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Gugong V.T.,Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic | Maurice N.A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Ngbede E.O.,Ahmadu Bello University | Hambolu S.E.,Ahmadu Bello University | Ajogi I.,Ahmadu Bello University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

A study to assess the status of brucellosis in local chickens was conducted in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kaduna state, Nigeria. A total of 150 sera sample were collected between December, 2010 and March, 2011 from local chickens in the LGAs. Only 1 (0.67%) out of the 150 sera samples obtained was positive for brucella antibodies with the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Brucellosis is present in local chickens and they may serve as source of infection to other livestock and humans. Enlightenment campaigns on good hygienic practices, the use of protective clothing when coming in contact with poultry or their products and proper disposal of aborted foetuses, placenta and contaminated materials needs to be carried out. There is need to control brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats which may be sources of the brucella organism to chickens. © Medwell Journals, 2012. Source

Kamani J.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Baneth G.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Mumcuoglu K.Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Gutierrez R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Harrus S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2014

Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source

Wozniakowski G.J.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Samorek-Salamonowicz E.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Szymanski P.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Wencel P.,Private Practice | Houszka M.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Background: The identity of herpesviruses isolated in Europe from domestic pigeons (Columbid herpesvirus-1 - CoHV-1) as well as falcons and owls remains unknown. All these herpesviruses are antigenically and genetically related. The falcons and owls are thought to have become infected during the ingestion of pigeon meat thus suggesting the virus's capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. The aim of the conducted study was to detect the occurrence of CoHV-1 and estimating the similarities and differences in the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene of herpesviruses isolated from domestic pigeons, birds of prey and non-raptorial free-ranging birds in Poland.Results: The study has shown the presence of CoHV-1 in 20.4% (18/88) in the examined birds. In case of one CoHV-1, infected Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), neurological signs were observed. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene, showed a high similarity among Polish strains (100%), independently from the species of the affected birds. Only one compared CoHV-1 strain - KP 21/23 originating from Germany showed a slightly lower similarity at a level of 99.1%. Further analysis has shown the identity of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase of CoHV-1 strains and other herpesviruses present in poultry as well as other birds ranged from 35.4 to 44.9%. Interestingly CoHV-1 infection was also confirmed for the first time in four non-raptorial birds.Conclusions: The current study has shown a high similarity of CoHV-1 strains and the possible transmission of herpesviruses between domestic rock pigeons and free-ranging birds including raptors and non-raptorial birds. Further studies focused on cloning and the analysis of the whole CoHV-1 genome which is needed to explain the role of the observed similarities and differences between field strains of columbid herpesviruses. © 2013 Woźniakowski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Junaid S.A.,University of Jos | Junaid S.A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Agina S.E.,University of Jos | Abubakar K.A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Virology: Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6-35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9-26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3-54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited. Source

Wozniakowski G.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Wencel P.,Private Practice | Samorek-Salamonowicz E.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

The occurrence of Columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) in domestic pigeons presents a potential threat for their husbandry and trade. CoHV-1 causes Smadel disease among pigeons but may not be manifested by any clinical signs and complicates secondary infections. The material for our study originated from 42 domestic pigeons sent to private veterinary practice in Lublin, Poland, between 2011 and 2013. Some of birds showed clinical signs similar to Smadel disease. The cytological examination also indicated on CoHV-1 infection. The incidence of CoHV-1 was tested in DNA extracted from liver of birds by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP was used for the monitoring of CoHV-1 presence among pigeons in Poland. Our study showed that LAMP was capable of detecting CoHV-1 presence in 8 (19%) of 42 examined birds without the use of any advanced laboratory equipment. The results were confirmed by real-time PCR and virus isolation in chicken embryo fibroblasts. This is the first report on LAMP application for successful detection of CoHV-1 in domestic pigeons. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

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