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Seminara J.,Childrens National Medical Center | Tuchman M.,Childrens National Medical Center | Krivitzky L.,Childrens National Medical Center | Krischer J.,University of South Florida | And 21 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism

The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) was created as part of a larger network established by the National Institutes of Health to study rare diseases. This paper reviews the UCDC's accomplishments over the first 6 years, including how the Consortium was developed and organized, clinical research studies initiated, and the importance of creating partnerships with patient advocacy groups, philanthropic foundations and biotech and pharmaceutical companies. Source

Diaz G.A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Lichter-Konecki U.,Childrens National Medical Center | Berry S.A.,University of Minnesota | Harding C.O.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics

Objectives To examine ammonia levels, pharmacokinetics, and safety of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB; also referred to as HPN-100) and sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) in young children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Study design This open label switch-over study enrolled patients ages 29 days to under 6 years taking NaPBA. Patients underwent 24-hour blood and urine sampling on NaPBA and again on a phenylbutyric acidequimolar dose of GPB and completed questionnaires regarding signs and symptoms associated with NaPBA and/or their UCD. Results Fifteen patients (8 argininosuccinate lyase deficiency, 3 argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency, 3 ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, 1 arginase deficiency) ages 2 months through 5 years enrolled in and completed the study. Daily ammonia exposure (24-hour area under the curve) was lower on GPB and met predefined noninferiority criteria (ratio of means 0.79; 95% CI 0.593-1.055; P = .03 Wilcoxon; 0.07 t test). Six patients experienced mild adverse events on GPB; there were no serious adverse events or significant laboratory changes. Liver tests and argininosuccinic acid levels among patients with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency were unchanged or improved on GPB. Eleven of 15 patients reported 35 symptoms on day 1; 23 of these 35 symptoms improved or resolved on GPB. Mean systemic exposure to phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetic acid, and phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) were similar and phenylacetic acid exposure tended to be higher in the youngest children on both drugs. Urinary PAGN concentration was greater on morning voids and varied less over 24 hours on GPB versus NaPBA. Conclusions GPB results in more evenly distributed urinary output of PAGN over 24 hours were associated with fewer symptoms and offers ammonia control comparable with that observed with NaPBA in young children with UCDs. Copyright © 2013 Mosby Inc. Source

Monteleone J.P.R.,Pharsight | Mokhtarani M.,Hyperion Therapeutics | Rhead W.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Lichter-Konecki U.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

Sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate mediate waste nitrogen excretion in the form of urinary phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); rare genetic disorders characterized by impaired urea synthesis and hyperammonemia. Sodium phenylbutyrate is approved for UCD treatment; the development of glycerol phenylbutyrate afforded the opportunity to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both compounds. A population PK model was developed using data from four Phase II/III trials that collectively enrolled patients ages 2 months to 72 years. Dose simulations were performed with particular attention to phenylacetic acid (PAA), which has been associated with adverse events in non-UCD populations. The final model described metabolite levels in plasma and urine for both drugs and was characterized by (a) partial presystemic metabolism of phenylbutyric acid (PBA) to PAA and/or PAGN, (b) slower PBA absorption and greater presystemic conversion with glycerol phenylbutyrate, (c) similar systemic disposition with saturable conversion of PAA to PAGN for both drugs, and (d) body surface area (BSA) as a significant covariate accounting for age-related PK differences. Dose simulations demonstrated similar PAA exposure following mole-equivalent PBA dosing of both drugs and greater PAA exposure in younger patients based on BSA. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Summar M.L.,Childrens National Medical Center | Koelker S.,University of Heidelberg | Freedenberg D.,100 W 49th Street Mail code 1918 | Le Mons C.,National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism

A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6. million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. © 2013. Source

Mokhtarani M.,601 Gateway Blvd | Diaz G.A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Rhead W.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Lichter-Konecki U.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 26 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism

We have analyzed pharmacokinetic data for glycerol phenylbutyrate (also GT4P or HPN-100) and sodium phenylbutyrate with respect to possible dosing biomarkers in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCD). Study design: These analyses are based on over 3000 urine and plasma data points from 54 adult and 11 pediatric UCD patients (ages 6-17) who participated in three clinical studies comparing ammonia control and pharmacokinetics during steady state treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate or sodium phenylbutyrate. All patients received phenylbutyric acid equivalent doses of glycerol phenylbutyrate or sodium phenylbutyrate in a cross over fashion and underwent 24-hour blood samples and urine sampling for phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetic acid and phenylacetylglutamine. Results: Patients received phenylbutyric acid equivalent doses of glycerol phenylbutyrate ranging from 1.5 to 31.8g/day and of sodium phenylbutyrate ranging from 1.3 to 31.7g/day. Plasma metabolite levels varied widely, with average fluctuation indices ranging from 1979% to 5690% for phenylbutyric acid, 843% to 3931% for phenylacetic acid, and 881% to 1434% for phenylacetylglutamine. Mean percent recovery of phenylbutyric acid as urinary phenylacetylglutamine was 66.4 and 69.0 for pediatric patients and 68.7 and 71.4 for adult patients on glycerol phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate, respectively. The correlation with dose was strongest for urinary phenylacetylglutamine excretion, either as morning spot urine (r=0.730, p<0.001) or as total 24-hour excretion (r=0.791 p<0.001), followed by plasma phenylacetylglutamine AUC24-hour, plasma phenylacetic acid AUC24-hour and phenylbutyric acid AUC24-hour. Plasma phenylacetic acid levels in adult and pediatric patients did not show a consistent relationship with either urinary phenylacetylglutamine or ammonia control. Conclusion: The findings are collectively consistent with substantial yet variable pre-systemic (1st pass) conversion of phenylbutyric acid to phenylacetic acid and/or phenylacetylglutamine. The variability of blood metabolite levels during the day, their weaker correlation with dose, the need for multiple blood samples to capture trough and peak, and the inconsistency between phenylacetic acid and urinary phenylacetylglutamine as a marker of waste nitrogen scavenging limit the utility of plasma levels for therapeutic monitoring. By contrast, 24-hour urinary phenylacetylglutamine and morning spot urine phenylacetylglutamine correlate strongly with dose and appear to be clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers for compliance and therapeutic monitoring. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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