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Mesdaghinia A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Vaghefi K.A.,National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company | Montazeri A.,National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company | Mohebbi M.R.,National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company | Saeedi R.,Shahid Beheshti University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Fluoride concentration in groundwater resources that used as the source of drinking water in urban areas of Iran was determined. All of the groundwater wells located in urban areas were monitored in 2008. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured using SPADNS method. The nationwide mean fluoride concentration in the groundwater resources was found to be 0.47 ± 0.28 (± standard deviation) mg/L. Only in Bushehr Province, the provincial mean fluoride level in the groundwater resources was higher than the WHO guideline value of 1.5 mg/L (1.86 ± 0.86 mg/L). At nationwide level, the portion of extracted groundwater with fluoride concentration lower than the minimum permissible level of 0.5 mg/L, desirable fluoride range of 0.5-1.5 mg/L and elevated fluoride level was 69.2, 29.3 and 1.4%, respectively. In the areas with low fluoride content drinking water, it is recommended that fluoride is absorbed by use of high fluoride content foods and beverages. The recommendations for the circumstances with excessive fluoride content of drinking water are provision of drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking water by point-of-use systems, respectively. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Mohebbi M.R.,National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company | Saeedi R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Montazeri A.,National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company | Azam Vaghefi K.,National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2013

An innovative drinking water quality index (DWQI) based on the Canadian DWQI was developed as "modified DWQI" and applied for assessing the water quality in all of the groundwater resources that are used as the source of drinking water in urban areas of Iran in 2011. Assignment of weight factors for input parameters was the modification carried out in the DWQI. In development of the modified DWQI, twenty-three water quality parameters and relevant Iranian standards for drinking water quality were selected as input parameters and benchmarks, respectively. The modified DWQI is calculated for each sampling station over one year using three factors: the number of parameters that excurse benchmarks, the number of measurements in a dataset that excurse benchmarks and the magnitude of excursion from benchmarks in the violator measurements. The modified DWQI contains two sub-indices: health-based index as "modified HWQI" and acceptability index as "modified AWQI". The modified DWQI and its sub-indices scores range from 0 to 100 and classify water quality in five categories as poor, marginal, fair, good and excellent, respectively. The results of the case study revealed that the nationwide average scores of the modified DWQI, HWQI and AWQI in the groundwater resources were 85, 79 and 91, respectively and overall situation of water quality in the groundwater resources was described as good. According to the modified DWQI value, about 95% of the groundwater flowrates were in the good condition, also in 3 and 2% of the groundwater flowrates, water quality was determined to be fair and marginal, respectively. This study indicated that the modified DWQI and its sub-indices could describe the overall water quality of water bodies easily, reliably and correctly and have the potential suitability for extensive application all over the world. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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