Institute Pasteur Paris, French National Center for Scientific Research, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, National Veterinary School of Alfort and Institute Curie | Date: 2012-12-28
The present invention concerns a method for diagnosing a melanoma in a mammal comprising the detection of the overexpression of RACK-1 protein in a melanocyte cell of said mammal, and the deduction of the presence of a melanoma from the overexpression of RACK-1 protein. The invention is also directed to a method for determining the tumoral status of a melanocyte cell of a mammal, comprising the detection of overexpression of RACK-1 protein in the melanocyte cell, and the deduction of the tumoral state of said cell from the overexpression of RACK-1 protein.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.1-7 | Award Amount: 15.68M | Year: 2008
Despite major efforts, identifying susceptibility genes for common human diseases - cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurological disorders - is difficult due to the complexity of the underlying causes. The dog population is composed of ~ 400 purebred breeds; each one is a genetic isolate with unique characteristics resulting from persistent selection for desired attributes or from genetic drift / inbreeding. Dogs tend to suffer from the same range of diseases than human but the genetic complexity of these diseases within a breed is reduced as a consequence of the genetic drift and due to long-range linkage disequilibrium the number of SNP markers needed to perform whole genome scans is divided by at least ten. Here, we propose a European effort gathering experts in genomics to take advantage of this extraordinary genetic model. Veterinary clinics from 12 European countries will collect DNA samples from large cohorts of dogs suffering from a range of thoroughly defined diseases of relevance to human health. Once these different cohorts will be built, DNA samples will be sent to a centralized, high-throughput SNP genotyping facility. The SNP genotypes will be stored in central database and made available to participating collaborating centres, who will analyze the data with the support of dedicated statistical genetics platforms. Following genome wide association and fine-mapping candidate genes will be followed up at the molecular level by expert animal and human genomics centers. This innovative approach using the dog model will ultimately provide insights into the pathogenesis of common human diseases its primary goal.
Carpentier B.,French Agency for Food |
Cerf O.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011
To understand why Listeria monocytogenes may persist in food industry equipment and premises, notably at low temperature, scientific studies have so far focused on adhesion potential, biofilm forming ability, resistance to desiccation, acid and heat, tolerance to increased sublethal concentration of disinfectants or resistance to lethal concentrations. Evidence from studies in processing plants shows that the factors associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes are those that favor growth. Interestingly, most conditions promoting bacterial growth were shown, in laboratory assays, to decrease adhesion of L. monocytogenes cells. Good growth conditions can be found in so-called harborage sites, i.e. shelters due to unhygienic design of equipment and premises or unhygienic or damaged materials. These sites are hard to eliminate. A conceptual model of persistence/no persistence based on the relative weight of growth vs. outcome of cleaning and disinfection is suggested. It shows that a minimum initial bacterial load is necessary for bacteria to persist in a harborage site and that when a low initial bacterial charge is applied, early cleaning and disinfection is the only way to avoid persistence. We conclude by proposing that there are no strains of L. monocytogenes with unique properties that lead to persistence, but harborage sites in food industry premises and equipment where L. monocytogenes can persist. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Augustin J.-C.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011
Mathematical description of the behavior of bacterial foodborne pathogens and concepts of risk assessment were first applied to spore-forming bacteria and specially to Clostridium botulinum with numerous works dealing with spores heat destruction to ensure the safety of canned foods or with their germination and growth probability in foods. This paper discusses two aspects which appear specific to pathogenic sporeformers in comparison to vegetative microorganisms, that is, firstly, the extreme intra-species biodiversity of spore-forming bacteria and its consequences for risk assessment and, secondly, the modeling of spore germination and outgrowth processes. The intra-species biodiversity of spore-forming bacteria has a great impact on hazard identification, exposure assessment and hazard characterization leading thus to an extremely variable individual poisoning risk for consumers. The germination and outgrowth processes were shown independent at the single cell level and although numerous studies were performed to study the effect of spores treatments and growth conditions on these two events, the mathematical modeling and the prediction of these processes is still challenging today. The difficulties to accurately assess the biodiversity and the germination and outgrowth processes of spore-forming bacteria lead to a substantial uncertainty in risk estimates related to the exposure to these microorganisms. Nevertheless, significant progress have been made these last years improving the relevance of quantitative risk assessments for spore-forming bacteria and decreasing the risk uncertainty. Despites these difficulties, risk assessment still constitutes a valuable tool to justify the implementation of management options. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Chetboul V.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice | Year: 2010
Transthoracic echocardiography has become a major imaging tool for the diagnosis and management of canine and feline cardiovascular diseases. During the last decade, more recent advances in ultrasound technology with the introduction of newer imaging modalities, such as tissue Doppler imaging, strain and strain rate imaging, and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, have provided new parameters to assess myocardial performance, including regional myocardial velocities and deformation, ventricular twist, and mechanical synchrony. An outline of these 4 recent ultrasound techniques, their impact on the understanding of right and left ventricular function in small animals, and their application in research and clinical settings are given in this article. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Gaunet F.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology |
Deputte B.L.,National Veterinary School of Alfort
Animal Cognition | Year: 2011
In apes, four criteria are set to explore referential and intentional communication: (1) successive visual orienting between a partner and distant targets, (2) the presence of apparent attention-getting behaviours, (3) the requirement of an audience to exhibit the behaviours, and (4) the influence of the direction of attention of an observer on the behaviours. The present study aimed at identifying these criteria in behaviours used by dogs in communicative episodes with their owner when their toy is out of reach, i. e. gaze at a hidden target or at the owner, gaze alternation between a hidden target and the owner, vocalisations and contacts. In this study, an additional variable was analysed: the position of the dog in relation to the location of the target. Dogs witnessed the hiding of a favourite toy, in a place where they could not get access to. We analysed how dogs engaged in communicative deictic behaviours in the presence of their owner; four heights of the target were tested. To control for the motivational effects of the toy on the dogs' behaviour and for the referential nature of the behaviours, observations were staged where only the toy or only the owner was present, for one of the four heights. The results show that gazing at the container and gaze alternation were used as functionally referential and intentional communicative behaviours. Behavioural patterns of dog position, the new variable, fulfilled the operational criteria for functionally referential behaviour and a subset of operational criteria for intentional communication: the dogs used their own position as a local enhancement signal. Finally, our results suggest that the dogs gazed at their owner at optimal locations in the experimental area, with respect to the target height and their owner's (or their own) line of gaze. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Institute Pasteur Paris, PathoQuest and National Veterinary School of Alfort | Date: 2011-11-25
The present invention relates to HGyV, a human gyrovirus related to the chicken anemia virus (CAV). The present invention also relates to a new proteins encoded by HGyV, which proteins display some homology to CAV proteins. Among these new proteins, H-apoptin is of particular interest as it is herein found for the first time in a human virus and can be used for treating cancer. Also provided are methods for detecting the HGyV virus in a subject.
Institute Pasteur Paris, University of Paris Descartes, Assistance Publique Hopitaux De Paris, PathoQuest and National Veterinary School of Alfort | Date: 2013-04-19
The present invention relates to the use of the measure of anelloviral load for the determination of immunosuppression. More precisely, the present invention provides a method for characterizing the immunosuppressed or non-immunosuppressed status of a subject, comprising the steps of determining the anelloviral load from a biological sample of the said subject, and determining from the said comparison the immunosuppressed or non-immunosuppressed status. The determination of the immunosuppressed status of the subject can then be used to design or adapt a therapeutic treatment.
PathoQuest and National Veterinary School of Alfort | Date: 2013-11-27
The invention relates to a method and a kit for in vitro differential treatment of nucleic acid molecules contained in a biological sample and comprising a first subpopulation of free nucleic acids of higher eukaryotic cells and at least one further subpopulation of nucleic acids of microorganism(s) wherein said microorganism(s) nucleic acids are packaged nucleic acids that represents quantitatively a minor group of the nucleic acids of the sample, comprising at least the steps of:a. exposing the biological sample to conditions enabling the modification of the 3- and/or 5- extremities of degraded nucleic acid molecules of the first nucleic acids subpopulation in order to impair their ligation capacity;b. extracting nucleic acid molecules of the sample and thereby recovering degraded nucleic acid molecules of the first nucleic acids subpopulation having modified 3- and/or 5- extremities and nucleic acid molecules of the further subpopulation having non-modified 3- and/or 5- extremities.
National Veterinary School of Alfort and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2011-01-11
The present invention relates to isolated organ-specific feline endothelial cells. Specifically, the present invention relates to established organ-specific feline endothelial cells. The present invention also relates to organ-specific feline endothelial cells derived from micro- and macro-vascularisation. The present invention also relates to methods for screening molecules, for studying pathologies and for producing pathogens using same.