National Vaccine Program Office

National City, United States

National Vaccine Program Office

National City, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Fischer M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gellin B.,National Vaccine Program Office | Gorman R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lee L.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 9 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

The purpose of this statement is to update recommendations for routine use of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The key points for the upcoming 2012-2013 season are: (1) this year 's trivalent influenza vaccine contains A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like antigen (derived from influenza A [H1N1] pdm09 [pH1N1] virus); A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like antigen; and B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like antigen (the influenza A [H3N2] and B antigens differ from those contained in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 seasonal vaccines); (2) annual universal influenza immunization is indicated; and (3) an updated dosing algorithm for administration of influenza vaccine to children 6 months through 8 years of age has been created. Pediatricians, nurses, and all health care personnel should promote influenza vaccine use and infection control measures. In addition, pediatricians should promptly identify influenza infections to enable rapid treatment, when indicated, to reduce morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Barfield W.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jefferies A.L.,Canadian Pediatric Society | Macones G.A.,The American College | Mainous R.O.,National Association of Neonatal Nurses | And 14 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Health care-associated infections in the NICU are a major clinical problem resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged length of hospital stays, and increased medical costs. Neonates are at high risk for health care-associated infections because of impaired host defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at time of birth, reduced barrier function of neonatal skin, the use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. This statement will review the epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in newborn infants. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Fischer M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gellin B.,National Vaccine Program Office | Gorman R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lee L.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 10 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

The purpose of this statement is to update recommendations for routine use of seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. Highlights for the upcoming 2013-2014 season include (1) this year's trivalent influenza vaccine contains an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus (same as 2012-2013); an A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2) virus (antigenically like the 2012-2013 strain); and a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus (a B/Yamagata lineage like 2012-2013 but a different virus); (2) new quadrivalent influenza vaccines with an additional B virus (B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus [B/Victoria lineage]) have been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration; (3) annual universal influenza immunization is indicated with either a trivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (no preference); and (4) the dosing algorithm for administration of influenza vaccine to children 6 months through 8 years of age is unchanged from 2012-2013. As always, pediatricians, nurses, and all health care personnel should promote influenza vaccine use and infection control measures. In addition, pediatricians should promptly identify influenza infections to enable rapid antiviral treatment, when indicated, to reduce morbidity and mortality. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Fischer M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gellin B.G.,National Vaccine Program Office | Gorman R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lee L.H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 11 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Palivizumab was licensed in June 1998 by the Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of serious lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children at increased risk of severe disease. Since that time, the American Academy of Pediatrics has updated its guidance for the use of palivizumab 4 times as additional data became available to provide a better understanding of infants and young children at greatest risk of hospitalization attributable to RSV infection. The updated recommendations in this policy statement reflect new information regarding the seasonality of RSV circulation, palivizumab pharmacokinetics, the changing incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, the effect of gestational age and other risk factors on RSV hospitalization rates, the mortality of children hospitalized with RSV infection, the effect of prophylaxis on wheezing, and palivizumab-resistant RSV isolates. This policy statement updates and replaces the recommendations found in the 2012 Red Book. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Krause P.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Bialek S.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Boppana S.B.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Griffiths P.D.,University College London | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering pre-emptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of pre-emptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune correlates of protection. © 2013.


Fischer M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gellin B.G.,National Vaccine Program Office | Gorman R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lee L.H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 11 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for the use of palivizumab prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first published in a policy statement in 1998. Guidance initially was based on the result from a single randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 1996-1997 describing an overall reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 10.6% among placebo recipients to 4.8% among children who received prophylaxis. The results of a second randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children with hemodynamically significant heart disease were published in 2003 and revealed a reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 9.7% in control subjects to 5.3% among prophylaxis recipients. Because no additional controlled trials regarding efficacy were published, AAP guidance has been updated periodically to reflect the most recent literature regarding children at greatest risk of severe disease. Since the last update in 2012, new data have become available regarding the seasonality of RSV circulation, palivizumab pharmacokinetics, the changing incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, the effects of gestational age and other risk factors on RSV hospitalization rates, the mortality of children hospitalized with RSV infection, and the effect of prophylaxis on wheezing and palivizumab-resistant RSV isolates. These data enable further refinement of AAP guidance to most clearly focus on those children at greatest risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Bortolussi R.,Canadian Paediatric Society | Fischer M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gellin B.,National Vaccine Program Office | Gorman R.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2011

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics approved updated recommendations for the use of quadravalent (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menactra [Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA] and Menveo [Novartis, Basel, Switzerland]) in adolescents and in people at persistent high risk of meningococcal disease. The recommendations supplement previous Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for meningococcal vaccinations. Data were reviewed pertaining to immunogenicity in high-risk groups, bactericidal antibody persistence after immunization, current epidemiology of meningococcal disease, meningococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of different strategies for vaccination of adolescents. This review prompted the following recommendations: (1) adolescents should be routinely immunized at 11 through 12 years of age and given a booster dose at 16 years of age; (2) adolescents who received their first dose at age 13 through 15 years should receive a booster at age 16 through 18 years or up to 5 years after their first dose; (3) adolescents who receive their first dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine at or after 16 years of age do not need a booster dose; (4) a 2-dose primary series should be administered 2 months apart for those who are at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease because of persistent complement component (eg, C5-C9, properdin, factor H, or factor D) deficiency (9 months through 54 years of age) or functional or anatomic asplenia (2-54 years of age) and for adolescents with HIV infection; and (5) a booster dose should be given 3 years after the primary series if the primary 2-dose series was given from 2 through 6 years of age and every 5 years for persons whose 2-dose primary series or booster dosewasgiven at 7 years of age or olderwhoare at risk of invasive meningococcal disease because of persistent component (eg, C5-C9, properdin, factor H, or factor D) deficiency or functional or anatomic asplenia. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


TUCSON, Ariz., Dec. 21, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons notes that, because of public concerns that mercury (as thimerosal) in childhood vaccines might be contributing to soaring rates of autism, this component was mostly phased out as a “precaution.” Autism rates continued to rise, prompting authorities to assert that autism is not linked to mercury in vaccines and that vaccination policies are safe and appropriate, writes Neil Z. Miller in the winter issue of the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. At the same time as mercury was being phased out, Miller noted that there was a 25 percent increase in the amount of aluminum in vaccines administered before age 18 months. Aluminum, also a neurotoxin, is used as an adjuvant in vaccines, Miller explains, to induce a stronger immune response. It is contained in hepatitis B, DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), pneumococcal (PCV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and hepatitis A vaccines. Miller recounts case reports of aluminum toxicity dating back to 1921. He cites concerns of the American Academy of Pediatrics that prolonged use of intravenous feedings that contain aluminum could impair neurological development. He quotes a 2011 article stating that “aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin that inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and causes various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans.” Some health authorities acknowledge reasons for concern, Miller writes. A director of the National Vaccine Program Office admitted that “those of us who deal with vaccines have really very little applicable background with metals and toxicological research.” Some health authorities, Miller states, are concerned about how burdensome it would be to remove the aluminum. “Existing vaccines, if they change the adjuvant for any reason, would need to be resubmitted for clinical trials for safety and efficacy and it would take a great deal of time to do that.” Miller concludes that there is no convincing evidence of adjuvant safety, but compelling evidence that injected aluminum can be detrimental to health. “Vaccines are normally recommended for healthy people, so safety (and efficacy) standards must be impeccable. Parents, especially, should not be compelled to permit their loved ones to receive multiple injections of toxic metals that could increase their risk of neurodevelopmental and autoimmune ailments. Safe alternatives to current disease prevention technologies are urgently needed.” The Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons is published by the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS), a national organization representing physicians in all specialties since 1943.


Smith P.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Humiston S.G.,University of Rochester | Vannice K.S.,National Vaccine Program Office | Salmon D.A.,National Vaccine Program Office
Public Health Reports | Year: 2010

Objectives. We evaluated the association between intentional delay of vaccine administration and timely vaccination coverage. Methods. We used data from 2,921 parents of 19- to 35-month-old children that included parents' reports of intentional delay of vaccine administration. Timely vaccination was defined as administration with ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis; ≥3 doses of polio vaccine; ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine; and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine by 19 months of age, as reported by vaccination providers. Results. In all, 21.8% of parents reported intentionally delaying vaccinations for their children. Among parents who intentionally delayed, 44.8% did so because of concerns about vaccine safety or efficacy and 36.1% delayed because of an ill child. Children whose parents intentionally delayed were significantly less likely to receive all vaccines by 19 months of age than children whose parents did not delay (35.4% vs. 60.1%, p<0.05). Parents who intentionally delayed were significantly more likely to have heard or read unfavorable information about vaccines than parents who did not intentionally delay (87.6% vs. 71.9%, p<0.05). Compared with parents who intentionally delayed only because their child was ill, parents who intentionally delayed only because of vaccine safety or efficacy concerns were significantly more likely to seek additional information about their decision from the Internet (11.4% vs. 1.1%, p<0.05), and significantly less likely to seek information from a doctor (73.9% vs. 93.9%, p<0.05). Conclusions. Intentionally delayed vaccine doses are not uncommon. Children whose parents delay vaccinations may be at increased risk of not receiving all recommended vaccine doses by 19 months of age and are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Providers should consider strategies such as educational materials that address parents' vaccine safety and efficacy concerns to encourage timely vaccination.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Vaccine Program Office
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) | Year: 2014

We compared estimates of childhood influenza vaccination coverage by health status, age, and racial/ethnic group across eight consecutive influenza seasons (2004 through 2012) based on two survey systems to assess trends in childhood influenza vaccination coverage in the U.S.We used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) data to estimate receipt of at least one dose of influenza vaccination among children aged 6 months to 17 years based on parental report. We computed estimates using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis methods.Based on the NHIS, overall influenza vaccination coverage with at least one dose of influenza vaccine among children increased from 16.2% during the 2004-2005 influenza season to 47.1% during the 2011-2012 influenza season. Children with health conditions that put them at high risk for complications from influenza had higher influenza vaccination coverage than children without these health conditions for all the seasons studied. In seven of the eight seasons studied, there were no significant differences in influenza vaccination coverage between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for children were slightly higher based on NIS-Flu data compared with NHIS data for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons (4.1 and 4.4 percentage points higher, respectively); both NIS-Flu and NHIS estimates had similar patterns of decreasing vaccination coverage with increasing age.Although influenza vaccination coverage among children continued to increase, by the 2011-2012 influenza season, only slightly less than half of U.S. children were vaccinated against influenza. Much improvement is needed to ensure all children aged 6 months are vaccinated annually against influenza.

Loading National Vaccine Program Office collaborators
Loading National Vaccine Program Office collaborators