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PubMed | National University of the Altiplano, Embrapa Gado de Leite, Federal University of Viçosa and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion or non-inclusion of short lactations and cow (CGG) and/or dam (DGG) genetic group on the genetic evaluation of 305-day milk yield (MY305), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI) of Girolando cows. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method in an animal model of single trait analyses. The heritability estimates for MY305, AFC, and FCI ranged from 0.23 to 0.29, 0.40 to 0.44, and 0.13 to 0.14, respectively, when short lactations were not included, and from 0.23 to 0.28, 0.39 to 0.43, and 0.13 to 0.14, respectively, when short lactations were included. The inclusion of short lactations caused little variation in the variance components and heritability estimates of traits, but their non-inclusion resulted in the re-ranking of animals. Models with CGG or DGG fixed effects had higher heritability estimates for all traits compared with models that consider these two effects simultaneously. We recommend using the model with fixed effects of CGG and inclusion of short lactations for the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle.


PubMed | National University of the Altiplano, Embrapa Gado de Leite and Federal University of Viçosa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences | Year: 2015

A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendres polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendres polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from -0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from -0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits.


Gomez-Quispe O.E.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Perez M.G.,National University of the Altiplano | Ojeda-Gutierrez Y.G.,Representaciones Agropecuarias Nacional SRL
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2016

Background: The viscosity of semen alpaca and oxidative stress are some of the difficulties of cryopreservation. Is continuous, the search of methods to reduce and even avoid this viscosity, as well as decrease the effect of oxidative stress of the alpaca semen. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the adding of tempol antioxidant on spermatozoa of epididymal alpaca obtained by desviation of vas deferens. Methodology: The vas deferens from three alpacas with adequate sperm parameters were deviated surgically. Sperm samples were collected three times a week and were mixed to annul the individual effect. Collective sample was divided into four aliquots and it was placed in a refrigerator up to 5°C for 2 h. Vitality and membrane integrity sperm were evaluated immediately harvested, cooled and post freezing/thawing. When the temperature reached 10°C in cooling phase was added tempol antioxidant at a final concentration of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM. These were packaged in 0.25 mL straws and placed on liquid nitrogen vapors during 6 min and then submerged. Results: The initial sperm vitality was 79.30%, after cooling 66.68, 75.15, 70.03 and 55.03% and post freeze/thawing 42.45, 47.96, 32.06 and 26.13%. The initial sperm membrane integrity was 75.69%, after cooling 63.33, 66.14, 57.56 and 51.83% and 36.26, 44.20, 34.43 and 27.94% post freezing/thawing. In all cases, there was statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The sperm collection technique by vas deferens from alpaca and low concentrations of tempol antioxidant (0.5 mM) improves the sperm vitality and the functional sperm membrane integrity. © 2016 Oscar E. Gómez-Quispe et al.


PubMed | Autonomous University of Madrid and National University of the Altiplano
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.


Medina W.T.,University of Chile | Medina W.T.,National University of the Altiplano | Quevedo R.A.,University of Los Lagos | Aguilera J.M.,University of Chile
Food Science and Technology International | Year: 2013

Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state. © SAGE Publications 2012 [br]Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore.


PubMed | Hospital Subregional Of Andahuaylas, National University of Costa Rica and National University of the Altiplano
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica | Year: 2015

In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department.


Takahashi T.,Kyoto University | Takahashi T.,National Institute of Genetics | Moreno E.,National University of the Altiplano
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

The fish genus Orestias is endemic to the Andes highlands, and Lake Titicaca is the centre of the species diversity of the genus. Previous phylogenetic studies based on a single locus of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA strongly support the monophyly of a group composed of many of species endemic to the Lake Titicaca basin (the Lake Titicaca radiation), but the relationships among the species in the radiation remain unclear. Recently, restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, which can produce a vast number of short sequences from various loci of nuclear DNA, has emerged as a useful way to resolve complex phylogenetic problems. To propose a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Orestias fishes of the Lake Titicaca radiation, we conducted a cluster analysis based on morphological similarities among fish samples and a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on RAD sequencing. From a morphological cluster analysis, we recognised four species groups in the radiation, and three of the four groups were resolved as monophyletic groups in maximum-likelihood trees based on RAD sequencing data. The other morphology-based group was not resolved as a monophyletic group in molecular phylogenies, and some members of the group were diverged from its sister group close to the root of the Lake Titicaca radiation. The evolution of these fishes is discussed from the phylogenetic relationships. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Kroll O.,Justus Liebig University | Hershler R.,Smithsonian Institution | Albrecht C.,Justus Liebig University | Terrazas E.M.,National University of the Altiplano | And 4 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2012

Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (whereMy ismillion years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota.Herein,we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52)My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was the most likely limiting factor in the evolution of Altiplano species flocks. © 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Olarte Calsina S.,National University of the Altiplano
Agroalimentaria | Year: 2012

The Agribusiness has evolved in the recent decades, representing an important activity in the economy. However, it has been questioned due to the development of the sustainability theory, and because the generation of negative environmental impacts. The Agribusiness has been conceptualized on the basis of the commodities and large-scale production, and by focusing in the cost minimization and productivity, always highlighting its economics importance rather than social or environmental one (capitalist approach). This research performed a critical analysis and deepened the conceptualization of the agribusiness and its relationship with the sustainability, proposing a new paradigm where, the agribusiness based in conventional agriculture (commodities and large-scale production) is defined as conventional agribusiness and the agribusiness based in non traditional agriculture or non-conventional (organic/ecology and familiar) is defined as unconventional agribusiness. Thus, the conventional agribusiness is far to qualify as sustainable, although the non-conventional agribusiness is nearest to qualify as sustainable.


PubMed | National University of the Altiplano and Kyoto University
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2015

The fish genus Orestias is endemic to the Andes highlands, and Lake Titicaca is the centre of the species diversity of the genus. Previous phylogenetic studies based on a single locus of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA strongly support the monophyly of a group composed of many of species endemic to the Lake Titicaca basin (the Lake Titicaca radiation), but the relationships among the species in the radiation remain unclear. Recently, restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, which can produce a vast number of short sequences from various loci of nuclear DNA, has emerged as a useful way to resolve complex phylogenetic problems. To propose a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Orestias fishes of the Lake Titicaca radiation, we conducted a cluster analysis based on morphological similarities among fish samples and a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on RAD sequencing. From a morphological cluster analysis, we recognised four species groups in the radiation, and three of the four groups were resolved as monophyletic groups in maximum-likelihood trees based on RAD sequencing data. The other morphology-based group was not resolved as a monophyletic group in molecular phylogenies, and some members of the group were diverged from its sister group close to the root of the Lake Titicaca radiation. The evolution of these fishes is discussed from the phylogenetic relationships.

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