implemented in R package mboost. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

Meyer C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Heurich M.,Nationalparkverwaltung Bayerischer Wald | Ullrich U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2014

The use of antimicrobial agents is responsible for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nevertheless, multiresistant bacteria have been found in animals that have never been exposed to antimicrobial agents. Wild animals that are carriers of methicillin-resistant organisms represent a hazard since they can transmit their bacteria to other animals and to humans. In the hunting season 2009/2010 nasal swabs of 98 red deer and 109 wild boars were examined for the presence of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. From each wild boar methicillin-susceptible staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus in 28% and Staphylococcus spp. in 72% of the animals) were isolated. In red deer the detection rate of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and methicillin-susceptible staphylococci was 49% and 17%, respectively. The occurrence of S. aureus was significantly higher (p<0.05) in red deer than in wild boars. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were not found. However, in one third of the red deer, methicillin-resistant bacteria of the genus Enterococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. were isolated. The results of the present study indicate that wildlife, especially red deer are an important reservoir for S. aureus and that the upper respiratory tract of red deer is regularly colonised with methicillin-resistant bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Primarily, commensal bacteria are harmless to human health, however, red deer may be a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. © 2014 Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. Source

Hothorn T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Muller J.,Nationalparkverwaltung Bayerischer Wald
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

Browsing by free-living ungulates is a serious threat to forest regeneration. Although predictors of browsing and potential consequences are well researched, less information is available in the scientific literature about possible solutions to the problem. We investigated whether a large-scale game management system in a traditional sport hunting culture has the potential to effectively reduce browsing damage. Our analysis was based on browsing survey data from 2006 and 2009 covering more than 25,000km2 in Bavaria, Germany. After an initial assessment of browsing damage throughout Bavaria in 2006, game management plans were altered, and the effect of this intervention was assessed in 2009. Browsing damage clearly declined in 2009 in areas where the suggested deer harvests were increased in 2006 game management plans. This is the first report of a successful implementation of a large-scale game management system aiming at reducing browsing damage to facilitate unfenced forest regeneration. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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