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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 2.92M | Year: 2008

The overall objective of the WETwin project is to enhance the role of wetlands in basin-scale integrated water resources management, with the aim of improving the community service functions while conserving good ecological status. Strategies will be worked out for: utilizing the drinking water supply and sanitation potentials of wetlands for the benefit of people living in the basin, while maintaining (and improving as much as possible) the ecosystem functions adapting wetland management to changing environmental conditions integrating wetlands into river basin management improving stakeholder participation and capacity building with the aim of supporting sustainable wetland management. The project will work on twinned case study wetlands from Africa, South America and Europe. Management solutions will be worked out for these wetlands with the aim of supporting the achievement of the above objectives. Involvement of local stakeholders into the planning process will play a crucial role. Knowledge and experiences gained from these case studies will be summarized in general guidelines in order to support achieving project objectives on global scale. The project also aims at supporting the global exchange of expertise on wetland management. Stakeholder participation, capacity building and expertise exchange will be supported by a series of stakeholder and twinning workshops.

Mugisha S.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation | Mugisha S.,University of Florida
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2014

Almost all water supply policy makers and managers in developing countries (and in some developed countries) are faced with enormous challenges of improving managerial efficiencies and productivity. Some managers have tended to judge improvements in water supply management based on partial performance indicators. The question is which of these partial indicators should be used to say, unequivocally, that the company is approaching best practice? In this study, an input stochastic frontier analysis distance function is utilised to compute an aggregate measure-technical efficiency (catch-up). Unbalanced panel data are used from 12-15 water utilities under the National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda for the period 2000-2006. The study concludes that individual partial operating efficiency indicators may exhibit varied improvement and statistical consistency trends compared to performance-compatible technical efficiency trends for water infrastructure management. © ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

Namaalwa S.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation | Van dam A.A.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Funk A.,Biologische Station GmbH | Ajie G.S.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2013

Namatala wetland near the town of Mbale in the Eastern region of Uganda is a papyrus wetland that is subject to conversion for agriculture (mainly rice farming) and pollution by wastewater. The main goal of this study was to analyze the ecosystem functions and services of Namatala wetland and their drivers of change, and to suggest directions for sustainable use. Data on climate, hydrology, water quality, population and land use were collected. Stakeholder workshops were organized at national and local levels to identify stakeholder interests in the wetland and conflicts. The institutional context for management of Namatala wetland was analyzed. A qualitative assessment of the ecosystem services was performed. All results were integrated into a DPSIR network showing the drivers of change, impact on ecosystem services and possible responses for management. Results show that the communities around Namatala wetland strongly depend on the wetland ecosystem for provisioning services. A spatial gradient in ecosystem services was observed. The upper, converted part of the wetland is more important for provisioning services while the lower, more intact wetland supports regulating and habitat ecosystem services. The institutional framework is complex due to the involvement of several ministries at the national level and several levels of decentralized, local government. Horizontal and vertical coordination of policy implementation is weak. There are diverging perceptions among stakeholders about the priority issues in wetland management. Resource users worry about water and land use conflicts, while local and national government agencies are more concerned about agricultural encroachment and biodiversity loss. There are also differences in interpretation of land ownership between the national wetland policy and local customary arrangements. For sustainable management of Namatala wetland, there is a need for more horizontal and vertical coordination in wetland policy implementation, application of sustainable agriculture and integrated water and nutrient management techniques, and continued monitoring, research and capacity building to support adaptive management. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mugisha S.,University of Florida | Mugisha S.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2013

This study utilises empirical data on service coverage (reflecting network expansion and new connections growth) and billing efficiency of National Water and Sewerage Corporation in Uganda (2003-2010). Markov processes were used to enhance the understanding and visualisation of explanatory factors underlying past trends as a basis for forecasting the future. Specifically, it was found that coverage (involving service up-take) and billing policies (affecting non-revenue water) may be adequate for operational purposes. However, policies can lead to a 'less-than expected' rate of exponential growth in the long-run, if attention is not given to associated uncertainties and explanatory factors. Sets of probability transition matrices, which present useful 'intelligent' forecasting properties that can be triggers for evaluating and designing infrastructure policy were derived. The study also highlights growth trends that are reminiscent of 'absorbing' states; such patterns characterise the achievement of policy objectives. © ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

Berg S.V.,University of Florida | Mugisha S.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation
Water Policy | Year: 2010

Water service to the urban poor presents challenges to political leaders, regulators and managers. We identify technology mixes of yard taps, public water points (with and without pre-paid meters) to meet alternative constraints, and reflecting populations served and investment requirements. Three investment scenarios have different implications for improving water access to over 400,000 citizens in Kampala. One component, pre-paid water meters, can promote social equity and institutional sustainability. If procedural justice is given as much weight as distributive justice in the selection of pro-poor programs, pre-paid meters (the ultimate cost recovery tool) can have a placein the investment plan. The study examines how public stand pipes (and a combination of other options) can meet both financial constraintsand social objectives. Financial considerations cannot be wished awaywhen seeking effective strategies for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. © IWA Publishing 2010.

Mutikanga H.E.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation
Journal - American Water Works Association | Year: 2014

The need for accurate measurement of water used by customers has led to technological advances in diverse types of water meter designs. However, the question of which meter is the best continues to trouble water utility managers. Until now, there have been no set guidelines for water meter selection. The traditional approach for selecting water meters has been based on initial meter error performance and price. Although this information is useful, it is inadequate for optimal meter selection because water meter performance is influenced by multiple factors in real-world operating conditions. This article proposes a methodological framework for residential water meter selection using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and performance/economic criteria. The application of the proposed procedure is illustrated using the Kampala water utility in Uganda as an example, in which the best meter for the water utility was the multijet type.

Mugisha S.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2013

Past studies have linked goal difficulty, participation and acceptability to goal commitment and performance outcomes. This study pinpoints another frequently forgotten but important issue - the impact on implied technical efficiencies of decision making units (DMUs) involved in the goal setting process. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique is used to derive targets and technical efficiencies of 19 sub-utilities of the Uganda National Water and Sewerage Corporation and the DEA targets are compared with negotiated targets. Technical efficiencies for the two scenarios are also contrasted. The results indicate that, even if a goal setting process has incorporated tenets of participation, acceptability and goal difficulty, it may not necessarily guarantee improved technical efficiency of all DMUs. © ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

Mutikanga H.E.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation | Mutikanga H.E.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Mutikanga H.E.,Technical University of Delft | Sharma S.K.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2013

The water industry worldwide is facing challenges of water and revenue losses. To reduce these losses and improve efficiency of water distribution systems, tools and methods have been developed over the years. This paper reviews the current tools and methodologies applied to assess, monitor, and control losses in water distribution systems. The aim is to identify the tools and methods that have been applied, knowledge gaps, and future research needs. The review findings indicate that a number of water loss management tools and methods have been developed and applied. They vary from simple managerial tools such as performance indicators to highly sophisticated optimization methods such as evolutionary algorithms. However, their application to real-world water distribution systems has been found to be generally limited. Future research opportunities exist through close collaboration of research institutions and water service providers to close the gap between theory and applications. Although not exhaustive, this review could be a valuable reference resource for practitioners and researchers dealing with water loss management in water distribution systems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Mugisha S.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation | Brown A.,The World Bank
Water Policy | Year: 2010

There have been significant efforts in the last 15 years to improve performance in water supply and sewerage services (WSS) operations of most cities in Africa. This has called for a number of reforms. WSS utilities in the three East African capital cities have been among the list that has undertaken such reform. Consequently, a number of legislative, institutional and managerial reforms, all aimed at creating good enabling environments to drive performance, have been undertaken. This paper outlines some of these reforms in WSS operations of the three capital cities of Kampala, Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. We present, amongst other things, the key reform drivers, reforms undertaken, achievements and underlying success factors. We conclude that there is need to synergise the use of incentives, strong leadership, managerial autonomy and accountability as important buttresses for successful reforms. In doing all this, political support and, indeed, support from other stakeholders is important. We also note that reforms need time, adequate stakeholder mapping and incorporation of significant local capacity development to be fully effective. © IWA Publishing 2010.

Oyoo R.,National Water and Sewerage Corporation | Leemans R.,Wageningen University | Mol A.P.J.,Wageningen University
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2011

This paper presents future trends of urban wastes and their impacts on the environment of African cities using plausible mitigation scenarios. To accomplish this, an integrated dynamic model for urban waste flows was developed, tested, calibrated and validated. Its parameter sensitivity was analyzed. Using population projection up to 2052 with different levels of technological implementation, policy enforcement and awareness raising, four runs were executed. The "business as usual" run showed that with no additional mitigation measures, the environmental quality in Kampala and Dar es salaam Cities deteriorates. The "more enforcement" and "more collection" scenarios showed good reduction in environmental loads but they perform less well in resource recovery. The "proper management" scenario that combines enhanced technological implementation, awareness raising and policy enforcement, produced the smallest environmental loads, and recovered the largest amount of resources. Thus, the city authorities, general public, community based organisations and Non-governmental organizations would have to increase their efforts in finances and commitment to improve the urban environmental quality and increase resource recovery.

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