National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM

Portillo de Toledo, Spain

National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM

Portillo de Toledo, Spain
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Cabal A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cabal A.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Vicente J.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Alvarez J.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
MicrobiologyOpen | Year: 2017

Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E. coli VGs (stx1, sxt2, eae, ehxA, aggR, est, elt, bfpA, invA), as well as four genes related to O157:H7 (rfbO157, fliCH7) and O104:H4 (wzxO104, fliCH4) serotypes in animals (feces from deer, cattle, and wild boar) and water samples collected in three areas of Doñana National Park (DNP), Spain. Eight of the nine VGs were detected, being invA, eae, and stx2 followed by stx1, aggR, and ehxA the most abundant ones. In quantitative terms (gene copies per mg of sample), stx1 and stx2 gave the highest values. Significant differences were seen regarding VGs in the three animal species in the three sampled areas. The serotype-related genes were found in all but one sample types. In general, VGs were more diverse and abundant in the northern part of the Park, where the surface waters are more contaminated by human waste and farms. In the current study, we demonstrated that human influence is more relevant than host species in shaping the E. coli VGs spatial pattern and diversity in DNP. In addition, wildlife could be potential reservoirs for other pathotypes different from STEC, however further isolation steps would be needed to completely characterize those E. coli. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Barasona J.A.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Vicente J.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Diez-Delgado I.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Diez-Delgado I.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2017

The members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB). Infection is transmitted within and between livestock and wildlife populations, thus hampering TB control. Indirect transmission might be facilitated if MTC bacteria persist in the environment long enough to represent a risk of exposure to different species sharing the same habitat. We have, for the first time, addressed the relationship between environmental MTC persistence and the use of water resources in two TB endemic areas in southern Spain with the objective of identifying the presence of environmental MTC and its driving factors at ungulates’ water aggregation points. Camera-trap monitoring and MTC diagnosis (using a new MTC complex-specific PCR technique) were carried out at watering sites. Overall, 55.8% of the water points tested positive for MTC in mud samples on the shore, while 8.9% of them were positive in the case of water samples. A higher percentage of MTC-positive samples was found at those waterholes where cachectic animals were identified using camera-trap monitoring, and at the smallest waterholes. Our results help to understand the role of indirect routes of cross-species TB transmission and highlight the importance of certain environmental features in maintaining infection in multihost systems. This will help to better target actions and implement control strategies for TB at the wildlife/livestock interface. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


Barasona J.A.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Torres M.J.,University of Seville | Aznar J.,University of Seville | Gortazar C.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Vicente J.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2017

Since the intensity and frequency of pathogen shedding by hosts determine the probability of infection through direct and indirect contact, the shedding characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in the key host reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), is crucial. We aimed (i) to describe the natural shedding routes of MTC in free-ranging wild boar by a new semi-automated PCR method and (ii) to determine the association of MTC shedding pattern with tuberculosis (TB) progression and individual factors. MTC shedding (by any of the possible routes) was detected in a total of 30.8% (±7.5) out of the sampled individuals with valid or interpretable test results (n = 39). The proportion of TB-positive shedders according to the route was 13.6% (±7.5) for oral swabs, 4.5% (±4.5) for nasal swabs, 4.5% (±4.4) for faecal swabs and 13.6% (±7.5) for individuals being positive to all swabs concomitantly. The probability of shedding mycobacteria (by any route) statistically associated with TB generalization, and the TB score was significantly higher in individuals testing positive to at least one route compared to negatives. Overall, a diversity of shedding routes in wild boar is possible, and it is remarkable that for the first time, the faecal shedding is confirmed for naturally infected wild boar. Our results are consistent with the role wild boar plays for TB maintenance in host communities and environments in Iberia and confirm that it is an important source of mycobacteria infection by different routes. Finally, we evidenced the use of a new PCR technique to detect MTC DNA in excretions can be practical and defined the target routes for sampling wild boar shedding in future studies, such as interventions to control TB in wild boar that can be measured in terms of impact on mycobacteria excretion and transmission (i.e. vaccination). © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


Barasona J.A.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Mulero-Pazmany M.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Acevedo P.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Negro J.J.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. Low cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts' distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. In this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the ungulate community of Donãna National Park (South-western Spain) by modelling species host (red deer, fallow deer and cattle) abundance at fine spatial scale. The use of UAS high-resolution images has allowed us to collect data to model the environmental determinants of host abundance, and in a further step to evaluate their relationships with the spatial risk of TB throughout the ungulate community. We discuss the ecological, epidemiological and logistic conditions under which UAS may contribute to study the wildlife/livestock sanitary interface, where the spatial aggregation of hosts becomes crucial. These findings are relevant for planning and implementing research, fundamentally when managing disease in multi-host systems, and focusing on risky areas. Therefore, managers should prioritize the implementation of control strategies to reduce disease of conservation, economic and social relevance. © 2014 Barasona et al.


PubMed | National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM and University of Seville
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

The members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB). Infection is transmitted within and between livestock and wildlife populations, thus hampering TB control. Indirect transmission might be facilitated if MTC bacteria persist in the environment long enough to represent a risk of exposure to different species sharing the same habitat. We have, for the first time, addressed the relationship between environmental MTC persistence and the use of water resources in two TB endemic areas in southern Spain with the objective of identifying the presence of environmental MTC and its driving factors at ungulates water aggregation points. Camera-trap monitoring and MTC diagnosis (using a new MTC complex-specific PCR technique) were carried out at watering sites. Overall, 55.8% of the water points tested positive for MTC in mud samples on the shore, while 8.9% of them were positive in the case of water samples. A higher percentage of MTC-positive samples was found at those waterholes where cachectic animals were identified using camera-trap monitoring, and at the smallest waterholes. Our results help to understand the role of indirect routes of cross-species TB transmission and highlight the importance of certain environmental features in maintaining infection in multihost systems. This will help to better target actions and implement control strategies for TB at the wildlife/livestock interface.


Mulero-Pazmany M.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Barasona J.A.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Acevedo P.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Vicente J.,National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Negro J.J.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning. © 2015 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Loading National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM collaborators
Loading National Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM collaborators