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Zielonka L.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Gajecka M.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Rozicka A.,Arka Anna Rozicka Veterinary Clinic | Dabrowski M.,University of Warmia and Mazury | And 2 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2014

The contamination of plant material with mycotoxins, in particular of the genus Fusarium, is common in the natural environment. Multiparous female wild boars are exposed to feed contaminated with zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol throughout the year. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of the above mycotoxins in multiparous female wild boars and to describe their effect on the histological structure of the ovaries at the beginning of astronomical winter. Toxicological examinations revealed 0.291 ng/ml of ZEN, 0.406 ng/ml of α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), 0.392 ng/ml β-zearalenol (β-ZEL) and an absence of deoxynivalenol (values below the sensitivity of the method) in the blood plasma of multiparous female wild boars. Numerous ovarian follicles at various stages of development, characterized by different degree of damage, were observed. Numerous deformed resting ovarian follicles were noted directly under the epithelium, and signs of follicular atresia and hyalinization were observed. Blood vessels in the medulla of the ovary were dilated, which probably improved the distribution of ZEN in the ovaries. Higher substrate (ZEN) concentrations in the ovaries led to an insignificant increase in the staining intensity of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD clusters. The observed changes could contribute to prolonging the initial stage of late anestrus in multiparous female wild boars. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Brodzki P.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Kostro K.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Brodzki A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Niemczuk K.,National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy | Lisiecka U.,Lublin University of Life Sciences
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non-specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4+CD25+ on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p < 0.001). Significantly (p = 0.001) lower percentage of CD4+, CD14+, CD25+ and CD4+CD25+ phenotype leucocytes was also observed in the peripheral blood of cows from the pyometra group, along with a significantly higher (p < 0.001) percentage of CD8+ and CD21+ lymphocytes as compared to the healthy group. The results of work indicate that disfunction of cell immunity coexisting with pyometra may be caused by a bacterial infection and the presence of blocking agents (IL-10), released by the increasing number of CD8+ lymphocytes what leads to the advanced inflammation of uterus. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Grosicki A.,National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2010

The effect of a dried egg white dietary supplement (2%) on cadmium distribution was examined within 32 d post dosing in the carcass, liver, kidneys, testes, and thigh muscles of male Wistar rats administered cadmium chloride daily, orally for 28 d at a dose corresponding to 10 mg/Cd/kg of feed. Rats fed the egg white protein-supplemented diet displayed markedly higher carcass Cd retention than animals given a standard diet. Further, the protein-supplemented diet increased significantly hepatic Cd retention at 12 h and 4 d, and renal metal retention at 12 h until d 16. In contrast, testicular and thigh-muscle Cd retention was significantly lower in the rats fed the egg white protein supplemented diet compared to rats on a standard diet. Higher carcass, hepatic, and renal Cd concentrations were accompanied by greater body weight gains. Taken together, the results of this study showed that increased egg white dietary protein levels enhanced Cd retention in carcass, liver, and kidneys but lowered the metal concentrations in thigh muscles and testes. Data indicate that body weight gains in rats supplemented with egg white proteins exerted tissue-specific effects with respect to Cd accumulation. The potential toxic risk of Cd burden in testes was diminished due to lower metal levels in rats on a protein-supplemented diet. However, this may not be the case in liver and kidneys, as Cd concentrations rose in presence of protein supplementation. Copyright © 2010 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Zareba-Szczudlik J.,Medical University of Warsaw | Romejko-Wolniewicz E.,Medical University of Warsaw | Lewandowski Z.,Medical University of Warsaw | Rozanska H.,National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy | Czajkowski K.,Medical University of Warsaw
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum, cord blood, amniotic fluid and the placenta, 2 h following vaginal administration and the factors influencing the drug level.Methods: Twenty-eight full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective cesarean delivery were included in the study. Vaginal suppositories containing 250 mg of amoxicillin were administered 2 h prior to the operation. Amoxicillin levels were determined using the diffusion microbial assay.Results: The amoxicillin level in amniotic fluid was significantly higher in comparison to that of maternal serum, cord blood or the placenta. Maternal age positively and gestational weight gain negatively correlated with the amoxicillin concentration in maternal serum. The maternal serum hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were positively correlated with amoxicillin concentration in the amniotic fluid. Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal serum and cord blood amoxicillin levels. Hypertensive women had significantly higher amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, and women with thrombocytopenia presented significantly higher cord blood amoxicillin concentrations.Conclusions: Amoxicillin presented poor concentration in maternal-fetal compartments after vaginal administration, but the factors influencing the drug level in different compartments require further investigation. © 2014 © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Bilska-Zajac E.,National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy | Rozycki M.,National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy | Chmurzynska E.,National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy | Marucci G.,Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases | And 3 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife | Year: 2013

Hunting in Poland has a long tradition and became more popular after 1990. Each year over 60,000 wild boar are hunted. Some of them may act as Trichinella carriers thus all carcasses of wild boar are systematically sampled in game-handling establishments as part of the post-mortem examination. The aim of the study was to determine the species of Trichinella and to evaluate the year to year differences in the occurrence of those species in the populations of wild boar in Poland. Samples for the study were provided by the Veterinary Inspection Service. Wild boar carcasses were examined using a digestion method. Only samples recognized as positive for Trichinella in these examinations were sent to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for confirmation of genus identity. Samples from 450 animals were obtained for the study (380 muscle samples and 70 larval isolates preserved in 90% ethyl alcohol). Tissue samples were digested to isolate larvae. Extracted larval DNA was amplified using a modified multiplex PCR protocol to identify the species of Trichinella. Five larvae from each sample were examined by PCR. The study revealed that Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are present in wild boar in Poland in a ratio of 3:1. Mixed infections with T. spiralis and T. britovi were found in 1% of the animals. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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