Tashkent, Uzbekistan

National University of Uzbekistan

www.nuu.uz
Tashkent, Uzbekistan

National University of Uzbekistan is the oldest and largest university of Uzbekistan; it has 13 schools. The university was founded in 1918 as Turkestan People's University, with 1,200 students; in 1920 it was reorganized as Turkestan State University , and in July 1923 it was renamed the First Central Asian State University , a name it retained through the end of the 1950s. In 1960 the name was changed to the V.I. Lenin Tashkent State University . With the independence of Uzbekistan it became the National University of Uzbekistan.During World War II many academics were removed from cities in the western USSR to Central Asia, and Tashkent, along with Alma-Ata, was favored for its European-style infrastructure and the presence of a significant number of Russian-speakers; a group of professors from Moscow protested being transferred from Tashkent to Ashgabat. Wikipedia.

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Musakhanov M.,National University of Uzbekistan
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

The QCD vacuum is populated by instantons that correspond to the tunneling processes in the vacuum. This mechanism creates the strong vacuum gluon fields. As result, the QCD vacuum instantons induce very strong interactions between light quarks, initially almost massless. Such a strong interactions bring a large dynamical mass M of the light quarks and bound them to produce almost massless pions in accordance with the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry (SBCS). On the other hand, the QCD vacuum instantons also interact with heavy quarks and responsible for the generation of the heavy-heavy and heavy-light quarks interactions, with a traces of the SBCS. If we take the average instanton size ρ = 0.33fm, and the average inter-instanton distance R = 1 fm we obtain the dynamical light quark mass to be M = 365 MeV and the instanton media contribution to the heavy quark mass ΔM=70 MeV. These factors define the coupling between heavy-light and heavy-heavy quarks induced by the QCD vacuum instantons. We consider first the instanton effects on the heavy-heavy quarks potential, including its spin-dependent part. We also discuss those effects on the masses of the charmonia and their hyperfine mass splittings. At the second part we discuss the interaction between a heavy and light quarks generated by instantons and it's effects. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2008-3-2-01 | Award Amount: 5.19M | Year: 2009

IRENE project aims at overcoming existing bottlenecks for a broader diffusion of biocatalysis and at accelerating the sustainable innovation of chemical industry by developing computational methods and strategies that will enable to rationally design and produce the next generation of biocatalysts for industrial applications. The consortium is funded on the combination of robust multidisciplinary expertise from EU, Russia and Uzbekistan. Due to the interaction between theoretical groups and experimentalists all computational tools used in this project will be validated by experiments. Failures and successes will be used for methods evaluation and tuning, in an iterative process that will lead to new methods but also to the definition of practical guidelines, for any specific enzyme design issue. The convergence of different expertise will face 4 main tasks: 1) fast rational design of efficient biocatalysts; 2) fast and efficient in silico screening of available enzymes/mutants to exploit catalytic potential of existing biocatalyst and providing quantitative parameters describing enzymes efficiency; 3) fast substrate-screening and rational substrate engineering; 4) understanding molecular basis of biocatalyst action and properties. IRENE will pursue these objectives by taking advantage of computational strategies used in different disciplines and integrate them in an unified concept for studying enzyme catalysis. The four main families of computational methods, Quantum Mechanics, Molecular Mechanics, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships and Bioinformatics, will used in an integrated approach. The project will have three major design subjects: 1) introduction of new activities in specific enzyme scaffolds (reaction promiscuity); 2) improvement of catalytic activity towards specific targets (substrate promiscuity); 3) the redesign of enantioselectivity. For each subject the work will focus on different specific enzymatic activities of industrial relevance.


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Bekzod Khakimov, from the Department of Food Science at the University of Copenhagen, is the first recipient of the Nils Foss Talent Prize Bekzod Khakimov is one of the most promising young researchers that the Department of Food Science (FOOD) has educated in the last decade. He has published 13 scientific articles in the area of food science, plant science and metabolomics, mostly in highly ranked scientific journals and many more are in the pipeline. He is both proud and pleased to receive the award. "Receiving the first Nils Foss Talent Prize was fabulous and surprising news for me and it is the biggest achievement in my career. It makes me feel that our research goes beyond the Foodomics-lab at FOOD and is important both to science and to the food industry. I want to continue working towards establishing myself as an expert in this area and hope to create a research group in the future," says Bekzod Khakimov, who also cooperates with the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences (PLEN) at the University of Copenhagen. In order to understand the complexity of food systems, food production and environment, we need reliable analytical systems and efficient data analysis. It is only a matter of time before the methods of Bekzod Khakimov will become standard and lead to considerably more robust and reliable data being produced from the analytical platforms in metabolomics/foodomics. "Foodomics emerged approximately a decade ago as a new field within the biochemical research area. It covers a broad spectrum analysis of foods, food raw materials and ingredients, and attempts to link food to human health and wellbeing. Foodomics also covers sustainable food production, detection of food fraud and food adulteration, as well as food authenticity," explains Bekzod Khakimov. He has already made two fundamental developments to improve the untargeted metabolomics approach using Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Currently, Bekzod Khakimov is building up a GC-MS database of food and plant metabolites, namely Copenhagen Open Metabolite DatabaSe (COMDAS) with the aim of making future metabolite assignments easier. Inspired by the rigorous standardization currently developed for NMR spectroscopy (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) in metabolomics, Bekzod Khamimov is also working on establishing GC-MS with thoroughly optimized standard protocols (methods) to enhance data reproducibility and high-throughput analysis. Metabolomics is all about measuring metabolite levels in biological samples to understand their metabolism (synthesis and decomposition in cells) and reveals how internal and external factors (for example the impact of a particular diet) influences the metabolism. The result of a metabolomics study is thus a "fingerprint" of what has happened in the body/biological material. This fingerprint can be used to detect deviations from a given normal state using multivariate data analysis (chemometrics). Three major analytical platforms applied in modern metabolomics are Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and GC-MS. The application of Bekzod Khakimov's methods has already led to a surprising biomarker that can differentiate people who are on a new Nordic diet from people who are on a traditional Danish diet based on their blood metabolome. He is also working with the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment with the aim of using his method to detect wine adulteration and food fraud. Bekzod Khakimov has a background in chemistry and received his BSc from National University of Uzbekistan and MSc from Queen Mary University of London. He has received a PhD degree in Metabolomics from the University of Copenhagen (the Chemometrics and Analytical Technology section) in 2013. The Nils Foss Talent Prize of 100,000 DKK (14,000 US dollar) is awarded to a young and promising scientist annually and is the biggest of its kind. Through the Nils Foss Talent Prize, FOSS acknowledges the role of the food and agricultural community in the innovative application of technology for improved value and sustainability in the food supply chain. With the Prize, FOSS wants to further stimulate young and talented researchers in the agricultural and food sector. Read more about the Nils Foss prizes.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.10.3 | Award Amount: 734.65K | Year: 2011

Following the tradition of scientific collaboration between EU and the EECA region, and built on the sound outcomes and lessons learnt of three clustering projects (ISTOK-SOYUS, SCUBE and EXTEND), a group of leading EU and EECA specialists from twelve countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan) with complementary competences have come together in the PICTURE project with the sole purpose to bring the ICT R&D policy dialogue and cooperation between EU and EECA to an upper level. The overall aim of the project is to engage the EU and EECA stakeholders from across research, academia, industries, government and civil society to enrich and support the EU-EECA ICT Policy Dialogue, and to reinforce strategic partnerships between EU and EECA ICT organizations.To reach the objective of the project, the consortium will:-Update the EU-EECA ICT priorities for cooperation and provide an overview of the EECA ICT policy dialogue, currently existing in the region-Enrich the Policy Dialogue process and meetings between the EU and EECA, encompassing findings from policy research and stakeholder views dealing with common R&D perspectives, priorities, opportunities and challenges-Set up and animation of working groups, focusing on Computing Systems, Internet of Services and ICT Policy-Organisation of 3 workshops on Computing Systems, Internet of services and ICT Policy topics, with ten working groups meetings, providing input and follow up,-Implement pilot projects that would be different in each country-Recommend future co-operation initiatives-Explore and recommend existing EECA programmes in order to open new perspectives for participation of the EU ICT teamsAs final outcome, the project will present recommendationsand strategies for reinforcement of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, covering the large geographical area of the EECA countries.


Te abilities of Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 and P. chlororaphis TSAU13 to colonise and survive in the rhizosphere of common bean under saline conditions were studied. Four salinity levels (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 dS/m) were maintained in the gnotobiotic system using NaCl salt. Results showed that with increasing salt content root-tip colonization of both bacterial strains was reduced. Both bacterial treatments used in the study increased root and/or shoot length compared to non treated plants at each NaCl concentration tested, whereas shoot growth was not stimulated at high saline condition (12.5 dS/m). In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that P. extremorientalis TSAU20 and P. chlororaphis TSAU 13 have the ability to survive in ecologically stressed conditions, such as saline and nitrogen deficient soils, and may positively effect on plant growth of bean. High salinity inhibited their colonisation in the rhizosphere of bean and thus their stimulatory effect on plants was also reduced.


Ismailov R.M.,National University of Uzbekistan
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2012

Global geographic disparities in stroke mortality rates are substantial. In the US alone, higher stroke mortality rates are reported in the Southeast part particularly along the coastline while lower rates have been observed in the Mountain region. The phenomenon has been called the "stroke belt" Although many theories have attempted to explain such nonrandom distribution of stroke mortality rates, no conclusive explanations have been drawn so far. I hypothesize that this nonrandom stroke distribution is related to regional differences in individual levels of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone, which production depends on the tissue hypoxia due to variation in altitude. If successful, future studies based on this hypothesis may open up new avenues for treatment of such an important health issue as stroke. More importantly, future studies based on this theory may shed the lights on the mechanism of stroke as well as other diseases which have nonrandom geographic distribution not only in the US but also internationally. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Glazirin G.E.,National University of Uzbekistan
Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

Bavarian alpinist and researcher Gottfried Merzbacher discovered an ice-dammed lake in 1903 while trying to reach the mysterious Khan Tengri peak, located where Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and China meet. This lake, which was later named after him, is currently two lakes in the Northern Inylchek Valley. At an altitude of 3300 m and 3400 m above sea level (a.s.l.), these two lakes are known as Lower Lake Merzbacher and Upper Lake Merzbacher. Lower Lake Merzbacher is dammed by the Southern Inylchek Glacier and has had regular outbursts since the beginning of the 20th century. While these outbursts have been sporadically documented since 1902, neither the documentation nor the reliability of the reports has been consistent. Knowledge of many of the floods is known only from the oral or written contributions of mountaineers, glaciologists, and frontier guards. A small number of floods were measured at gauging stations downstream. Since it was not always recognized that these floods were the results of glacier lake outbursts, not many papers on this subject have been published in German, English or Russian journals. There were about 40 outbursts reported between 1902 and 2004, but only a few of them were eye witnessed. A number of geoscientific expeditions investigated glacier retreat and the mechanism of the (lower) lake's outburst through an englacial piping system of the Southern Inylchek Glacier. As the Inylchek River flows into the Tarim Basin, the flood waves endanger not only Kyrgyzstan but also China. This paper gives a short overview on the mechanism, magnitude, repetition rate and timing of Lake Merzbacher's outbursts. Of particular interest is the discovery that the outbursts have shifted statistically significantly, namely from September/October in the first half of the century to July/August in last few decades. It is presumed that this is due to the climate change. Future research on the impact of climate change on the Upper Inylchek Valley is supported by the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", which opened in 2009 and was jointly planned by the Central Institute of Applied Geosciences (CAIAG, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic) and the German Research Center Potsdam (GeoForschungsZentrum - GFZ-Potsdam, Germany). The installation of ablation gauges, planned ice core drilling, and hydrometeorologic and seismologic stations will make it possible to assess the climatic and neotectonic development of the Central Tien Shan in general and to calculate the mass balance and quantification of the partly retreating Southern Inylchek Glacier in particular. This article "A Century of Investigations on Outbursts of the Ice-Dammed Lake Merzbacher" briefly summarizes observations and research conducted since 1903 and also documents the lake's regular outbursts.


Egamberdieva D.,National University of Uzbekistan
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2012

Saline soils constitute a serious production problem for vegetable crops as they are known to suppress plant growth. One of the possible measures to improve crop health in such conditions is to use salt-tolerant bacterial inoculants which can control diseases and promote plant growth. In the present work the ability of Pseudomonaschlororaphis isolate TSAU13 to promote cucumber and tomato plant growth and to improve fruit yield by protecting these plants against soil-borne pathogens in salinated soil were investigated. The bacterial strain stimulated shoot growth (up to 32%), dry matter (up to 43%), and the fruit yield of tomato and cucumber (up to 16%) compared to the uninoculated control plants under saline conditions. The strain was able to survive on the root of 2-month-old plants. 29% of the cucumber and 27% of the tomato plants which had grown in soil to which no Fusariumsolani spores had been added were diseased, whereas in the presence of the pathogenic fungus 58% of the cucumber and 52% tomato plants had disease symptoms. P. chlororaphis TSAU13 showed statistically significant disease reduction in comparison to the Fusarium-uninfected and infected control plants. Those results showed that P. chlororaphis TSAU13 has a great biotechnological potential in improvement of vegetable production in commercial greenhouses under saline conditions. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Rozikov U.A.,National University of Uzbekistan
Reviews in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

The purpose of this review paper is to present systematically all known results on Gibbs measures on Cayley trees (Bethe lattices). There are about 150 papers which contain mathematically rigorous results about Gibbs measures on Cayley trees. This review is mainly based on the recently published mathematical papers. The method used for the description of Gibbs measures on Cayley trees is the method of Markov random field theory and recurrent equations of this theory, but the modern theory of Gibbs measures on trees uses new tools such as group theory, information flows on trees, node-weighted random walks, contour methods on trees and nonlinear analysis. We discuss all the mentioned methods which were developed recently. Thus, the paper informs the reader about what is (mathematically) done in the theory of Gibbs measures on trees and about where the corresponding results were published. We only give proofs which were not published in literature. Moreover, we give several open problems. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Egamberdieva D.,National University of Uzbekistan
Turkish Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

One of the natural reservoirs of potentially human-pathogenic bacteria is believed to be the rhizosphere. The aim of the present work was to test nontuberculous mycobacterium Mycobacterium phlei MbP18 for its ability to colonize the rhizosphere of wheat and to evaluate its effect on plant growth under saline conditions. In competitive wheat root tip colonization assays, M. phlei MbP18 showed poor competitive colonization of the wheat rhizosphere compared to the reference strain. The strain produced lipase, amylase, cellulase, and pectinase and grew well in the presence of high salt (up to 4% NaCl) and at high temperatures (up to 40 °C). It was also able to utilize a wide range of carbohydrates for growth. The strain produced indole-3-acetic acid and proved to be very efficient in promoting a significant increase in the shoot and root of wheat under saline conditions. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that M. phlei MbP18 has beneficial effects on plant growth under saline conditions through its ability to produce different biologically active compounds such as cell wall-degrading enzymes and the phytohormone auxin. However, its competitive colonization abilities in the rhizosphere are poor. In light of this observation, attempts should be made to manage the rhizosphere in order to prevent colonization of the rhizosphere by pathogens. This will help remove mycobacteria from habitats where humans or animals can be exposed. © TÜBİTAK.

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