National Water Research Institute

Saskatoon, Canada

National Water Research Institute

Saskatoon, Canada

The National Water Research Institute is a 501 nonprofit organization, located in California, was founded in 1991. It is devoted to promoting the protection, maintenance, and restoration of water supplies through collaborative research and outreach activities. It is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of representatives of water and wastewater agencies/districts in Southern California.NWRI serves as a major source of water-science research funding in the United States, focusing efforts on issues in drinking water, wastewater, water resources, and water reuse. NWRI also provide knowledge and training in these areas through publications, workshops, and conferences. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-08 | Award Amount: 7.75M | Year: 2014

MareFrame seeks to remove barriers preventing a more widespread use of an Ecosystem-based Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). It will develop assessment methods and a Decision Support Framework (DSF) for management of marine resources and thereby enhance the capacity to provide integrated assessment, advice and decision support for an EAFM. Enabling comparisons between relevant what-if scenarios and their likely consequences, DSF will support the implementation of the new Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The project SMEs, together with RTD institutions and stakeholders, will develop and demonstrate the use of innovative decision support tools through training actions, role-play and workshops. Indicators of Good Environmental Status (GES) will be developed along with models for ecosystem-based management. The models will take multi-species approaches into account and be developed and compared through seven datasets of six European regional seas. The models will draw on historical data sets and data from new analytical methods. Model performance will be compared and evaluated using a simulated ecosystem as an operating model. Learning from the experience of previous and on-going research, MareFrame integrates stakeholders at its core using a co-creation approach that combines analytical and participatory processes to provide knowledge that can be applied to policy-making, improving management plans and implementation of EAFM. The project dissemination will use innovative ways to ensure effective usage of project outcomes. The work packages and the allocation of roles have been designed to ensure effective collaboration through the projects lifetime. MareFrame liaises with other national and international research projects and is of high relevance to the future management of living marine resources in Europe in a changing environment, taking a holistic view incorporating socio-economic and legislative issues.

Grabowski R.C.,Queen Mary, University of London | Droppo I.G.,National Water Research Institute | Wharton G.,Queen Mary, University of London
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2011

Cohesive sediment is an important component of aquatic environments, which must be monitored and managed for environmental, engineering, and human health reasons. While the hydrodynamic aspects of sediment erosion and transport are well understood, the erodibility of cohesive sediment has proved more difficult to address and predict. Erodibility is the propensity for the sediment to be eroded, and is represented typically as an erosion threshold or erosion rate. It is an attribute of the sediment itself, and is dependent on the sediment properties that dictate the resistive forces in the sediment, such as gravity, friction, cohesion, and adhesion. This paper reviews recent findings from a range of disciplines to create a comprehensive picture of the physical, geochemical and biological properties that influence the erodibility of cohesive sediment. By identifying these key sediment properties, we provide the background for a discussion on how changes in and interactions between the properties generate significant spatial and temporal variations in erodibility. We discuss the development of a predictive model of erodibility, and emphasize the need for more comparable field and laboratory data. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

AUCKLAND UNISERVICES Ltd and National Water Research Institute | Date: 2014-05-07

An aquaculture method and a method for reducing biofouling of vessels or submerged structures, the method comprising broadcasting into the marine environment sound at a frequency or in a frequency range effective to attract one or more marine species to the sound source.

Zalewska T.,National Water Research Institute
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2012

137Cs activity concentrations were determined in samples of macrophytes Polysiphonia fucoides (red algae) and Zostera marina (vascular plant) collected during the entire vegetation season in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea. The measurements showed considerable seasonality of 137Cs activity in both species; an increase of cesium concentrations was observed from spring to autumn with maximal levels 49.1 ± 1.4 Bq kg d.w. -1 (P. fucoides) and 14.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg d.w. -1 (Z. marina) in late autumn. 137Cs concentrations observed in a given season are the result of a number of processes, the intensity of which can differ depending on external environmental conditions. The effects of these processes can differ and their directions can frequently be opposite to one another. The examined macrophytobenthic plant species could serve as bioindicators of radionuclide pollution for monitoring purposes on condition that the samples of plants are taken within a strictly defined period of the year to give comparable results and to supply realistic information about pollution levels. © 2011 The Author(s).

Beltaos S.,National Water Research Institute
River Research and Applications | Year: 2011

Despite recent advances in instrumentation and modelling methods, accurate determination of river discharge under an ice cover still requires direct measurement. Published flows at hydrometric gauging stations are based on interpolation between a few measurements that are carried out during each winter. The feasibility of using slope-area hydraulics to develop discharge-stage rating relationships is explored at two stations, Peace River at Peace Point and Mackenzie River at Arctic Red River. Records at both gauges contain key information for understanding local ice jamming processes, which are known to control the long-term maintenance of the aquatic ecosystems in the respective deltas. For each site, the variations of reach-average hydraulic parameters with stage are first determined from several nearby cross-sections. This information is then used to calculate hydraulic resistance characteristics during the ice season based on archived discharge measurement data, which also include ice cover thickness. The Peace River flow measurements indicate a well-defined seasonal variation in hydraulic resistance, with the exception of years with large slush deposits under the solid-ice sheet. Slush effects are negligible at the Mackenzie River gauge site, but the stage-flow relationship is complicated by a variable water surface slope, a result of downstream control by the Beaufort Sea. This feature is most pronounced during the pre-breakup period when flows are rising sharply and renders flow estimation uncertain. A nearby water-level gauge would help quantify the slope and increase confidence in winter flow estimates. © 2010.

Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L-1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO3 L-1). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO3 L-1) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L-1) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L-1). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bobba A.G.,National Water Research Institute
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012

Ground water-surface water interface (GWSWI) represents the interconnection of ground water and surface water in the hydrologic continuum. Interactions between these two water masses result in unique gradients and/or transitions of contaminant concentration profiles, biological populations, chemistry, flow, mixing characteristics, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, organic content, and thermal properties across GWSWI. In addition, many unique biogeochemical processes occur in this zone that can have significant impact on the fate and transport of contaminants across the GWSWI. Prediction of the distribution and concentrations of contaminants across the GWSWI is challenging, but is essential for evaluating human health and environmental risk, including remedial alternatives at contaminated sites. The objective of this paper is to review and assess existing modeling capabilities to recognize (a) the need for development of new modeling tools, (b) knowledge gaps, and (c) challenges required to address contaminant transport within GWSWI. Currently, the most important needs for future model development are, (a) linkage between ground water and surface water models; (b) integration of process-level models within the framework of large-scale models; and (c) understanding ground water-surface water interactions within a spatial and temporal framework. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING | Award Amount: 59.86K | Year: 2015


Central Valley California Rural Water Infrastructure Development and Outreach Project

Within the United States, hundreds of thousands of families do not have reliable access to clean drinking water. This reality impacts the US economy and national security because the areas under the most stress tend to supply much of the nations food, fiber, mineral, and energy resources. The objective of this project is to mitigate this problem by developing a methodology that will allow local communities to combine resources to overcome this scale issue and to address the maintenance and upgrade backlog of their systems by identifying potential public-private partnerships that will provide financial support. The effort will focus on the San Joaquin Valley in California for its test case, using stakeholder driven workshops to identify the local issues and develop the necessary communal relationships and support.

This project will develop a new and unique approach for helping these rural communities through a combination of stakeholder driven activities and tradeoff analyses. The approach will form the foundation for bringing rural communities together to leverage common resources and increase their economic power, with the end goal of using their collective involvement to pursue private-public partnerships that will fund the necessary system and infrastructure improvements. While stakeholder driven processes, communal approaches, and tradeoff analyses have been used in the past, this effort will be the first to combine the three with the goal of simultaneously developing engineered and financial solutions for the region. The San Joaquin Valley is one of the fastest growing regions in California with an average growth rate from 2000-2010 of 21.6 % and a population of approximately 4 million people. The population is predominantly Hispanic (95.6) with a median income that is nearly half of the California median ($22,792 vs. $58,328 in 2012). In 2006, six counties in the San Joaquin Valley had the highest percentage of residents below the federal poverty line with approximately 49 % of the residents living in poverty. Less than 1 in 3 has a high school education or better. From 2008-2012, about three-quarters (73 %) of the San Joaquin Valley?s economic production is from agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, with transportation and warehousing (4 %), accommodation and food services (3 %), retail trade (3 %), manufacturing (3 %), utilities (2 %) and administrative support and waste management (2 %) making up the majority of the balance. Approximately 50 % of the population works in agriculture producing over 300 crops that represent approximately 13 % of the national agricultural production. The statistics above show that this project will provide broad impacts to a mostly Hispanic and impoverished community that lacks the educational background and technical expertise to tackle such a difficult problem. Through helping communities increase the reliability and quality of their local water supplies, this project may also contribute to local, regional, and national economies by increasing worker production as well as by reducing health costs associated with water quality ailments.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 49.42K | Year: 2012

1214122 (Mosher). Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) is the planned introduction of recycled water directly into a public water system or into a raw water supply upstream of a water treatment plant. DPR has the potential to provide a reliable, sustainable local water supply; however, it is not easily implementable in the U.S. due to scientific/technical knowledge gaps and public perception. This multi-disciplinary workshop will bring together academics and water professionals to focus on the technical and social challenges and either directly address them or prepare guidance on means to address them. The workshop will include review of background papers, working group sessions, group report development, and presentations of group reports. A final report will be accessible online. The workshop will advance knowledge in public perception (social science) and technical issues (engineering). The public perception outcomes will directly enhance outreach and educational activities in the water industry. The technology outcomes will enhance scientific research and engineering applications by identifying key issues that will allow for the implementation of DPR and improve current water treatment technologies. DPR has the potential to significantly improve and diversify sustainable water resources management throughout the US, especially in arid regions like CA, AZ, and TX. It can reduce the need for long-distance water conveyance (and associated energy consumption). DPR implementation can also encourage the transformative view that wastewater is a renewable recoverable source of energy, nutrients, and potable water. The final product, a workshop report, will provide guidance on developing protocols for addressing technical challenges to DPR (e.g., modifications needed to upgrade existing advanced treatment facilities to DPR). It will also provide outreach/education tools to better communicate and increase the public?s understanding of DPR. The workshop report will be disseminated broadly to the water community as a free internet download for the purpose of enhancing the scientific and technical understanding of methods/facilities needed to undertake DPR projects, as well as enhance the understanding of social aspects/activities needed to gain public acceptance of DPR. The workshop has the potential to help make DPR a viable option for communities seeking to augment/diversify potable water supplies. Some benefits of DPR to society at-large include: providing a water supply alternative for communities that lack groundwater aquifers or surface water; reducing wastewater discharge to the ocean or inland surface waters, reducing the extraction/depletion of water from aquifers and surface waters, and reducing energy use.

Beltaos S.,National Water Research Institute
Cold Regions Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Ice-jam release waves, or javes for short, are highly dynamic events that occur in ice-forming rivers. They are known for serious ecological and socio-economic impacts, which are usually detrimental but on occasion beneficial, particularly with respect to ecosystem maintenance in the large freshwater deltas of northern Canada. Detailed water level data have been obtained during the passage of javes in the past 10. years or so, but their study is hampered by lack of velocity and discharge measurements, owing to the presence of moving ice in the flow. A previously developed method to analytically compute such parameters, which is based on measured waveforms, has given encouraging results in several applications. Herein, this method is first subjected to comprehensive validation using numerical model output for a hypothetical jave in a prismatic channel. The analytical method is shown to perform adequately with respect to all hydrodynamic jave characteristics, such as celerity, velocity, discharge, and bed shear stress. Jave data from various rivers are then compiled in tabular form and it is shown via dimensional analysis that bulk predictions can be made in terms of jave height and rate of rise of the water level. Implications of the present findings to riverbed scour and to ecologically vital ice-jam flooding of flat rivers and deltas are explored and research challenges identified. © 2012.

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