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Ingebritson A.L.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Roth J.A.,Iowa State University | Hauer P.J.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories
Vaccine | Year: 2010

A collection of swine, fish, and cetacean Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains representing 16 serotypes was analyzed for possession of the three currently recognized surface protective antigen (spa)-types: spaA, spaB, and spaC. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and Western blotting with a SpaA-specific monoclonal antibody demonstrated that spa-type is not confined to specific serotype groups. In particular, the spa-type of strains of aquatic origin was more variable than those of terrestrial origin, and possessed the distinct ability to express more than one spa. In a cross-protection study, mice immunized with an E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 SpaA-type strain and challenged with various E. rhusiopathiae isolates were completely protected against strains exhibiting a single homologous spa, but variably protected against strains possessing a heterologous spa or those harboring more than one spa-type.

Palmer M.V.,National Animal Disease Center | Thacker T.C.,National Animal Disease Center | Waters W.R.,National Animal Disease Center | Robbe-Austerman S.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1x108 colony-forming units of M. bovis BCG Danish (n = 17); and non-vaccinated (n = 16). One hundred eleven days after vaccination deer were infected intratonsilarly with 300 colony-forming units of virulent M. bovis. At examination, 150 days after challenge, BCG vaccinated deer had fewer gross and microscopic lesions, fewer tissues from which M. bovis could be isolated, and fewer late stage granulomas with extensive liquefactive necrosis. Fewer lesions, especially those of a highly necrotic nature should decrease the potential for dissemination of M. bovis within the host and transmission to other susceptible hosts.

Mertins J.W.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories | Bochkov A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2014

A new species of the genus Neocheyletiella Baker, 1949 (Acariformes: Cheyletidae) is described from the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Viellot, 1817) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae), from a laboratory colony at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. The setal additions in the ontogeny of the new species, Neocheyletiella parvisetosa Mertins & Bochkov, and the main differential characters of all 17 known species of the genus Neocheyletiella are provided in tabular format. Keys to females and males of Neocheyletiella spp. also are given. © 2014, IEEE. All rights reserved.

Prusinski M.A.,New York State Department of Health | Meehan L.J.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2015

Gynandromorphism, the simultaneous occurrence of both male and female genotypic and morphological characteristics in a single individual of a normally sexually dimorphic species, is rare in ticks. The phenomenon is documented previously for free-living specimens representing several tick genera, particularly Amblyomma and Hyalomma, but only rarely in Ixodes. Here we describe the first two known gynandromorphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, collected while flagging vegetation during routine tick surveillance in the Hudson Valley region of New York State. Uniquely, both specimens display some morphological features typical of nymphs, in addition to those of both males and females. © 2015 The Authors.

Rhyan J.C.,National Wildlife Research Center | Nol P.,National Wildlife Research Center | Quance C.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories | Gertonson A.,Natural Resources Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Bovine brucellosis has been nearly eliminated from livestock in the United States. Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain reservoirs for the disease. During 1990-2002, no known cases occurred in Greater Yellowstone Area livestock. Since then, 17 transmission events from wildlife to livestock have been investigated.

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