National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service

Anyang, South Korea

National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service

Anyang, South Korea
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Kwon Y.K.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Swayne D.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

The H5N1 type A influenza viruses classified as Qinghai-like virus (clade 2.2) are a unique lineage of type A influenza viruses with the capacity to produce significant disease and mortality in gallinaceous and anseriform birds, including domestic and wild ducks. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis of chickens and domestic ducks to A/Whooper Swan/Mongolia/224/05 (H5N1) high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus when administered through respiratory or alimentary routes of exposure. The chickens and ducks were more susceptible to the H5N1 HPAI virus, as evidenced by low infectious and lethal viral doses, when exposed by intranasal as compared to alimentary routes of inoculation (intragastric or oral-fed infected chicken meat). In the alimentary exposure pathogenesis study, pathologic changes included hemorrhage, necrosis, and inflammation in association with virus detection. These changes were generally observed in most of the visceral organs of chickens, between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (DPI), and are similar to lesions and virus localization seen in birds in natural cases or in experimental studies using the intranasal route. Alimentary exposure to the virus caused systemic infection in the ducks, characterized by moderate lymphocytic encephalitis, necrotized hepatitis, and pancreatitis with a corresponding demonstration of virus within the lesions. In both chickens and ducks with alimentary exposure, lesions, virus, or both were first demonstrated in the upper alimentary tract on 1 DPI, suggesting that the alimentary tract was the initial site affected upon consumption of infected meat or on gavage of virus in liquid medium. However, as demonstrated in the infectivity study in chickens, alimentary infection required higher exposure doses to produce infection as compared to intranasal exposure in chickens. These data suggest that upper respiratory exposure to H5N1 HPAI virus in birds is more likely to result in virus infection and transmission than will consumption of infected meat, unless the latter contains high doses of virus, as found in cannibalized infected carcasses. © American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

Heinze B.C.,University of Arizona | Gamboa J.R.,University of Arizona | Kim K.,Seoul National University | Song J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Yoon J.-Y.,University of Arizona
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

This work presents the use of integrated, liquid core, optical waveguides for measuring immunoagglutinationinduced light scattering in a microfluidic device, towards rapid and sensitive detection of avian influenza (AI) viral antigens in a real biological matrix (chicken feces). Mie scattering simulations were performed and tested to optimize the scattering efficiency of the device through proper scatter angle waveguide geometry. The detection limit is demonstrated to be 1 pgmL-1 in both clean buffer and real biological matrix. This low detection limit is made possible through on-chip diffusional mixing of AI target antigens and high acid content microparticle assay reagents, coupledwith real-timemonitoring of immunoagglutination-induced forward Mie scattering via high refractive index liquid core optical waveguides in close proximity (100 μm) to the sample chamber. The detection time for the assay is <2 min. This device could easily be modified to detect trace levels of any biological molecules that antibodies are available for, moving towards a robust platform for pointof- care disease diagnostics. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Wee S.-H.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kim C.-H.,Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food | More S.J.,University College Dublin | Nam H.M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

This paper reports changes in the cattle population and the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Korea between 1960 and 2007, and discusses potential factors contributing to the recently observed increase in disease incidence, particularly in beef cattle and deer. Although there have been ongoing refinements to the existing programme, further improvements in current strategies are needed, including surveillance of susceptible animal species, both domestic and wild, and ongoing surveillance of the human population. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim H.-R.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Kwon Y.-K.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Bae Y.-C.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Oem J.-K.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center | Lee O.-S.,Animal Disease Diagnosis Center
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Tamang M.D.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Nam H.-M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kim T.-S.,Gwangju Institute of Health and Environment | Jang G.-C.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Twenty of 1,279 nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and humans produced CTX-Mtype extended-spectrum β-lactamase. All expressed CTX-M-15, except two which coexpressed CTX-M-14 and TEM-1. Insertion sequence ISEcp1 was identified upstream of blaCTX-M genes. The bla CTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 genes were disseminated by large conjugative IncFIIs and IncI1-Iβ plasmids, respectively. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Veerapandian M.,Gachon University | Lim S.K.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Nam H.M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kuppannan G.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Yun K.S.,Gachon University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

We report the analytical and in vitro antibacterial activity of glucosamine-functionalized silver glyconanoparticles. Morphological characterization ensured the surface topography and particle size distribution of both silver and glucosamine-silver nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance of both types of nanoparticle was determined from UV-visible spectroscopy using four different sample concentrations (10-40 μL). The resulting functionalized glyconanoparticles show maximum absorbance with a red shift of 30∈±∈5 nm (390-400 nm) from their initial absorbance (425-430 nm). FT-Raman and 1H-NMR spectroscopic measurement confirmed the surface functionalization of glucosamine on the silver surface through the carbonyl group of a secondary amide linkage (-NH-CO-), elucidated by the conjugation of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-terminated silver nanoparticles and the amino group of glucosamine. Antimicrobial experiments with well-characterized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and glucosamine-functionalized silver nanoparticles (GlcN-AgNPs) demonstrate that GlcN-AgNPs have similar and enhanced minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against eight gram-negative and eight gram-positive bacteria compared with AgNPs. MIC data shows that Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) and Bacillus cereus isolate express high levels of inhibition, with the quantity and magnitude of inhibition being higher in the presence of GlcN-AgNPs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Lee G.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Han D.,Cheonan Yonam College | Song J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kim J.-H.,Jeju National University | Yoon S.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Swine hepatitis E virus (sHEV) has been discovered to be almost ubiquitous in pigs, and is antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. Proteomic analysis was used to identify altered protein expression in swine liver, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. A total of 10 protein spots exhibited significant alterations in the sHEV-infected organ. The upregulation of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and downregulation of ferritin heavy chain were confirmed by Western analysis and by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The elevated expression of Apo E may provide a novel insight into molecular responses to HEV infection in swine. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Guo X.-H.,South-Central University for Nationalities | Guo X.-H.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kim J.-M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Nam H.-M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Park S.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service
Anaerobe | Year: 2010

Lactic acid bacteria originated from swine feces and intestines were selected for potential probiotics based on their bile-salt resistance, low pH tolerance, potential adhesion to epithelial cells and especially functional properties, including production of antimicrobial substances, bile-salt hydrolase (BSH) and amylolytic activity. Results showed 7 isolates with antimicrobial activity, 5 with BSH activity and 3 with amylolytic activity were preliminarily selected from 485 lactic acid bacteria based on their highest potential with functional properties in vitro. The 15 isolates were further assayed on the essential characteristics as potential probiotics. All isolates were fully tolerant to 0.3% bile salts and 11 of them were able to resist pH 3 for 3 h without loss of viable cells. The eleven isolates were then evaluated on their adhesion capability. Wide variation in the hydrophobic character and specific adhesion efficiency was observed and three isolates G1-1, G22-2 and G8-5, with respective antimicrobial, BSH and amylolytic activities were finally selected. In addition, the three isolates were compatible in the coexistence assay. Isolate G1-1 was identified as Lactobacillus salivarius by API system and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both G8-5 and G22-2 showed the closest homology to Lactobacillus reuteri according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99%). From the study, the three Lactobacilli strains were shown to share the functional properties necessary for probiotics use in animal additives. Their compatibility with respective in vitro activities was expected to show enhanced in vivo efficacy after combination for multistrain probiotics use. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim M.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Kim D.-G.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Choi S.-W.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Guerrero P.,Pork Producers Trade Association of Chile | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The Republic of Korea found dioxin at concentrations exceeding the Korean maximum residue limit (MRL) in pork (2pgTEQg-1 fat) imported from Chile in June 2008. Korea and Chile collaborated and investigated to find out the sources of contamination. An isotope dilution method and high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HR-GC/MS) were used for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs were found from 2.17 to 36.7pgTEQg-1 fat from Chilean pork. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF were found as the major congeners in pork samples. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showed the highest concentration and contributed about 30% among the congeners in most of the samples. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD, OCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF, and OCDF were not detected or exist at background levels in the less contaminated samples. Remarkably high concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found in samples of zinc oxide (17147pgTEQg-1), zinc oxide based premix (6673pgTEQg-1), and the residue crust (800pgTEQg-1) in a mixing chamber in the feed mill. From the results of various investigations, this case concluded that zinc oxide in the feed was the major source of the dioxin contamination in pork. The dioxins were formed from a metal refinery process to collect zinc oxide. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Yeh J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service | Chung K.M.,Chonbuk National University | Song J.,Yonsei University
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2012

Antibodies against non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are considered to be the most reliable indicator of a present or past infection by West Nile virus (WNV) in animals. In this study, an in-house competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NS1-cELISA) utilizing baculovirus-expressed NS1 and monoclonal antibodies against NS1 was established for the detection of antibody responses to NS1 in WNV-infected animals. The assay was validated by the simultaneous detection of early antibody responses to NS1 and the structural envelope protein in animals infected with WNV, or inoculated with inactivated WNV. NS1-cELISA detected WNV antibodies at 6 days post-infection (dpi) in a WNV-infected rabbit (percent inhibition [PI] value of 84.0), and at 10 dpi in a WNV-infected chicken (PI value of 67.0). The NS1-cELISA was able to detect WNV antibodies in sera from all WNV-infected rabbits at 10 dpi (PI value of 79.2±18.0), and from three of four WNV-infected chickens at 14 dpi (PI value of 73.7±22.8). The results of this study demonstrate that the antibody response to NS1 is similar to that against envelope protein in WNV-infected rabbits and chickens, whereas animals inoculated with inactivated WNV develop antibody responses only to the envelope protein but not to NS1. The NS1-cELISA developed here has the potential to be a useful tool for monitoring WNV circulation (i.e., the prevalence of specific antibodies against WNV NS1), by assaying serum samples from regions in which an inactivated vaccine control strategy has been implemented. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.

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