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Sihuin-Tapia E.Y.,Hospital Subregional de Andahuaylas | Gomez-Quispe O.E.,National University of Costa Rica | Ibanez-Quispe V.,National University of the Altiplano
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica

In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department. © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved. Source

Gomez-Quispe O.E.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Perez M.G.,National University of the Altiplano | Ojeda-Gutierrez Y.G.,Representaciones Agropecuarias Nacional SRL
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

Background: The viscosity of semen alpaca and oxidative stress are some of the difficulties of cryopreservation. Is continuous, the search of methods to reduce and even avoid this viscosity, as well as decrease the effect of oxidative stress of the alpaca semen. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the adding of tempol antioxidant on spermatozoa of epididymal alpaca obtained by desviation of vas deferens. Methodology: The vas deferens from three alpacas with adequate sperm parameters were deviated surgically. Sperm samples were collected three times a week and were mixed to annul the individual effect. Collective sample was divided into four aliquots and it was placed in a refrigerator up to 5°C for 2 h. Vitality and membrane integrity sperm were evaluated immediately harvested, cooled and post freezing/thawing. When the temperature reached 10°C in cooling phase was added tempol antioxidant at a final concentration of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM. These were packaged in 0.25 mL straws and placed on liquid nitrogen vapors during 6 min and then submerged. Results: The initial sperm vitality was 79.30%, after cooling 66.68, 75.15, 70.03 and 55.03% and post freeze/thawing 42.45, 47.96, 32.06 and 26.13%. The initial sperm membrane integrity was 75.69%, after cooling 63.33, 66.14, 57.56 and 51.83% and 36.26, 44.20, 34.43 and 27.94% post freezing/thawing. In all cases, there was statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The sperm collection technique by vas deferens from alpaca and low concentrations of tempol antioxidant (0.5 mM) improves the sperm vitality and the functional sperm membrane integrity. © 2016 Oscar E. Gómez-Quispe et al. Source

Medina W.T.,University of Santiago de Chile | Medina W.T.,National University of the Altiplano | Laurent S.,Ecole National Superieur de Biologie Appliquee a la | Brandan E.,University of Chile | Aguilera J.M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Journal of Food Science

Surface liquid adhesion (SLA) and liquid absorption (LA) of tritiated liquids, including water and skim, low-fat, whole, and fat-enriched milks, by cornflakes (CF) and frosted flakes (FF) were determined by scintillation counting using water-[3H] at 0.5 μCi/mL. SLA or the liquid adhering to individual flakes after a short immersion period was the same for CF and FF in the case of water (approximately 0.011 μL mm-2 of flake) but were always higher for CF than for FF and increased as the fat content in milks augmented. LA of individual flakes, followed for 300 s of soaking, increased with time and was always higher for CF than for FF (for the same liquid), however, data did not follow a regular pattern. Flakes showed quite compact outer surfaces and an internal porous matrix composed of air cells of various sizes separated by dense walls of different thicknesses. This heterogeneous microstructure of individual flakes may be the cause of the lack of a simple kinetics during the soaking process. Previous results obtained by soaking a mass of flakes overestimated the uptake of fluid by individual because they included the liquid occluded between the flakes. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Kroll O.,Justus Liebig University | Hershler R.,Smithsonian Institution | Albrecht C.,Justus Liebig University | Terrazas E.M.,National University of the Altiplano | And 4 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution

Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (whereMy ismillion years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota.Herein,we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52)My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was the most likely limiting factor in the evolution of Altiplano species flocks. © 2012 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Takahashi T.,Kyoto University | Takahashi T.,National Institute of Genetics | Moreno E.,National University of the Altiplano
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

The fish genus Orestias is endemic to the Andes highlands, and Lake Titicaca is the centre of the species diversity of the genus. Previous phylogenetic studies based on a single locus of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA strongly support the monophyly of a group composed of many of species endemic to the Lake Titicaca basin (the Lake Titicaca radiation), but the relationships among the species in the radiation remain unclear. Recently, restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, which can produce a vast number of short sequences from various loci of nuclear DNA, has emerged as a useful way to resolve complex phylogenetic problems. To propose a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Orestias fishes of the Lake Titicaca radiation, we conducted a cluster analysis based on morphological similarities among fish samples and a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on RAD sequencing. From a morphological cluster analysis, we recognised four species groups in the radiation, and three of the four groups were resolved as monophyletic groups in maximum-likelihood trees based on RAD sequencing data. The other morphology-based group was not resolved as a monophyletic group in molecular phylogenies, and some members of the group were diverged from its sister group close to the root of the Lake Titicaca radiation. The evolution of these fishes is discussed from the phylogenetic relationships. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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