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Bangkok, Thailand

Ditsungnoen D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Greenbaum A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Praphasiri P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dawood F.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Background: In 2009, Thailand recommended pregnant women be prioritized for influenza vaccination. Vaccine uptake among Thai pregnant women is lower than other high-risk groups. Methods: During December 2012-April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of Thai pregnant women aged ≥15 years attending antenatal clinics at public hospitals in 8 of 77 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire covered knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to influenza vaccination using the Health Belief Model. We examined factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated using log-binomial regression models. Results: The survey was completed by 1031 (96%) of 1072 pregnant women approached. A total of 627 (61%) women had heard about influenza vaccine and were included in the analysis, of whom 262 (42%) were willing to be vaccinated, 155 (25%) had received a healthcare provider recommendation for influenza vaccination and 25 (4%) had received the influenza vaccine during the current pregnancy. In unadjusted models, high levels of perceptions of susceptibility (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), high levels of belief in the benefits of vaccination (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.1), moderate (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) and high (PR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.5) levels of encouragement by others to be vaccinated (i.e., cues to action) were positively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Moderate (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7) and high levels of (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.8) perceived barriers were negatively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. In the final adjusted model, only moderate (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and high levels of cues to action (PR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6) were statistically associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Conclusion: Cues to action were associated with willingness to be vaccinated and can be used to inform communication strategies during the vaccine campaign to increase influenza vaccination among Thai pregnant women. © 2016.

Owusu J.T.,ASPPH CDC Allan Rosenfield Global Health Fellow | Owusu J.T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Prapasiri P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ditsungnoen D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

BackgroundThe Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of Thailand prioritizes seasonal influenza vaccinations for populations who are at highest risk for serious complications (pregnant women, children 6 months-2 years, persons ≥65 years, persons with chronic diseases, obese persons), and healthcare personnel and poultry cullers. The Thailand government purchases seasonal influenza vaccine for these groups. We assessed vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand from 2010 to 2012. MethodsNational records on persons who received publicly purchased vaccines from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed by high-risk category. Denominator data from multiple sources were compared to calculate coverage. Vaccine coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals in each category who received the vaccine. Vaccine wastage was defined as the proportion of publicly purchased vaccines that were not used. ResultsFrom 2010 to 2012, 8.18 million influenza vaccines were publicly purchased (range, 2.37-3.29 million doses/year), and vaccine purchases increased 39% over these years. Vaccine wastage was 9.5%. Approximately 5.7 million (77%) vaccine doses were administered to persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases, 1.4 million (19%) to healthcare personnel/poultry cullers, 82,570 (1.1%) to children 6 months-2 years, 78,885 (1.1%) to obese persons, 26,481 (0.4%) to mentally disabled persons, and 17,787 (0.2%) to pregnant women. Between 2010 and 2012, coverage increased among persons with chronic diseases (8.6% versus 14%; p<. 0.01) and persons ≥65 years (12%, versus 20%; p<. 0.01); however, coverage decreased for mentally disabled persons (6.1% versus 4.9%; p<. 0.01), children 6 months-2 years (2.3% versus 0.9%; p<. 0.01), pregnant women (1.1% versus 0.9%; p<. 0.01), and obese persons (0.2% versus 0.1%; p<. 0.01). ConclusionsFrom 2010 to 2012, the availability of publicly purchased vaccines increased. While coverage remained low for all target groups, coverage was highest among persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases. Annual coverage assessments are necessary to promote higher coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand. © 2014 The Authors.

Garg S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Olsen S.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Fernandez S.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | Muangchana C.,National Vaccine Institute | And 8 more authors.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Among 368 Thai men who have sex with men with paired serum samples collected before and during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we determined influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 seroconversion rates (≥4-fold rise in antibody titers by hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization assays). Overall, 66 of 232 (28%) participants seroconverted after the first year of A(H1N1)pdm09 activity, and 83 of 234 (35%) participants seroconverted after the second year. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion did not differ between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (55 of 2157 [35%]) and HIV-uninfected (71 of 2211 [34%]) participants (P = .78). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion occurred in approximately one third of our Thai study population and was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants. © The Author 2014.

Muangchana C.,National Vaccine Institute | Riewpaiboon A.,Mahidol University | Jiamsiri S.,Bureau of Epidemiology | Thamapornpilas P.,Bureau of General Communicable Disease | Warinsatian P.,Bureau of General Communicable Disease
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus is a health problem worldwide, including Thailand. The World Health Organization has recommended incorporating rotavirus vaccination into national immunization programs. This policy has been implemented in several countries, but not in Thailand where the mortality rate is not high. This leads to the question of whether it would be cost-effective to implement such a policy. The Thai National Vaccine Committee, through the Immunization Practice Subcommittee, has conducted an economic analysis. Their study aimed to estimate the costs of rotavirus diarrhea and of a rotavirus vaccination program, and the cost-effectiveness of such a program including budget impact analysis. The study was designed as an economic evaluation, employing modeling technique in both provider and societal perspectives. A birth cohort of Thai children in 2009 was used in the analysis, with a 5-year time horizon. Costs were composed of cost of the illness and the vaccination program. Outcomes were measured in the form of lives saved and DALYs averted. Both costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%. The study found the discounted number of deaths to be 7.02 and 20.52 for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively (13.5 deaths averted). Discounted DALYs were 263.33 and 826.57 for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively (563.24 DALYs averted). Costs of rotavirus diarrhea in a societal perspective were US$6.6 million and US$21.0 million for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. At base case, the costs per additional death averted were US$5.1 million and US$5.7 for 2-dose and 3-dose vaccines, respectively, in a societal perspective. Costs per additional DALYs averted were US$128,063 and US$142,144, respectively. In a societal perspective, with a cost-effectiveness threshold at 1 GDP per capita per DALYs averted, vaccine prices per dose were US$4.98 and US$3.32 for 2-dose and 3-dose vaccines, respectively; in a provider perspective, they were US$2.90 and US$1.93. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were included. The budget required for vaccine purchase was calculated for all scenarios. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hattasingh W.,Mahidol University | Pengsaa K.,Mahidol University | Thisyakorn U.,Chulalongkorn University | An P.N.,Hanoi University | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

The 1st Workshop on National Immunization Programs and Vaccine Coverage in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Countries Group (WNIPVC-ASEAN) held a meeting on April 30, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand under the auspices of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the World Health Organization (WHO). Reports on the current status and initiatives of the national immunization program (NIP) in each ASEAN countries that attended were presented. These reports along with survey data collected from ministries of health in ASEAN countries NIPs demonstrate that good progress has been made toward the goal of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). However, some ASEAN countries have fragile health care systems that still have insufficient vaccine coverage of some basic EPI antigens. Most ASEAN countries still do not have national coverage of some new and underused vaccines, and raising funds for the expansion of NIPs is challenging. Also, there is insufficient research into disease burden of vaccine preventable diseases and surveillance. Health care workers must advocate NIPs to government policy makers and other stakeholders as well as improve research and surveillance to achieve the goals of the GVAP. © 2016.

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