National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme

Delhi, India

National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme

Delhi, India
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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

India is preparing to begin laboratory trials on a vector-control method to combat mosquito-borne viruses using a type of bacteria that infects insects. The work is part of a collaborative international effort to stem the spread of disease. An initial research phase will begin soon at Vector Control Research Centre in Puducherry, India, to study mosquitoes that are infected with Wolbachia bacteria. Though Wolbachia occurs in many insects, it is not usually found in the Aedes aegypti mosquito, a primary transmitter of the dengue and chikungunya viruses. Studies published last year show that Wolbachia can stop these viruses from growing inside the mosquitoes, and thus the bacteria might be used to control the spread of disease ( , DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005434; PLOS Neglected Trop. Dis., DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004677). In 2016, nearly 100,000 people across India tested positive for dengue, and more than 200 died of the disease, data from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme show. According to the agency, India had more than 58,000 suspected cases of chikungunya in 2016. Scientists at the research center, which functions under the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), will work with A. aegypti larvae imported from Monash University that are infected with Wolbachia. ICMR entered into a partnership in February with Monash University’s Eliminate Dengue program. India was the sixth country to join the program, which is being implemented in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, and Vietnam.


Anvikar A.R.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Shah N.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Dhariwal A.C.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | Sonal G.S.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. Vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. Vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. Vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. Vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. Vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. Vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Tatem A.J.,University of Southampton | Tatem A.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Huang Z.,University of Florida | Narib C.,National Vector borne Disease Control Programme | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Abstract. Background: As successful malaria control programmes re-orientate towards elimination, the identification of transmission foci, targeting of attack measures to high-risk areas and management of importation risk become high priorities. When resources are limited and transmission is varying seasonally, approaches that can rapidly prioritize areas for surveillance and control can be valuable, and the most appropriate attack measure for a particular location is likely to differ depending on whether it exports or imports malaria infections. Methods/Results. Here, using the example of Namibia, a method for targeting of interventions using surveillance data, satellite imagery, and mobile phone call records to support elimination planning is described. One year of aggregated movement patterns for over a million people across Namibia are analyzed, and linked with case-based risk maps built on satellite imagery. By combining case-data and movement, the way human population movements connect transmission risk areas is demonstrated. Communities that were strongly connected by relatively higher levels of movement were then identified, and net export and import of travellers and infection risks by region were quantified. These maps can aid the design of targeted interventions to maximally reduce the number of cases exported to other regions while employing appropriate interventions to manage risk in places that import them. Conclusions: The approaches presented can be rapidly updated and used to identify where active surveillance for both local and imported cases should be increased, which regions would benefit from coordinating efforts, and how spatially progressive elimination plans can be designed. With improvements in surveillance systems linked to improved diagnosis of malaria, detailed satellite imagery being readily available and mobile phone usage data continually being collected by network providers, the potential exists to make operational use of such valuable, complimentary and contemporary datasets on an ongoing basis in infectious disease control and elimination. © 2014 Tatem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Das A.,The World Bank | Friedman J.,The World Bank | Kandpal E.,The World Bank | Ramana G.N.V.,The World Bank | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Malaria continues to be a prominent global public health challenge. This study tested the effectiveness of two service delivery models for reducing the malaria burden, e.g. supportive supervision of community health workers (CHW) and community mobilization in promoting appropriate health-seeking behaviour for febrile illnesses in Odisha, India. Methods: The study population comprised 120 villages from two purposively chosen malaria-endemic districts, with 40 villages randomly assigned to each of the two treatment arms, one with both supportive supervision and community mobilization and one with community mobilization alone, as well as an observational control arm. Outcome measures included changes in the utilization of bed nets and timely care-seeking for fever from a trained provider compared to the control group. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results: Significant improvements were observed in the reported utilization of bed nets in both intervention arms (84.5% in arm A and 82.4% in arm B versus 78.6% in the control arm; p < 0.001). While overall rates of treatment-seeking were equal across study arms, treatment-seeking from a CHW was higher in both intervention arms (28%; p = 0.005 and 27.6%; p = 0.007) than in the control arm (19.2%). Fever cases were significantly more likely to visit a CHW and receive a timely diagnosis of fever in the combined interventions arm than in the control arm (82.1% vs. 67.1%; p = 0.025). Care-seeking from trained providers also increased with a substitution away from untrained providers. Further, fever cases from the combined interventions arm (60.6%; p = 0.004) and the community mobilization arm (59.3%; p = 0.012) were more likely to have received treatment from a skilled provider within 24 hours than fever cases from the control arm (50.1%). In particular, women from the combined interventions arm were more likely to have received timely treatment from a skilled provider (61.6% vs. 47.2%; p = 0.028). Conclusion: A community-based intervention combining the supportive supervision of community health workers with intensive community mobilization and can be effective in improving care-seeking and preventive behaviour and may be used to strengthen the national malaria control programme. © 2015 Das et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Dev V.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Station | Sangma B.M.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | Dash A.P.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Malaria is endemic in Garo hills of Meghalaya, and death cases are reported annually. Plasmodium falciparum is the major parasite, and is solely responsible for each malaria-attributable death case. Garo hills are categorized high-risk for drug-resistant malaria; however, there exists no data on malaria transmitting mosquitoes prevalent in the region. Included in this report are entomological observations with particular reference to vector biology characteristics for devising situation specific intervention strategies for disease transmission reduction. Methods: The epidemiological data of the West Garo hills have been reviewed retrospectively for 2001-2009 to ascertain the disease transmission profile given the existing interventions. Point prevalence study was conducted in Dalu Community Health Centre that lies in close proximity to international border with Bangladesh to ascertain the true prevalence of malaria, and parasite species. Mosquito collections were made in human dwellings of malaria endemic villages aiming at vector incrimination, and to study relative abundance, resting and feeding preferences, and their present susceptibility status to DDT. Results: Investigations revealed that the West Garo hill district is co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but P. falciparum was the predominant infection (> 82%). Malaria transmission was perennial and persistent with seasonal peak during May-July corresponding to months of high rainfall. Entomological collections revealed that Anopheles minimus was the predominant species that was incriminated by detection of sporozoites in salivary glands (infection rate 2.27%), and was ascertained to be fully susceptible to DDT. Conclusion: For the control of malaria, improved diagnosis and sustained supply of drugs for artemisinin-based combination therapy are strongly advocated, which should be enforced for treatment of every single case of P. falciparum. Greater political commitment is called for organized vector control operations along border/high-risk areas to contain the spread of drug-resistant malaria, and averting impending disease outbreaks. © 2010 Dev et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Dhiman R.C.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Pahwa S.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR | Dhillon G.P.S.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | Dash A.P.,National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

It is unequivocal that climate change is happening and is likely to expand the geographical distribution of several vector-borne diseases, including malaria and dengue etc. to higher altitudes and latitudes. India is endemic for six major vector-borne diseases (VBD) namely malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and visceral leishmaniasis. Over the years, there has been reduction in the incidence of almost all the diseases except chikungunya which has re-emerged since 2005. The upcoming issue of climate change has surfaced as a new threat and challenge for ongoing efforts to contain vectorborne diseases. There is greater awareness about the potential impacts of climate change on VBDs in India and research institutions and national authorities have initiated actions to assess the impacts. Studies undertaken in India on malaria in the context of climate change impact reveal that transmission windows in Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern states are likely to extend temporally by 2-3 months and in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu there may be reduction in transmission windows. Using PRECIS model (driven by HadRM2) at the resolution of 50×50 Km for daily temperature and relative humidity for year 2050, it was found that Orissa, West Bengal and southern parts of Assam will still remain malarious and transmission windows will open up in Himachal Pradesh and north-eastern states etc. Impact of climate change on dengue also reveals increase in transmission with 2 C rise in temperature in northern India. Reemergence of kala-azar in northern parts of India and reappearance of chikungunya mainly in southern states of India has also been discussed. The possible need to address the threat and efforts made in India have also been highlighted. The paper concludes with a positive lead that with better preparedness threat of climate change on vectorborne diseases may be negated. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Dev V.,National Institute of Malaria Research Field Station | Barman K.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme | Khound K.,National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2016

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are being promoted for malaria vector control in the northeastern Indian state of Assam. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the current residual bio-efficacy and durability of both the Olyset® and PermaNet®2.0 LLINs that were distributed earlier in 2009, 2011 and 2013 to help formulate informed policy regarding net procurement, supplies and replacement. The study was undertaken in three different malaria endemic blocks of Assam during the period of June to October of 2014. The residual bio-efficacies were ascertained using the WHO cone-bioassay method for mosquito mortality post-exposure and corroborated with the ring-net assay for the median knockdown times of both types of LLINs in use by these communities. Cross-sectional community surveys were distributed to assess net ownership, utilization, community practices and the physical conditions of the nets in terms of being torn and the numbers of holes per position. Both the Olyset® and PermaNet®2.0 LLINs that were distributed in 2009 (i.e., nearly after five years of community usage) were completely torn, worn out and obsolete. However, the LLINs distributed in 2011 (i.e., three years of community usage) retained their residual bio-efficacies in susceptibility ranges that varied from 57% to 79%. However, for the LLINs that were distributed in 2013, the observed residual efficacy was adequate and resulted in a mosquito mortality rate >80 percent. Of the two types of LLINs inspected, the Olyset®nets were more durable and robust in terms of being torn less frequently (37.1%, 39/105) compared with the PermaNet®2.0 nets (51.8%, 204/394). Regarding the LLINs that were distributed in 2013, all were physically intact and in good condition. The majority of the distributed LLINs (99.2%, 639/644) were still in the possession of the householders of the surveyed populations. This study revealed that the serviceable life of the nets was slightly less than three years in terms of waning residual bio-efficacy and durability that warranted replacement. The communities were aware of the benefits of the use of mosquito net for personal protection and regularly used the nets; thus, LLIN-based interventions for sustained vector control should be scaled up. © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.


Mishra N.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Kaitholia K.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Srivastava B.,National Institute of Malaria Research | Shah N.K.,National Institute of Malaria Research | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in India has historically travelled from northeast India along the Myanmar border. The treatment policy for P. falciparum in the region was, therefore, changed from chloroquine to artesunate (AS) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in selected areas in 2005 and in 2008 it became the first-line treatment. Recognizing that resistance to the partner drug can limit the useful life of this combination therapy, routine in vivo and molecular monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy through sentinel sites was initiated in 2009. Methods. Between May and October 2012, 190 subjects with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, and Mizoram. Clinical and parasitological assessments were conducted over 42 days of follow-up. Multivariate analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with treatment failure. Genotyping was done to distinguish re-infection from recrudescence as well as to determine the prevalence of molecular markers of antifolate resistance among isolates. Results: A total of 169 patients completed 42 days of follow-up at three sites. The crude and PCR-corrected Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of AS + SP were 60.8% (95% CI: 48.0-71.4) and 76.6% (95% CI: 64.1-85.2) in Gomati, Tripura; 74.6% (95% CI: 62.0-83.6) and 81.7% (95% CI: 69.4-89.5) in Lunglei, Mizoram; and, 59.5% (95% CI: 42.0-73.2) and 82.3% (95% CI: 64.6-91.6) in Changlang, Arunachal Pradesh. Most patients with P. falciparum cleared parasitaemia within 24 hours of treatment, but eight, including three patients who failed treatment, remained parasitaemic on day 3. Risk factors associated with treatment failure included age < five years, fever at the time of enrolment and AS under dosing. No adverse events were reported. Presence of dhfr plus dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. Conclusion: AS + SP treatment failure was widespread in northeast India and exceeded the threshold for changing drug policy. Based on these results, in January 2013 the expert committee of the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme formulated the first subnational drug policy for India and selected artemether plus lumefantrine as the new first-line treatment in the northeast. Continued monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy is essential for effective malaria control. © 2014 Mishra et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit, National Institute of Malaria Research, National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme and National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.


PubMed | National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme and National Institute of Malaria Research Field Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of infection and public health | Year: 2016

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are being promoted for malaria vector control in the northeastern Indian state of Assam. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the current residual bio-efficacy and durability of both the Olyset() and PermaNet()2.0 LLINs that were distributed earlier in 2009, 2011 and 2013 to help formulate informed policy regarding net procurement, supplies and replacement. The study was undertaken in three different malaria endemic blocks of Assam during the period of June to October of 2014. The residual bio-efficacies were ascertained using the WHO cone-bioassay method for mosquito mortality post-exposure and corroborated with the ring-net assay for the median knockdown times of both types of LLINs in use by these communities. Cross-sectional community surveys were distributed to assess net ownership, utilization, community practices and the physical conditions of the nets in terms of being torn and the numbers of holes per position. Both the Olyset() and PermaNet()2.0 LLINs that were distributed in 2009 (i.e., nearly after five years of community usage) were completely torn, worn out and obsolete. However, the LLINs distributed in 2011 (i.e., three years of community usage) retained their residual bio-efficacies in susceptibility ranges that varied from 57% to 79%. However, for the LLINs that were distributed in 2013, the observed residual efficacy was adequate and resulted in a mosquito mortality rate >80 percent. Of the two types of LLINs inspected, the Olyset()nets were more durable and robust in terms of being torn less frequently (37.1%, 39/105) compared with the PermaNet()2.0 nets (51.8%, 204/394). Regarding the LLINs that were distributed in 2013, all were physically intact and in good condition. The majority of the distributed LLINs (99.2%, 639/644) were still in the possession of the householders of the surveyed populations. This study revealed that the serviceable life of the nets was slightly less than three years in terms of waning residual bio-efficacy and durability that warranted replacement. The communities were aware of the benefits of the use of mosquito net for personal protection and regularly used the nets; thus, LLIN-based interventions for sustained vector control should be scaled up.

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