Mexico City, Mexico
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Tomlinson M.,University of New England of Australia | Davis R.,National Water Commission
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2010

World-wide, science-policy integration across jurisdictional boundaries is emerging as a major challenge to sustainable water management. The Australian national water reforms require statutory provision for environmental outcomes in water plans, informed by the best available science. Assessments of progress towards this goal of scientifically rigorous environmental water provision indicate that, despite a multiplicity of effort in aquatic research and management, the pace of reform has been too slow for adequate protection of aquatic ecosystems. Although there are significant knowledge gaps, these are not the only obstacles to effective application of aquatic science in water plans. Progress on environmental water reform can be enhanced by recognising the cultural differences between science and policy, and by integrating communication and policy development activities from the outset of every applied science research program. Cross-jurisdictional progress in sustainable water management requires a comprehensive water research and policy development strategy using a toolbox of techniques to harness the considerable expertise and knowledge of aquatic scientists, policy makers and water planners in an integrated program to deliver the aquatic science applications called for by the national water reforms. © 2010 CSIRO.


Todd C.D.,University of La Laguna | Todd C.D.,University of the West Indies | Reyes-Batlle M.,University of La Laguna | Pinero J.E.,University of La Laguna | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2015

Free living amoebae (FLA) are amphizoic protozoa that are ubiquitous in nature. Infection with FLA may result in neurological, ocular and skin infections. Exposure to Acanthamoeba occurs frequently through water contact and knowledge of the presence of the organisms in water sources is important in understanding transmission dynamics. The distribution of Acanthamoeba was studied in recreational and domestic water samples collected from across Jamaica. Morphological assessment and polymerase chain reaction revealed Acanthamoeba spp. isolates in 50.6% (42/83) and 17.3% (14/81) of recreational and domestic water, respectively. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotypes T3, T4, T5, T10 and T11 corresponding to Acanthamoeba spp: A. griffini, A. triangularis, A. lenticulata, A. culbertsoni and A. hatchetti. Moreover, T4 was the most frequently isolated genotype in both recreational and domestic water. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays indicated that most isolates were potentially pathogenic. This is the first report of T3 and T10 genotypes in the Caribbean and the first report of these Acanthamoeba spp. in Jamaican waters. The study shows that there is potential risk of infection to contact wearers who practise poor lens care. Further, Acanthamoeba should be considered as a cause of neurological infections in Jamaica. © IWA Publishing 2015.


PubMed | University of the West Indies, University of La Laguna, National Water Commission and Canary Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of water and health | Year: 2015

Free living amoebae (FLA) are amphizoic protozoa that are ubiquitous in nature. Infection with FLA may result in neurological, ocular and skin infections. Exposure to Acanthamoeba occurs frequently through water contact and knowledge of the presence of the organisms in water sources is important in understanding transmission dynamics. The distribution of Acanthamoeba was studied in recreational and domestic water samples collected from across Jamaica. Morphological assessment and polymerase chain reaction revealed Acanthamoeba spp. isolates in 50.6% (42/83) and 17.3% (14/81) of recreational and domestic water, respectively. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotypes T3, T4, T5, T10 and T11 corresponding to Acanthamoeba spp: A. griffini, A. triangularis, A. lenticulata, A. culbertsoni and A. hatchetti. Moreover, T4 was the most frequently isolated genotype in both recreational and domestic water. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays indicated that most isolates were potentially pathogenic. This is the first report of T3 and T10 genotypes in the Caribbean and the first report of these Acanthamoeba spp. in Jamaican waters. The study shows that there is potential risk of infection to contact wearers who practise poor lens care. Further, Acanthamoeba should be considered as a cause of neurological infections in Jamaica.


Rivas I.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology IMTA | Guitron A.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology IMTA | Montero M.,National Water Commission
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2012

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that vulnerability to climate change depends on three main factors: exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Each factor was evaluated and an overall methodology was proposed to map hydrologic vulnerability, where adaptation efforts are most needed to sustain environmental conditions. The Lerma-Chapala Basin was used as a case study. This Basin is located in the central part of Mexico and has an extension of 54,450 Km2. During the last 40 years, industrial, commercial and agricultural activities have been established to provide supplies to Mexico City located 50 Km east of the basin boundary. Because of such explosive growth, the basin today faces many challenges, for instance water scarcity issues, groundwater depletion and pollution in streams. At the outlet of the basin is the Lake Chapala, the largest water body in Mexico with an average volume of 8 cubic kilometers. Expected climate change effects threaten the environmental sustainability of the basin and a severe reduction in Lake's volume in the future. A downscaling procedure estimated the precipitation from 23 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) by using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) method. Two climate change scenarios were chosen (A1B and A2) and two time horizons (2030 and 2050). Results showed a decrement in surface runoff up to 21% (A1B-2050). The modeling results were integrated and mapped using GIS. © 2011 WIT Press.


Acosta I.R.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology | Montero Martinez M.J.,National Water Commission
Journal of Water and Climate Change | Year: 2013

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that vulnerability to climate change depends on three main factors: exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Each factor was evaluated in a hydrologic context, for instance exposure was interpreted as a change in surface runoff. Factors were combined using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and an overall methodology to map hydrologic vulnerability was proposed. The Conchos River Basin, which is the main tributary of the Rio Grande, was used as a case study. The long-term rate of change in surface runoff was estimated considering the variation in future precipitation from 23 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM) by using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) method. Two climate change scenarios (A1B and A2) and three time horizons (2030, 2050 and 2100) were chosen. Results showed a decrease in surface runoff up to 28% (A1B-2100) north of the Basin. Hence, it is likely to have more frequent droughts. However, it would be challenging to compensate the lack of surface runoff since groundwater resources are already depleted. Finally, overall hydrologic vulnerability maps were obtained to locate the most vulnerable regions, where precisely adaption efforts would be more necessary to sustain environmental conditions. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Arreguin-Cortes F.I.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology | Murillo-Fernandez R.,National Water Commission
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2016

The dams with the greatest capacity in Mexico, as most of the large dams in the country, were built during the 20th century. Many of them have been in operation for over 50 years, and their environmental and basin conditions have changed mainly due to deforestation and urbanization. Some dams show signs of geotechnical, structural, or hydrological behavior that differs from the one expected. Therefore, they have received a special follow-up as to their behavior, which includes stability analysis, hydraulic-hydrologic functioning, revision of spillway and outlet structures, and channel conditions downstream of the dam. The paper describes general revision works performed to several dams in order to verify that their current operation conditions are acceptable, with emphasis on the geotechnical aspects of earthen dams, concrete-face rock-fill dams, and some masonry dams. The results obtained in the studies and the proposals for risk mitigation, as well as the solutions that have been implemented to improve their safety, are commented on. © ASCE.


Acosta I.R.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology | Montero-Martinez M.J.,National Water Commission
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2014

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that vulnerability to climate change depends on three main factors: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Each factor was evaluated in a hydrologic context; for instance, exposure was interpreted as a change in surface runoff. Factors were combined using a geographic information system (GIS), and an overall methodology was proposed to map hydrologic vulnerability. The Lerma-Chapala basin was selected as a case study since the largest water body in Mexico is located at its outlet. The long-term rate of change in surface runoff was estimated considering the variation in future precipitation from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) and by using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method. Two climate change scenarios from an IPCC special report on emissions scenarios and three time horizons (2030, 2050, and 2100) were chosen. Results showed a decrease in surface runoff of up to 29% (A1B-2100) in the northern part of the basin, and consequently this area is likely to have more frequent droughts. However, it would be challenging to compensate for the lack of surface runoff since groundwater resources are already depleted, and thus adaptive measures need to be taken. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Federman D.K.,National Water Commission | Cortes F.I.A.,National Water Commission | Perez M.L.,National Water Commission
Weather and Climate Extremes | Year: 2014

Traditionally drought effects in Mexico have been attended through Governmental reactive efforts directed to provide water and food, to assure health protection, and to restore economic impact once the phenomena is underway. The National Drought Program, PRONACOSE, by its Spanish acronym has its main focus on reducing vulnerability through the implementation of planned preventive actions under a comprehensive and participative approach. © 2014 The Authors.


Smith P.,National Water Commission | Maheshwari B.,University of Western Sydney | Simmons B.,University of Western Sydney
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2014

Extreme rainfall variability, record droughts, floods and high temperatures have had a major impact on social wellbeing, economic productivity and environmental functionality of urban settings in Australia. Compounded by urban growth and ageing water and wastewater infrastructure, Australia's urban water arrangements have undergone major reforms to effectively manage the challenges of recent years. This paper is a synthesis of urban water reform in Australia during a decade of unforeseen natural extremes. It summarises the evolution of urban water policy, outcomes from recent government reforms and investment, and presents future challenges facing the sector. As governments at state and federal levels in Australia have moved to diversify supply options away from the traditional reliance on rainfall-dependent catchment storages, they have been confronted by issues relating to climate uncertainty, planning, regulation, pricing, institutional reforms, and community demands for sustainable supply solutions. Increases in water prices to pay for new water infrastructure are illustrative of further reform pressures in the urban water sector. In the past 10 years the Australian urban water sector has weathered new extremes in drought and flood and emerged far different to its predecessor. The provision of safe, secure, efficient and sustainable water and wastewater services remains the primary driver for urban water reform. However the challenges and opportunities to improve nationally significant social, economic and environmental outcomes from urban water have evolved considerably. The focus now is on creating the institutional, regulatory and market conditions favourable for the integration of urban water services with the objectives for productive and liveable cities. © IWA Publishing 2014.

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