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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-09 | Award Amount: 7.62M | Year: 2009

This project aims at Improving Human Health and Animal Production in developing countries through Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonoses in animals, based on Scientific Innovation and Public Engagement. Neglected zoonoses, such as anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, bovine TB, zoonotic trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis and leishmaniasis, are major causes of ill-health in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Production animals and companion animals of significant societal value act as reservoirs for transmission to man, and the burden of these diseases on affected communities is compounded by the adverse effects many diseases have on the productivity of livestock and hence the livelihoods of the poor. Control of these diseases in animals represents an opportunity to address the constraints they pose to both human health and animal productivity, thereby contributing to poverty reduction and the MDGs. Effective control in animals will require scientific innovation to identify and (where necessary) develop tools for diagnosis, for quantification of disease burdens, and for control. Public engagement at all stakeholder levels will be needed to ensure that strategies are appropriate for use in affected communities and are adopted within the policy framework of affected countries. The project will: (i) map and review research activities at a global level, (ii) survey and assess the burden of zoonoses in communities, (iii) improve or develop disease control tools as appropriate for conditions in affected countries, with private sector inputs where appropriate, (iv) develop cost-effective control and prevention strategies taking into account economic, sociological and cultural factors as well as traditional knowledge, (v) build capacity in ICPCs through technology transfer and training and (vi) empower communities and policy makers to utilise control and prevention strategies appropriately and effectively.


Wozniakowski G.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Samorek-Salamonowicz E.,National Veterinary Research Institute
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a serious concern for poultry production and represents a unique herpesvirus model. MDV can be shed by doubly infected chickens despite vaccination. The fully infectious MDV particles are produced in the feather follicle epithelium (FFE), and MDV remains infectious for many months in fine skin particles and feather debris. Molecular biology methods including PCR and real-time PCR have been shown to be valuable for the detection of MDV DNA in farm dust. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was found to be useful in the detection of MDV in feathers and internal organs of infected chickens. LAMP is also less affected by the inhibitors present in DNA samples. Taking into account the advantages of LAMP, direct detection of MDV DNA in poultry dust has been conducted in this research. The detection of MDV DNA was possible in 11 out of the 12 examined dust samples without DNA extraction. The DNA was retrieved from dust samples by dilution and incubation at 95 °C for 5 min. The direct detection of MDV DNA in the dust was possible within 30 min using a water bath and UV light. The results were confirmed by electrophoresis and melting curve analysis of the LAMP products. Our results show that LAMP may be used to test for the presence of virulent MDV in poultry farm dust without DNA extraction. © 2014, The Author(s).


Wasyl D.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Hoszowski A.,National Veterinary Research Institute
Food Research International | Year: 2012

The first CTX-M-producing Salmonella was described in primary animal production in Poland, due to the antimicrobial resistance monitoring and control program introduced in turkeys. It was associated with the outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Kentucky in non-diseased turkeys, foods and food production environment, but found also in municipal sewage sludge. The emergence along the food chain of clonally related strains resistant to critically important antimicrobial agents, including cephalosporins, quinolones, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, phenicols, and tetracycline, which are used against foodborne pathogens, poses a serious public health threat. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wasinski B.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Dutkiewicz J.,Institute of Rural Health
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013

Leptospirosis is a widespread although recently neglected zoonosis recognized worldwide. The disease seems to be underestimated, especially in countries located in the temperate climatic zone. The presented article concerns the main characteristics of leptospirosis and describes formerly known and recently observed environmental, occupational and recreational risk factors significant in the spreading and pathogenesis of the disease. The aspects of epidemiology significant in the temperate climatic zone are emphasized. The majority of cited articles present cases of the disease reported from Europe or North America. Climatic changes (warming) and extreme weather events such as foods are potential risk factors of leptospirosis. Also, some socio-economic phenomena, such as the intensive migration of people resulting in the transfer of the infections acquired in tropical countries, or worsening of economic status in the cities, increase the probability of disease. Apart from the danger connected with rodents, which are the main vectors of leptospires, occurrence of the disease in dogs and cats can generate a higher risk of infection for humans. Infections may also be acquired during various types of agricultural work and during recreational activities, such as swimming. The results of recent investigations show that ticks are also potential vectors of leptospires. The more frequent emergence of leptospirosis in countries located in the temperate climatic zone emphasize the need to verify knowledge related to the risk of its appearance, and to consider this disease during diagnostic processes.


Wieczorek K.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Dmowska K.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Osek J.,National Veterinary Research Institute
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Listeriamonocytogenes isolates frombovine hides and carcasses (n=812) weremainly of serogroup 1/2a. All strains were positive for internalin genes. Several isolates were resistant to oxacillin (72.2%) or clindamycin (37.0%). These findings indicate that L. monocytogenes of beef origin can be considered a public health concern. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Kehl T.,German Cancer Research Center | Tan J.,Nankai University | Materniak M.,National Veterinary Research Institute
Viruses | Year: 2013

Within the field of retrovirus, our knowledge of foamy viruses (FV) is still limited. Their unique replication strategy and mechanism of viral persistency needs further research to gain understanding of the virus-host interactions, especially in the light of the recent findings suggesting their ancient origin and long co-evolution with their nonhuman hosts. Unquestionably, the most studied member is the primate/prototype foamy virus (PFV) which was originally isolated from a human (designated as human foamy virus, HFV), but later identified as chimpanzee origin; phylogenetic analysis clearly places it among other Old World primates. Additionally, the study of non-simian animal FVs can contribute to a deeper understanding of FV-host interactions and development of other animal models. The review aims at highlighting areas of special interest regarding the structure, biology, virus-host interactions and interspecies transmission potential of primate as well as non-primate foamy viruses for gaining new insights into FV biology. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


The background of quinolone resistance was characterized in ciprofloxacin-resistant commensal Escherichia coli selected out of 3,551 isolates from slaughtered animals in Poland between 2009 and 2012. Plasmid-mediated determinants were suspected in 6.2% of the study group, ranging from 1.1% in cattle to 9.7% in turkeys. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing identified up to four quinolone resistance-determining substitutions in gyrA (Ser83, Asp87) and parC (Ala56, Ser80). Plasmid-mediated mechanisms were identified as qnrS1 (or qnrS3, n=70, including six isolates with chromosomal mutations), qnrB19 (or qnrB10, n=19), and qnrB17 (n=1). All tested isolates were negative for qnrA, qnrC, qnrD, qepA, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr. Still, there were several E. coli suspected for both plasmid-and chromosome-mediated resistance with unrevealed genetic background of the phenomenon. Since all tested isolates showed diverse XbaI-PFGE profiles, chromosome-encoded quinolone resistance does not result from the spread of a single resistant clone, however, it is rather due to antimicrobial pressure leading to the selection of random gyr and par mutants. It also favors the selection and spread of plasmids carrying predominant qnr genes, since the same determinants were found in Salmonella, isolated from similar sources. The identification of carrier plasmids and mitigation of their spread might be essential for sustainable quinolone usage in animal husbandry and efficient protection of human health. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Wasyl D.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Hoszowski A.,National Veterinary Research Institute
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012

The epidemiological role of monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium tends to increase, indicating pandemic spread. The aim of the present study was to confirm the occurrence of this serological variant in Poland and to report the first cases in Belarus and Ukraine. Genetic similarity of monophasic isolates with Salmonella Typhimurium already present in these countries was assessed. Serotyping, duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, antibiotic resistance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling have been used to meet the study objectives. Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was found at low frequency in various sources along the food chain, including feed, animals, meat, and sewage sludge. The first isolates date back to 2008. The clones observed in other European countries were found, along with a number of new, unrelated genetic lineages appearing locally in three countries. Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium is claimed to replace and discontinue the domination of pentaresistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Pigs and pork are assumed to be the main vectors of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium, but their relevance for public health is limited. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.


News Article | March 10, 2016
Site: phys.org

Honeybees are under threat globally: in the US, dramatic declines in bee populations due to a condition called colony collapse disorder (CCD) continues to put crops at risk an farmers out of business. Several studies have shown a link between pesticide use and bee deaths and the European Union has banned the use of neonicotinoid pesticides. But it's not as simple as banning one pesticide that's killing bees; the relationship between pesticide use and bee death is complex and scientists are still trying to figure out exactly what's happening. In the new study, researchers from the National Veterinary Research Institute in Poland have developed a method for analyzing 200 pesticides at the same time, to figure out what's really putting honeybees at risk. "Bee health is a matter of public concern—bees are considered critically important for the environment and agriculture by pollinating more than 80% of crops and wild plants in Europe," said Tomasz Kiljanek, lead author of the study from the National Veterinary Research Institute in Poland. "We wanted to develop a test for a large number of pesticides currently approved for use in the European Union to see what is poisoning the bees." With so many pesticides currently in use, it's difficult to work out which ones are harming the bees. Certain combinations of pesticides, or their use over time, could affect honeybees in different ways. In order to understand what's really going on, we need to know which pesticides and at what concentration levels are present in honeybees. Kiljanek and the team used a method called QuEChERS, which is currently used to detect pesticides in food. With this analysis, they could test poisoned bees for 200 different pesticides simultaneously, as well as several additional compounds created when the pesticides are broken down. About 98% of the pesticides they tested for are approved for use in the European Union. The team used the method to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Their findings revealed 57 different pesticides present in the bees—it's a toxic puzzle they hope their new method will help solve. "This is just the beginning of our research on the impact of pesticides on honeybee health," said Kiljanek. "Honeybee poisoning incidents are the tip of the iceberg. Even at very low levels, pesticides can weaken bees' defense systems, allowing parasites or viruses to kill the colony. Our results will help expand our knowledge about the influence of pesticides on honeybee health, and will provide important information for other researchers to better assess the risk connected with the mix of current used pesticides." Explore further: Honeybees entomb to protect from pesticides More information: Tomasz Kiljanek et al. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry—Honeybee poisoning incidents, Journal of Chromatography A (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.01.045


News Article | March 13, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Up to 57 different pesticides are poisoning European honeybees and exacerbating the decline of bee populations worldwide. This was a warning from researchers out of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Poland, who also highlighted a new method that can detect a huge array of pesticides in bees and help scientists get to the bottom of the problem of global honeybee decline. Honeybees are falling in numbers worldwide, including in the United States, partly due to colony collapse disorder. It is unclear what directly causes CCD and how it works, but scientists implicate several factors that include pesticide use. For instance, the European Union has banned the use of neonicotinoid pesticides given the pesticide-bee decline link. The insects play a crucial role in agriculture and the environment by pollinating more than 80 percent of crops and wild plant species in Europe alone, said lead study author Tomasz Kiljanek. The Polish researchers reported that they developed a method that detects and analyzes 200 pesticides and metabolites in honeybees. "We wanted to develop a test for a large number of pesticides currently approved for use in the European Union to see what is poisoning the bees," Kiljanek says. Because of their sheer numbers, it is difficult to work out which pesticides are harming the bees, and combined effects and accumulation over time could pose greater dangers. Even at low amounts, pesticides can weaken the immunity of bees and allow parasites or viruses to crush the colony, warned Kiljanek. The team used QuEChERS, a method currently used for detecting pesticides present in food, to probe more than 70 honeybee poisoning cases. In this analysis, they tested for 200 different pesticides simultaneously, along with compounds produced by pesticide breakdown. A staggering 98 percent of the tested pesticides are approved to be used in the European Union. According to the results, there were 57 pesticides present in the poisoned bees - a piece of the toxicity puzzle that science is currently trying to solve. For the authors, this is just the start of the investigation on pesticide effects on honeybee health, with their findings expanding knowledge on the matter and helping other scientists better study the risk of currently used and approved pesticides. The findings were published in the Journal of Chromatography. Previous research focuses on other reasons for the significant decline of pollinators worldwide, including climate change and disease. Diesel exhaust, for instance, changes half of floral scents that honeybees employ in their search for flowers - something suggested as a contributor to bee population decline. A United Nations report released in February warned that hundreds of billions of dollars' worth of food crops will suffer from this decline, threatening global food supply if nothing will be done. Two of five bee, butterfly, and pollinating critter species are becoming extinct, while their vertebrate peers are only slightly better off with one of six facing extinction.

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