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Khartoum, Sudan

Suleiman M.S.H.,National University-Sudan | Joubert D.P.,University of Witwatersrand
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research | Year: 2015

The extreme endothermic nature of silver nitride has been hampering its experimental characterization and there is incomplete detailed knowledge of the structural and physical properties of this material. Stimulated by this lack, we present a first-principles DFT and GW investigation of structural, electronic, and optical properties of bulk crystalline silver nitrides. In this study, 20 structures for Ag3N, AgN, and AgN2 were investigated. The equilibrium cohesive and formation energies revealed that the AgN2 series contains the most energetically stable phases. However, all the formation energies confirmed that silver nitrides are thermodynamically unstable. New possible structural phase transitions were discovered from the enthalpy-pressure equation of states diagrams. We predict that the most stable phases of AgN and AgN2 are metallic, while those of Ag3N are semiconductors. In agreement with a previous study, it is found that as the nitrogen to silver ratio decreases, the total DOS at Fermi energy decreases until a gap opens. The calculated lattice parameter of Ag3N(D09)-the most stable modification in the considered Ag3N phases-is close to the experimentally reported one, yet the calculated absorption spectrum does not explain the observed black color of the synthesized Ag3N. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Nagwa M.A.,Central Laboratory | Elhussein A.M.,Central Laboratory | Azza M.,Central Laboratory | Abdulhadi N.H.,National University-Sudan
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Mohamed Ali E.A.,University of Khartoum | Karrar M.A.,National University-Sudan | El-Siddig A.A.,Taibah University | Gafer N.,Radiation and Isotope Khartoum Center | Satir A.A.,University of Khartoum
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2015

The aim of this report is to present a rare case of a Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) of a 21-year-old man with review of the literature. The patient was treated surgically, and one of the surgical margins was involved, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy for local control. Five months later, patient presented with infraorbital lesion which was proven histological to be GCOC. Radiological images, histological sections and clinical photographs are also presented. One year after the second surgery, the patient was tumor free. The only effective treatment modality was surgical removal. © Elneel Ahmed Mohamed Ali et al. Source

Mohamed S.S.E.,University of Khartoum | Mohamed S.S.E.,Ajman University for Science and Technology | Mahmoud A.A.,National University-Sudan | Ali A.A.,Ajman University for Science and Technology
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2015

Objectives This study aims to describe the current state of Sudanese community pharmacy practice and explore the capacity of existing community pharmacies to foster the change to pharmaceutical care (PC) and to assess attitude and knowledge of community pharmacists regarding PC and identify barriers. Methods A structured, self-administered, piloted questionnaire was distributed to the pharmacists in charge of 274, randomly selected, community pharmacies in Khartoum state. The questionnaire included six domains: demographic characteristics, organizational structure of community pharmacies, current activities of community pharmacists, their attitudes and knowledge regarding PC, and potential barriers. Attitude responses were measured by a 5-point Likert scale. Key findings Response rate was 67%. Community pharmacies are short on some tools that are deemed necessary for PC implementation, e.g. consultation areas. Community pharmacists provide mainly product-focused services with no or little PC activities. However, there is a highly positive attitude among the majority of respondents towards practice change to include PC (mean positive score ± standard deviation = 4.39 ± 0.73, frequency (%) = 89%). Many barriers to implementation of PC were identified, e.g. pharmacists' clinical knowledge and lack of understanding of pharmacist's new role. Conclusion Sudanese community pharmacists favour practice change to include PC. Successful implementation of PC requires substantial organizational and structural changes in community pharmacies, including provision of clinical knowledge, strengthening of clinical training and new practice standards. This change in practice could benefit from involvement of academia, governmental bodies and professional organizations working together for the pharmacy profession. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Source

Almogren A.,King Saud University | Adam M.H.,King Khalid University | Shakoor Z.,King Saud University | Gadelrab M.O.,King Saud University | Musa H.A.,National University-Sudan
Central-European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

A vast majority of studies investigating cytokine profiles in contact dermatitis (CD) due to nickel have focused on cytokine release in response to nickel challenge. This study was performed to determine the Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile of un-stimulated circulating T lymphocytes in CD patients with positive nickel skin patch test. A total of 35 patients with positive nickel patch test presenting clinically with CD in allergy clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, were included in the study. Using lysed whole blood method peripheral blood T lymphocytes were analyzed for surface markers and intracellular cytokines by flowcytometry. The proportion of CD4+IL-10+ lymphocytes in the patients (3.3 ±1.1%) was significantly less than (p ≤ 0.000001) the normal controls (8.4 ±2.3%). The percentage of IL-4+CD4+ lymphocytes in the patients (1.9 ±1.9%) was also less (p ≤ 0.007) than that of the normal controls (3.1 ±1.4%). For CD8+ lymphocytes nickel sensitive CD patients had a remarkably low (p ≤ 0.00001) percentage of IL-10+ cells then the normal individuals (1.1 ±1.6% versus 3.3 ±1.5%). The proportion of CD8+IL-4+ lymphocytes was also lower (p ≤ 0.0005) in patients (0.42 ±0.41) compared to the normal healthy individuals (0.94 ±1.9%). There was no difference in the percentages of IFN-γ+ and IL-5+ lymphocytes between the patients and controls. Percentages of IL-10+ and IL-4+ CD4+ lymphocytes (r = -0.758 and -0.653 respectively) and CD8+IL-10+ (r = -0.733) cells negatively correlated with patch test scores. These findings indicate that in the healthy state Th2 cytokine profile prevails however lymphocyte cytokine profile is skewed towards Th1 type in patients with nickel contact dermatitis. Source

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