Islamabad, Pakistan
Islamabad, Pakistan

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Mortenson J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Khan E.H.H.,FAO | Ali I.,Livestock | Manzoor S.,FAO | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2017

In northern Pakistan, many farming communities rely on domestic yak (Bos grunniens) as a principle source of income. A 2006 participatory disease surveillance report from this region indicated that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most prevalent annual disease of yak. Our objectives of this study were to determine exposure levels of yak to FMD virus; implement a vaccination program based on current, regional FMD virus serotypes and subtypes; and quantify immune responses following vaccination. Blood samples were used to determine pre-vaccination exposure of animals to FMD virus by antibody presence to non-structural proteins of FMD virus using a 3-ABC trapping indirect ELISA. Vaccine used consisted of FMD serotypes ‘O’ (PanAsia-2), ‘A’ (Iran-05), and ‘Asia-1’ (Shamir), but changed later during the study to match newly circulating viruses in the country (‘O’-PanAsia-2; ‘A’-Turk-06 and Asia-1-Sindh-08). Three hundred sixty-three blood samples were tested from selected villages to determine pre-vaccination FMD virus exposure in yak with an average of 37.7%. Immune responses from initial vaccination and booster dose 30 days later showed clear protective levels (as mean percent inhibition) of antibodies against structural proteins of serotypes ‘O,’ ‘A,’ and ‘Asia-1.’ These responses remained above threshold positive level even at day 210 following initial vaccination. Results of sero-surveillance and anecdotal information of repeated FMD outbreaks demonstrate the persistence of FMD virus of yak in northern Pakistan. Laboratory results and field observations clearly indicated that yak can be protected against FMD with a good quality vaccine with FMD serotype(s) matching current, regionally circulating FMD virus. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA).


Ali S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Akhter S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Neubauer H.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Scherag A.,Jena University Hospital | And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Results: Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p <0.05). In multiple logistic regression models only the contact with animals remained as independent and robust risk factor (odds ratio 5.21; 95 % CI: 1.88-13.75; p = 0.001) for seropositivity. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art. © 2016 The Author(s).


Ali S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ali S.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Ali S.,National Veterinary Laboratories | Ali Q.,National Veterinary Laboratories | And 9 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

The present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in humans at high risk in the Potohar plateau of northeastern Pakistan. A total of 262 serum samples were collected from persons of different occupational groups: veterinary personnel, milkers, abattoir workers, livestock farmers, and others (drivers, security guards, housewives). Data related to gender, age, occupation, contact with animals, brucellosis-related symptoms, consumption of raw milk, and geographical region were collected. The Rose Bengal plate test and the serum agglutination test were performed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence was found to be 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1, 10.6). Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay showed that all cases were affected by Brucella abortus. Individuals who consumed raw milk had higher odds of brucellosis seropositivity. This is the first report of human brucellosis related to B. abortus in high-risk professionals from Pakistan by the combined use of serological and molecular methods. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Ali S.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Akhter S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Muhammad A.,University of Poonch | Khan I.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

A total of 82 samples of fish (80 from fish farm; 2 from river) infected with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) were collected. Identification and characterization of isolates was done by biochemical tests, fermentation of sugars and analytical profile index (API 20NE). A total of 60 bacterial isolates were confirmed as Aeromonas hydrophila, a causative agent of EUS in cultured fish species of Potohar region, Pakistan. None of bacterial species was recovered from disease wild (river) fish. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol (100%) and partly sensitive to norfloxacin (55.0%), streptomycin (90.0%), gentamycin (60.0%), erythromycin (33.3%) and tetracycline (66.7%). Moreover, all isolates showed resistance (100%) to amoxicillin, penicillin and novobiocin. It is concluded that A. hydrophila was the causative agent of EUS in fish farms of Potohar region, Pakistan and strains of A. hydrophila have developed multi-drug resistance against antibiotics.


Arshed M.J.,National Veterinary Laboratories | Magnuson R.J.,Colorado State University | Triantis J.,Colorado State University | Abubakar M.,National Veterinary Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis | Year: 2011

Two methods for the extraction of RNA of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) Indiana1 and New Jersey and their simultaneous amplification by one-step polymerase chain reaction using reverse transcriptase were evaluated. A guanidine-thiocyanate-based RNA extraction (Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen, Valencia, CA ) followed by column-based purification coupled with one-step RT-PCR proved to be a simple, safe, practicable, and reliable tool for rapid, highly sensitive, and specific differential diagnosis of both types of VSV in cell lysate and spiked tissue samples as compared with the tri-phasic extraction method (Tri-reagent method). When RNA was extracted either from VSV cell culture stock or from VSV spiked bovine lymph nodes by using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit, the detection limit in the multiplex RT-PCR was as low as 0.505 to 2.84 TCID50 for VSV-IND and VSV-NJ, respectively. The multiplex RT-PCR consistently detected VSV-IND and NJ RNA in as little as 0.1-1.0fg of total RNA from spiked BHK-21 cell suspension when Qiagen RNeasy mini kit was used. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was capable of detecting both types of VSV in a one-step reaction tube. The minimum sensitivity of this assay in various experiments was 0.1683 TCID50 (IND), 0.0946 TCID50 (NJ), and 0.057fg (IND and NJ) per 2μl PCR sample, which is significantly more sensitive than reported previously (0.28-2.8 TCID50/1μl). So the present study improved the sensitivity of previously reported multiplex RT-PCR for the detection and differentiation of VSV-IND and VSV-NJ in a single assay. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Ali S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ali S.,National Veterinary Laboratories | Ali Q.,National Veterinary Laboratories | Abatih E.N.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

The sero-prevalence of brucellosis was investigated among different breeds of cattle and buffaloes in Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Rawalpindi and Attock regions of Pakistan. A total of 2330 milk samples (1168 cattle and 1162 buffaloes) were screened for the presence of Brucella abortus antibodies using the milk ring test (MRT). Information related to animal type, urbanicity, sampling area and breeds were collected with the help of a pretested questionnaire on the day of sampling. The overall sero-prevalence was 6.9% in cattle and 6.6% in buffaloes. More seropositive animals were found in ICT compared to the other regions. The odds of brucellosis sero-positivity were higher among cross breed cattle and Nili-ravi buffaloes. This study is the first evidence of prevalence of Brucella abortus up to breed level in dairy cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Rajput Z.I.,National Veterinary Laboratories | Rajput Z.I.,Zhejiang University | Xiao C.W.,Zhejiang University | Xiao C.W.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 μg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 μg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P < 0.05; P < 0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 μg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 μg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P < 0.05; P < 0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.


PubMed | National Veterinary Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis | Year: 2011

Two methods for the extraction of RNA of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) Indiana1 and New Jersey and their simultaneous amplification by one-step polymerase chain reaction using reverse transcriptase were evaluated. A guanidine-thiocyanate-based RNA extraction (Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen, Valencia, CA ) followed by column-based purification coupled with one-step RT-PCR proved to be a simple, safe, practicable, and reliable tool for rapid, highly sensitive, and specific differential diagnosis of both types of VSV in cell lysate and spiked tissue samples as compared with the tri-phasic extraction method (Tri-reagent method). When RNA was extracted either from VSV cell culture stock or from VSV spiked bovine lymph nodes by using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit, the detection limit in the multiplex RT-PCR was as low as 0.505 to 2.84 TCID(50) for VSV-IND and VSV-NJ, respectively. The multiplex RT-PCR consistently detected VSV-IND and NJ RNA in as little as 0.1-1.0 fg of total RNA from spiked BHK-21 cell suspension when Qiagen RNeasy mini kit was used. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was capable of detecting both types of VSV in a one-step reaction tube. The minimum sensitivity of this assay in various experiments was 0.1683 TCID(50) (IND), 0.0946 TCID(50) (NJ), and 0.057 fg (IND and NJ) per 2 l PCR sample, which is significantly more sensitive than reported previously (0.28-2.8 TCID50/1 l). So the present study improved the sensitivity of previously reported multiplex RT-PCR for the detection and differentiation of VSV-IND and VSV-NJ in a single assay.


PubMed | National Veterinary Laboratories and Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and technology | Year: 2015

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is considered to be one of the main constraints to enhancing the productivity of goats and sheep in regions where it is present and becoming endemic. PPR was recognized in Pakistan in early 1990s but got importance during the Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) of Rinderpest Eradication Campaign. Lot of research work has been initiated during last decade towards disease epidemiology, risk factor recognition, laboratory diagnosis, vaccination and demonstration of control strategies. Although there are ongoing projects working towards the progressive control of the disease in country yet there is need to have a national level control program for PPR. Also there is need to have comprehensive social economic surveys, disease hot spot recognition and identification of role of other species in disease transmission. With combined efforts of local and national authorities and political will, there is high likelihood that this devastating disease can be controlled and eventually eradicated in near future.


PubMed | Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Pmas Arid Agriculture University, Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Veterinary Laboratories and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2017

The seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis were studied at animal and herd level using a combination of culture, serological and molecular methods. The study was conducted in 253 randomly selected cattle herds of the Potohar plateau, Pakistan from which a total of 2709 serum (1462 cattle and 1247 buffaloes) and 2330 milk (1168 cattle and 1162 buffaloes) samples were collected. Data on risk factors associated with seroprevalence of brucellosis were collected through interviews using questionnaires. Univariable and multivariable random effects logistic regression models were used for identifying important risk factors at animal and herd levels.One hundred and seventy (6.3%) samples and 47 (18.6%) herds were seropositive for brucellosis by Rose Bengal Plate test. Variations in seroprevalence were observed across the different sampling sites. At animal level, sex, species and stock replacement were found to be potential risk factors for brucellosis. At herd level, herd size (9 animals) and insemination method used were important risk factors. The presence of Brucella DNA was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) in 52.4% out of 170 serological positive samples. In total, 156 (6.7%) milk samples were positive by milk ring test. B. abortus biovar 1 was cultured from 5 positive milk samples.This study shows that the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis is high in some regions in Pakistan. Prevalence was associated with herd size, abortion history, insemination methods used, age, sex and stock replacement methods. The infected animal may act as source of infection for other animals and for humans. The development of control strategies for bovine brucellosis through implementation of continuous surveillance and education programs in Pakistan is warranted.

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