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Huda M.M.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Mondal D.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Kumar V.,Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences | Das P.,Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E) toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying squads, and entomological-chemical assessments (bioassay, susceptibility test, chemical analysis of insecticide residues on sprayed surfaces, vector density measurements at baseline, and three follow-up surveys). Results. We found that the documentation at district offices was fairly complete; important shortcomings included insufficient training of spraying squads and supervisors, deficient spray equipment, poor spraying performance, lack of protective clothing, limited coverage of houses resulting in low bioavailability of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces, and reduced vector susceptibility to DDT in India, which limited the impact on vector densities. Conclusion. The M&E toolkit is a useful instrument for detecting constraints in IRS operations and to trigger timely response. © 2011 M. Mamun Huda et al. Source

Dhariwal A.C.,National vector Borne Disease Control Programme NVBDCP | Sen P.K.,National vector Borne Disease Control Programme NVBDCP | Jaiswal R.,National vector Borne Disease Control Programme NVBDCP | Shukla R.S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Communicable Diseases | Year: 2014

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) are not merely neurological manifestations of medical conditions caused by virus, bacteria, protozoa or fungi but a large socio-economic-environmental-health problem with wider ramification in the form of high mortality, disability, impoverishment in already marginalized societies leading to perpetual poverty and low Human Development Index in the endemic areas and are challenges for emerging economies like India. During a special review in 2011, it was observed that approximately 8000 AES cases and 1200 deaths are reported annually from JE/AES endemic districts with poor infrastructure, lack of critical care and rehabilitation facilities, and low priority to preventive activities. This prompted Government to constitute Group of Ministers (GoM) during November, 2011 to suggest a multi-pronged strategy for Prevention and Control of JE/AES. GoM recommended integration of promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative activities with identified Ministries to address the issue of complex encephalitis situation in Uttar Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Tamil Nadu. These Ministries apart from (i) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare included (ii) Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (iii) Ministry of Women and Child Development (iv) Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (v) Ministry of Housing and Poverty Alleviation (HUPA) (vi) Ministry of Human Resource Development (Department of Education) and (vii) Ministry of Rural Development. The recommendations of GoM resulted in formulation of National Programme for Prevention and Control of Japanese Encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome approval for which was accorded in October, 2012 with a budgetary outlay of Rs.4038 crores (approx. US $ 670 million) for 5 years. It was decided to implement the National Programme in 60 priority districts of 5 states in first phase. The multi-pronged strategy is making steady progress at the field level as all the above Ministries have initiated the process of implementation of their assigned activities as per the reports received from these Ministries. It is expected that after successful implementation of National Programme for Prevention and Control of JE/AES, the disease burden due to encephalitis shall reduce significantly in the identified districts. Source

Joshi P.L.,National vector Borne Disease Control Programme NVBDCP
Journal of Communicable Diseases | Year: 2014

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a constellation of clinical signs and/ or symptoms, i.e. acute fever, with an acute change in mental status and/ or new onset of seizures that signifies acute inflammation of brain cells. Although viruses have been identified as the major etiological agents for this syndrome, a range of pathogens including acute bacterial or parasitic infection have also been attributed. In Asia, the major identified cause of acute encephalitis is Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus. JE affects over 50,000 people annually, leading to 8- 30% mortality and 50- 60% disability, with children bearing the brunt of the disease. These outbreaks affect over 5,000 people annually in India, most of them being children. Many are left permanently disabled and as many as 700 people die each year. The Eastern region of Uttar Pradesh has been especially hard hit with a recurring outbreak in the rainy season each year, the primary cause of which remains uncertain. Although ICMR research institutions like National Institute of Virology (NIV), Enterovirus Research Centre, Mumbai, Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC), National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE), Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (CRME) etc are engaged in research activities dealing with various aspects of the disease, but have achieved limited success in identifying the aetiological agents. Therefore, there is a need to define research priorities in India to conduct focussed research that identifies the etiological agents for better management and treatment of AES cases to help reduce the morbidity as well as mortality associated with AES. Source

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