Khartoum, Sudan

National University-Sudan
Khartoum, Sudan

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Mohamed S.S.E.,University of Khartoum | Mohamed S.S.E.,Ajman University for Science and Technology | Mahmoud A.A.,National University-Sudan | Ali A.A.,Ajman University for Science and Technology
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2015

Objectives This study aims to describe the current state of Sudanese community pharmacy practice and explore the capacity of existing community pharmacies to foster the change to pharmaceutical care (PC) and to assess attitude and knowledge of community pharmacists regarding PC and identify barriers. Methods A structured, self-administered, piloted questionnaire was distributed to the pharmacists in charge of 274, randomly selected, community pharmacies in Khartoum state. The questionnaire included six domains: demographic characteristics, organizational structure of community pharmacies, current activities of community pharmacists, their attitudes and knowledge regarding PC, and potential barriers. Attitude responses were measured by a 5-point Likert scale. Key findings Response rate was 67%. Community pharmacies are short on some tools that are deemed necessary for PC implementation, e.g. consultation areas. Community pharmacists provide mainly product-focused services with no or little PC activities. However, there is a highly positive attitude among the majority of respondents towards practice change to include PC (mean positive score ± standard deviation = 4.39 ± 0.73, frequency (%) = 89%). Many barriers to implementation of PC were identified, e.g. pharmacists' clinical knowledge and lack of understanding of pharmacist's new role. Conclusion Sudanese community pharmacists favour practice change to include PC. Successful implementation of PC requires substantial organizational and structural changes in community pharmacies, including provision of clinical knowledge, strengthening of clinical training and new practice standards. This change in practice could benefit from involvement of academia, governmental bodies and professional organizations working together for the pharmacy profession. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

Suleiman M.S.H.,National University-Sudan | Joubert D.P.,University of Witwatersrand
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research | Year: 2015

The extreme endothermic nature of silver nitride has been hampering its experimental characterization and there is incomplete detailed knowledge of the structural and physical properties of this material. Stimulated by this lack, we present a first-principles DFT and GW investigation of structural, electronic, and optical properties of bulk crystalline silver nitrides. In this study, 20 structures for Ag3N, AgN, and AgN2 were investigated. The equilibrium cohesive and formation energies revealed that the AgN2 series contains the most energetically stable phases. However, all the formation energies confirmed that silver nitrides are thermodynamically unstable. New possible structural phase transitions were discovered from the enthalpy-pressure equation of states diagrams. We predict that the most stable phases of AgN and AgN2 are metallic, while those of Ag3N are semiconductors. In agreement with a previous study, it is found that as the nitrogen to silver ratio decreases, the total DOS at Fermi energy decreases until a gap opens. The calculated lattice parameter of Ag3N(D09)-the most stable modification in the considered Ag3N phases-is close to the experimentally reported one, yet the calculated absorption spectrum does not explain the observed black color of the synthesized Ag3N. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Almogren A.,King Khalid University | Shakoor Z.,King Khalid University | Adam M.H.,King Khalid University | Mohammad Osman Gadelrab,King Khalid University | Musa H.A.,National University-Sudan
Polish Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

Reliability of the Widal tube agglutination test has been the subject of many controversies over the years. This study was performed to assess the effect of certain modifications on the performance of Widal test in a novel microplate assay. Sera from 37 patients (21 males; 16 females) (mean age 28 ± 7 years) were tested in the Immunology Unit at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. Among them were 26 patients with suspected typhoid fever and 11 had bacteriologically confirmed diagnosis of Salmonella infection. The modifications included either the use of 0.5% bovine serum albumin (BSA), absorption of sera with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or heat inactivation of sera. Compared with Widal tube agglutination test, microplate assay with SRBC absorption of the sera from patients with suspected typhoid fever was not only associated with enhancement of detection titers for both H (p ≤ 0.001) and O (p ≤ 0.005) Salmonella agglutinins but also the percentage of reactivity. The presence of BSA augmented detection titers for Salmonella H agglutinins (p ≤ 0.02) only. Heat inactivation of sera however was found to be associated with reduction in the detectable titers for both H (p ≤ 0.03) and O (p ≤ 0.01) agglutinins. Increased titers of Salmonella agglutinins were also evident in 11 patients with confirmed diagnosis of Salmonella infection. The novel microplate agglutination assay using the SRBC absorption was associated with enhancement in Widal test reactivity and appears to be a useful alternative for the diagnosis of Salmonella infection.

Almogren A.,King Saud University | Adam M.H.,King Khalid University | Shakoor Z.,King Saud University | Gadelrab M.O.,King Saud University | Musa H.A.,National University-Sudan
Central-European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

A vast majority of studies investigating cytokine profiles in contact dermatitis (CD) due to nickel have focused on cytokine release in response to nickel challenge. This study was performed to determine the Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile of un-stimulated circulating T lymphocytes in CD patients with positive nickel skin patch test. A total of 35 patients with positive nickel patch test presenting clinically with CD in allergy clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, were included in the study. Using lysed whole blood method peripheral blood T lymphocytes were analyzed for surface markers and intracellular cytokines by flowcytometry. The proportion of CD4+IL-10+ lymphocytes in the patients (3.3 ±1.1%) was significantly less than (p ≤ 0.000001) the normal controls (8.4 ±2.3%). The percentage of IL-4+CD4+ lymphocytes in the patients (1.9 ±1.9%) was also less (p ≤ 0.007) than that of the normal controls (3.1 ±1.4%). For CD8+ lymphocytes nickel sensitive CD patients had a remarkably low (p ≤ 0.00001) percentage of IL-10+ cells then the normal individuals (1.1 ±1.6% versus 3.3 ±1.5%). The proportion of CD8+IL-4+ lymphocytes was also lower (p ≤ 0.0005) in patients (0.42 ±0.41) compared to the normal healthy individuals (0.94 ±1.9%). There was no difference in the percentages of IFN-γ+ and IL-5+ lymphocytes between the patients and controls. Percentages of IL-10+ and IL-4+ CD4+ lymphocytes (r = -0.758 and -0.653 respectively) and CD8+IL-10+ (r = -0.733) cells negatively correlated with patch test scores. These findings indicate that in the healthy state Th2 cytokine profile prevails however lymphocyte cytokine profile is skewed towards Th1 type in patients with nickel contact dermatitis.

PubMed | University of Wisconsin - Madison, Alamal National Hospital, El Imam Mahdi University, King Saud University and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of human genetics : EJHG | Year: 2016

Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are the second most common type of motor neuron disease recognized worldwide. We investigated a total of 25 consanguineous families from Sudan. We used next-generation sequencing to screen 74 HSP-related genes in 23 families. Linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing was performed in two other families. We established a genetic diagnosis in six families with autosomal recessive HSP (SPG11 in three families and TFG/SPG57, SACS and ALS2 in one family each). A heterozygous mutation in a gene involved in an autosomal dominant HSP (ATL1/SPG3A) was also identified in one additional family. Six out of seven identified variants were novel. The c.64C>T (p.(Arg22Trp)) TFG/SPG57 variant (PB1 domain) is the second identified that underlies HSP, and we demonstrated its impact on TFG oligomerization in vitro. Patients did not present with visual impairment as observed in a previously reported SPG57 family (c.316C>T (p.(Arg106Cys)) in coiled-coil domain), suggesting unique contributions of the PB1 and coiled-coil domains in TFG complex formation/function and a possible phenotype correlation to variant location. Some families manifested marked phenotypic variations implying the possibility of modifier factors complicated by high inbreeding. Finally, additional genetic heterogeneity is expected in HSP Sudanese families. The remaining families might unravel new genes or uncommon modes of inheritance.

Hassan H.E.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Mohamed A.A.B.,National University-Sudan | Bakhiet A.O.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Ahmed H.G.,University of Khartoum
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2013

Aims. The purpose of this study was to determine if any relationship exists between expression of COX2 and iNOS markers and urinary schistosomiasis in bladder cancers. Methodology. Immunohistochemical expression of COX2 and iNOS was assessed in formalin fixed paraffin wax processed tissues obtained from 155 patients with bladder cancers (87 SCC and 68 TCC) and 39 patients with benign bladder cystitis. Results: The overall immune-expressions of COX2 and iNOS were 71.6% and 57.2% respectively, of the 194 bladder lesions. A significant Positive association between COX2 or iNOS expression with bladder lesions (SCC, TCC and cystitis) was found (p.value=0.000). COX2 and iNOS were co-expressed among 73(83.9%) of SCC, 15(22.1%) of TCC and 11(28.2%) of the cystitis group. The relationship between COX2 and iNOS immunostaining and Schistosomal ova positivity was statistically determined by P values 0.0565 and 0.1223 for Cox2 and iNOS, respectively. Conclusion: There are high rates of positive expression of COX2 and iNOS among Sudanese patients with Schistosomal-related bladder lesions. There might be strong association between high rates of bladder cancers and urinary Schistosomiasis in the Sudan since, the great majority of lesions were positive for COX2. © 2013 Hassan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | National University-Sudan, University of Khartoum, Central Laboratory, Neelain University and Sudan University of Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: The open virology journal | Year: 2016

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection still represents the most common potentially serious viral complication in humans and is a major cause of congenital anomalies in infants. This study is aimed to detect HCMV in infants with congenital anomalies. Study subjects consisted of infants born with neural tube defect, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Fifty serum specimens (20 males, 30 females) were collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. The sera were investigated for cytomegalovirus specific immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for Cytomegalovirus DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 50 sera tested, one patients (2%) sample showed HCMV IgM, but with no detectable DNA, other 4(8.2 %) sera were positive for HCMV DNA but with no detectable IgM. Various diagnostic techniques should be considered to evaluate HCMV disease and routine screening for HCMV should be introduced for pregnant women in this setting. It is vital to initiate further research work with many samples from different area to assess prevalence and characterize HCMV and evaluate its maternal health implications.

Nagwa M.A.,Central Laboratory | Elhussein A.M.,Central Laboratory | Azza M.,Central Laboratory | Abdulhadi N.H.,National University-Sudan
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

PubMed | National University-Sudan, University of Khartoum, Taibah University and Khartoum Teaching Hospital
Type: | Journal: The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2016

Primary Oral malignant melanoma is a rare tumor with an indigent prognosis. This is a case report of 47-year-old Sudanese female diagnosed as Oral malignant melanoma of the mandible with an unusual pattern of growth and clinical presentation. Furthermore, a possibility of intraosseous origin is suggested.

Haleem S.E.D.A.H.A.,National University-Sudan
Research Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

This study provides a call for the responsible and prudent veterinaiy use of antimicrobial agents with the aim of protecting both animal and human health in the country. It addresses the respective parties involved in the authorization, control, distribution and use of veterinary medicinal products to take action committed to achieving, the specific obligation to protect consumer health by ensuring the safety of food of animal origin with respect to residues of antimicrobials and the ability to transfer resistant micro-organisms to humans and to contribute to maintaining and prolonging the efficacy and usefulness of antimicrobial agents used in animal and human medicine. Review of residue control in local animal produce shows that the better half of samples tested positive for antimicrobial drug residues that >80% of the producers are conceptually unaware regarding the withholding periods and that only in 20% of the cases occasional veterinaiy prescription or supervision is asked for. Recommendations include legislative measures; quality control surveillance procedures and veterinary extension and public education. © Medwell Journals, 2013.

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