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Devleesschauwer B.,Ghent University | Devleesschauwer B.,Catholic University of Louvain | Aryal A.,Central Veterinary Hospital | Joshi D.D.,National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health

The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P<0.005) among the different coexisting caste and ethnic groups. In the same survey, the taeniosis prevalence was examined among the different groups. Tapeworm carriers were identified at a high prevalence among the Dum, one of the most disadvantaged communities of Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Pun S.B.,Clinical Research Unit | Shah Y.,National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Center
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Background:Dengue virus infection has become an increasingly serious threat to public health in Nepal. Detection and/or serotyping of dengue virus has been reported in the past; however, little is known about the critical phase among dengue patients in Nepal.Methods:Rapid immunochromatographic tests and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were performed in order to diagnosis dengue fever. Ultrasonographic and chest radiography were used to identify the plasma leakage phase.Results:Of the total 264 patients with dengue, 8.7% (23/264) were admitted during the critical phase; 82.6% (19/23) of the patients were between 20 and 44 years of age. Conclusion: Physicians need to be vigilant and attentive to young adult patients with dengue fever. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. Source

Ale A.,National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Center | Victor B.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Praet N.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Gabriel S.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species. © 2014Ale et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yanagida T.,Asahikawa Medical College | Yuzawa I.,Kitasato University | Joshi D.D.,National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Center | Sako Y.,Asahikawa Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Travel Medicine

Histopathological specimen of a neurocysticercosis patient, who had been living in several endemic countries, was retrospectively analyzed for assessing the origin of the infection. Mitochondrial DNA analysis strongly suggested that the patient became infected with the parasite in Nepal at least 10 years before the onset of the disease. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine. Source

Devleesschauwer B.,Ghent University | Ale A.,National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Center | Torgerson P.,University of Zurich | Praet N.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 10 more authors.
PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Parasitic zoonoses (PZs) pose a significant but often neglected threat to public health, especially in developing countries. In order to obtain a better understanding of their health impact, summary measures of population health may be calculated, such as the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). However, the data required to calculate such measures are often not readily available for these diseases, which may lead to a vicious circle of under-recognition and under-funding. We examined the burden of PZs in Nepal through a systematic review of online and offline data sources. PZs were classified qualitatively according to endemicity, and where possible a quantitative burden assessment was conducted in terms of the annual number of incident cases, deaths and DALYs. Between 2000 and 2012, the highest annual burden was imposed by neurocysticercosis and congenital toxoplasmosis (14,268 DALYs [95% Credibility Interval (CrI): 5450-27,694] and 9255 DALYs [95% CrI: 6135-13,292], respectively), followed by cystic echinococcosis (251 DALYs [95% CrI: 105-458]). Nepal is probably endemic for trichinellosis, toxocarosis, diphyllobothriosis, foodborne trematodosis, taeniosis, and zoonotic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections, but insufficient data were available to quantify their health impact. Sporadic cases of alveolar echinococcosis, angiostrongylosis, capillariosis, dirofilariosis, gnathostomosis, sparganosis and cutaneous leishmaniosis may occur. In settings with limited surveillance capacity, it is possible to quantify the health impact of PZs and other neglected diseases, thereby interrupting the vicious circle of neglect. In Nepal, we found that several PZs are endemic and are imposing a significant burden to public health, higher than that of malaria, and comparable to that of HIV/AIDS. However, several critical data gaps remain. Enhanced surveillance for the endemic PZs identified in this study would enable additional burden estimates, and a more complete picture of the impact of these diseases. Source

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