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Kamani J.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Baneth G.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Mitchell M.,Aldershot | Mumcuoglu K.Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 2 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2014

Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Sniegocki T.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Gbylik-Sikorska M.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Posyniak A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Food Control | Year: 2015

The purpose of the study was to investigate the chloramphenicol (CAP) residue in dairy products after experimental CAP transferring from milk to butter, sour cream, white cheese and whey. In order to determine the CAP residue in dairy products, the new approach for the extraction process was developed. The original, simple and fast analytical method is based on QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The homogenized sample was extracted and partitioned after the adding of sodium chloride with acetonitrile. The experiment was conducted to check if CAP is transferred from milk to dairy products, and also to check the extraction of CAP from the different dairy matrices. Average recovery ranged from 97.8 to 102.8% and within-laboratory reproducibility was lower than 8.7%. The suggested method is sensitive, the calculated limit of decision (CCα) was from 0.06 to 0.10μgkg-1 and detection capability (CCβ) from 0.08 to 0.15μgkg-1. The results of the experiment (butter 4.86μgkg-1, sour cream 3.5μgkg-1, white cheese 2.36μgkg-1 and whey 0.14μgkg-1) and validation demonstrated that this method is suitable for determination and confirmation of CAP in a variety of dairy product matrices. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Gbylik-Sikorska M.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Sniegocki T.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Posyniak A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2015

The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg-1, depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Junaid S.A.,University of Jos | Junaid S.A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Agina S.E.,University of Jos | Abubakar K.A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Virology: Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6-35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9-26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3-54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.

Wozniakowski G.J.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Samorek-Salamonowicz E.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Szymanski P.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Wencel P.,Private Practice | Houszka M.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Background: The identity of herpesviruses isolated in Europe from domestic pigeons (Columbid herpesvirus-1 - CoHV-1) as well as falcons and owls remains unknown. All these herpesviruses are antigenically and genetically related. The falcons and owls are thought to have become infected during the ingestion of pigeon meat thus suggesting the virus's capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. The aim of the conducted study was to detect the occurrence of CoHV-1 and estimating the similarities and differences in the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene of herpesviruses isolated from domestic pigeons, birds of prey and non-raptorial free-ranging birds in Poland.Results: The study has shown the presence of CoHV-1 in 20.4% (18/88) in the examined birds. In case of one CoHV-1, infected Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), neurological signs were observed. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene, showed a high similarity among Polish strains (100%), independently from the species of the affected birds. Only one compared CoHV-1 strain - KP 21/23 originating from Germany showed a slightly lower similarity at a level of 99.1%. Further analysis has shown the identity of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase of CoHV-1 strains and other herpesviruses present in poultry as well as other birds ranged from 35.4 to 44.9%. Interestingly CoHV-1 infection was also confirmed for the first time in four non-raptorial birds.Conclusions: The current study has shown a high similarity of CoHV-1 strains and the possible transmission of herpesviruses between domestic rock pigeons and free-ranging birds including raptors and non-raptorial birds. Further studies focused on cloning and the analysis of the whole CoHV-1 genome which is needed to explain the role of the observed similarities and differences between field strains of columbid herpesviruses. © 2013 Woźniakowski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tarasiuk K.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Wozniakowski G.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Samorek-Salamonowicz E.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to determine co-occurrence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and chicken parvovirus (ChPV) co-occurrence in field chicken flocks. The materials for the study derived from 115 broiler chickens or layer hens originated from 23 farms with suspicion of Marek's disease (MD). Dual infection with MDV and ChPV was found in 23 (20%) examined chickens. The results obtained suggest a possibility of influence of ChPV infection on efficacy of the MD vaccines.

Gbylik-Sikorska M.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Posyniak A.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Sniegocki T.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI | Zmudzki J.,National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

A sensitive liquid-chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry multiclass method for determination of 45 veterinary compounds belonging to 9 different antibiotic groups, including aminoglicosides (4), β-lactams (13), diaminopyrimidines (1), fluoroquinolones (10), lincosamides (1), macrolides (5), pleuromutilins (1), sulfonamides (6) and tetracyclines (4), in water from breeding animal watering supply system has been developed. Isolation of the analytes was carried out by solid phase extraction with heptafluorobutyric acid as an ion-pair agent on the Strata-X reversed phase cartridges. All analytes were determined simultaneously in one single run on a C18 column with gradient elution and short analysis time (13min). Method was validated, average relative recoveries were in the range of 84.3-109.3% with satisfactory precision are repeatability for all compounds are in the range of 4.7-12.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility are in the range of 4.4-13.5% for. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method was in the range of 0.02-10μgL-1, depending of analyte. The applicability of the method was tested by determining antimicrobial compounds in real water samples collected from water supply systems in breeding animal farms. The average antibiotics concentration in real water samples were, respectively, in the range of 0.14-1670μgL-1. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI, Coda Research and Ahmadu Bello University
Type: | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2017

Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment.

PubMed | National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500gl(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20mgkg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR+DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR+DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR+DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

PubMed | National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Letters in applied microbiology | Year: 2016

African swine fever (ASF) is considered a major threat to the production of pigs worldwide. The ASF aetiological agent, ASFV, is the sole member of the Asfivirus genus, belonging to the Asfarviridae family. An effective ASF vaccine is not currently available, thus the only measures of ASF spread control include, reliable and fast diagnosis. Officially approved, diagnostic methods include, virus isolation, serological assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoperoxidase assay (IPT) and different modifications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This paper describes the first development and application of a cross-priming amplification method (CPA) for the direct detection of genetic ASFV material, in blood and sera from pigs and wild boars. This method is specific only to ASFV DNA. The study showed that CPA had equal sensitivity, in comparison to the official, universal probe library (UPL) real-time PCR and reached 72 copies of standard plasmid DNA, containing a p72 gene fragment. This method was capable of detecting ASFV DNA in all examined blood samples, originating from pigs; n=10 and wild boars; n=76. The obtained results were also confirmed by the officially approved, real-time PCR. The developed CPA might be further used by local and county veterinary officers, hunters or pig farmers, for preliminary ASF diagnosis.The spread of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) among infected pigs and wild boars, is currently one of the most important facets of virus transmission in eastern Europe. Cross-priming amplification (CPA) has been developed, for fast and direct development of genetic ASFV material in the blood and sera of infected pigs and wild boars. It has been shown that CPA is a rapid, sensitive and specific isothermal method for the detection of ASFV DNA, in directly collected blood or sera from pigs and wild boars.

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