Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

The National University of Mongolia is the oldest university in Mongolia. This public university is named after Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan and hosts twelve schools and faculties in Ulaanbaatar, and runs branches in the Zavkhan and Orkhon Aimags. Approximately one third of the academically educated Mongolians have graduated from NUM.Mongolia's first secondary school was established in 1921. It was hence necessary to bring in an academic institution at an even higher level. In 1942, the Government put forth Mongolia's first university, the National University of Mongolia, with the first students graduating in 1946. During socialism, the University served as a training center for the party elite. Education was paid for and strictly controlled by the state. After democratization, it gradually changed into a more modern university. In 1995, it started to offer bachelor's, master's, and PhD programs.In 2006, there were 12,000 students enrolled, including 2,000 graduate students. The university offers over 80 undergraduate and graduate programs, mostly in Mongolian. Wikipedia.

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Lankas F.,Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry | Spackova N.,Institute of Biophysics | Moakher M.,National Engineering School of Tunis | Enkhbayar P.,National University of Mongolia | Sponer J.,Institute of Biophysics
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

A method is proposed to measure global bending in DNA and RNA structures. It relies on a properly defined averaging of base-fixed coordinate frames, computes mean frames of suitably chosen groups of bases and uses these mean frames to evaluate bending. The method is applied to DNA A-tracts, known to induce considerable bend to the double helix. We performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of sequences containing the A4T4 and T4A4 tracts, in a single copy and in two copies phased with the helical repeat. Various temperature and salt conditions were investigated. Our simulations indicate bending by roughly 10° per A4T4 tract into the minor groove, and an essentially straight structure containing T4A4, in agreement with electrophoretic mobility data. In contrast, we show that the published NMR structures of analogous sequences containing A4T4 and T4A4 tracts are significantly bent into the minor groove for both sequences, although bending is less pronounced for the T4A4 containing sequence. The bending magnitudes obtained by frame averaging are confirmed by the analysis of superhelices composed of repeated tract monomers. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A major step forward in establishing an unprecedented regional regime to develop microsatellite technologies and share and use collected data. The memorandum of understanding to create the Asian Micro-satellite Consortium (AMC) will come into effect on November 18, marking a major step forward in establishing an unprecedented regional regime to develop microsatellite technologies and share and use collected data relating to the environment and natural disasters, etc. The consortium will comprise 16 space agencies and universities from nine Asian nations, including Japan. Microsatellites have rapidly become a major factor in space exploitation, and their advent could spur a revolution comparable to that which followed the launch of humankind's first satellite, Sputnik-1, in 1957. The advantages of microsatellites are multifold: In general, they can be developed within a few years, which is much faster than the 10 years required for some larger satellites; they generally weigh 100 kilograms or less; and they are cheaper to build, costing about one-hundredth the price of large satellites. It is essential for Japan and other Asian nations to create an effective international framework toward the goal of obtaining state-of-the-art satellite bus and sensing technologies and the sharing and use of satellite-collected data, thereby maintaining a global presence in the field--this is the notion that has driven the formation of the AMC. The 16 participating institutions are space agencies, governmental institutes or top-class universities from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam (see list below). Data relating to such fields as natural disasters and the environment are of great value to these disaster-prone nations. They also help tackle the issue of environmental destruction. The AMC is also expected to make it much easier to share and standardize satellite bus and sensing technologies, observational data, and data application methodologies. In the future, the consortium is expected to share and utilize data collected by about 50 microsatellites that the participating nations are planning to launch. These microsatellites will allow the AMC to monitor any given location on the Earth around the clock, therefore making it possible to grasp a variety of situations, including major disasters if one should occur. The standardization of advanced optical sensors and other devices is essential in order to effectively make use of satellite-gathered data. By using drones mounted with such sensors for ground observation in international joint undertakings, it will drastically increase the volume of data gathered and the precision of ground verification. Data verified on the ground would also help researchers make far more accurate satellite-data-based estimates. The resultant effects could be enormous in such areas as disaster preparedness/mitigation, global environment change, promotion of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and mining, and countermeasures against air and marine pollution. The signing ceremony for the consortium will be held on November 18th at Hotel Jen in Manila, Philippines. Yukihiro Takahashi, the professor at Hokkaido University who led the formation of the AMC says "I believe that the consortium will trigger the advanced space utilization with microsatellites not only in Asia but also all over the world including Africa and South America". Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) National University of Mongolia (NUM) New Mongol Institute of Technology (NMIT) German-Mongolian Institute for Resources and Technology (GMIT) Philippine Council for Industry, Energy and Emerging Technology Research and Development (DOST-PCIEERD) Vietnam National Satellite Center (VAST-VNSC) University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (VAST-USTH)

Hilker T.,Oregon State University | Natsagdorj E.,National University of Mongolia | Waring R.H.,Oregon State University | Lyapustin A.,NASA | And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70% of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or over-grazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12% on average) in MODIS observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40% below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80% of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30% of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50% in areas with denser vegetation cover (P < 0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r2 = 0.10, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Paknia O.,University of Ulm | Pfeiffer M.,University of Ulm | Pfeiffer M.,National University of Mongolia
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2011

Aim The scale of observation is important in detecting the spatial variation of biological assemblages, which should be taken into consideration for an appropriate plan of biogeographical conservation. We investigated whether (1) World Wildlife Fund's ecoregion units are the appropriate scale for conserving ant diversity in Iran, (2) each ecoregion represents a distinct ant community composition and (3) patterns of diversity partitioning differ among four ecoregions.Location Iran, a sampling transect along four arid and semi-arid ecoregions.Methods We applied hierarchical partitioning to data collected from a nested sampling design including four hierarchical levels: 'local', 'landscape', 'ecoregional' and 'whole-region'. Observed alpha and beta diversity components were compared with values of null distributions. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to evaluate similarity of ant species composition among ecoregions.Results Partitioning of whole-region species richness showed that 85% of the species richness was generated by beta diversity among ecoregions and landscapes. The highest value of diversity was generated by beta diversity among ecoregions. Unlike whole-region partitioning, separate partitioning within each ecoregion revealed that beta component among localities contributed to species richness of each ecoregion. Ecoregions showed different patterns of diversity partitioning. The alpha component contributed largely to the total diversity of two ecoregions, but for two other ecoregions, beta component contributed more than alpha component. Cluster analysis identified four discrete ant species compositions; however, it split landscapes of one ecoregion into two distinct groups.Main conclusions Whole-region diversity partitioning indicates that ecoregions represent the appropriate scale for conserving ant diversity and that each ecoregion has a distinct ant fauna. However, different conservation strategies should be considered for different ecoregions owing to the differing scales of variation within them. Boundaries of ecoregions remain a subject for further studies. The influence of climate change on ecoregional boundaries should be considered and should be predicted with respect to future conservation maps. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Enkhbat R.,National University of Mongolia
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2016

We examine Malfatti’s problem which dates back to 200 years ago from the view point of global optimization. The problem has been formulated as the convex maximization problem over a nonconvex set. Global optimality condition by Strekalovsky (Sov Math Dokl 292(5):1062–1066, 1987) has been applied to this problem. For solving numerically Malfatti’s problem, we propose the algorithm in Enkhbat (J Glob Optim 8:379–391, 1996) which converges globally. Some computational results are provided. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Sambuu O.,National University of Mongolia | Obara T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2012

The energy demand in Mongolia is expected to increase in the near future. The purpose of the present study was to design a small, modular district heating reactor with passive safety features for long core life to meet the country's expected energy demand. The design concept was based on the advanced and well-proven technology of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) idea. The reactor size was roughly estimated without any active cooling system to remove the decay heat, and the optimal core dimensions chosen were 8 m diameter and 8 m height with 330 MW th of power. Fundamental analyses of the reactor for criticality and burnup were performed by using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP 2.0, and the proposed reactor with 20 wt% of uranium enrichment can be critical around 16 years. The initial effective neutron multiplication factor can be suppressed to 1.1351 when there are 9 burnable poison (BP) rods with 12 wt% of boron carbide in B 4C/C composite and 10 wt% of 10B per assembly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bayartogtokh B.,National University of Mongolia | Ermilov S.G.,Nizhny Novgorod Referral Center
International Journal of Acarology | Year: 2013

The juvenile stages of oribatid mites of the family Gymnodamaeidae are insufficiently known, and little information is available on the morphology of ontogenetic stages. Comparative characteristics of juvenile stages of species belonging to family Gymnodamaeidae are given based on our own data and available literature sources. Herein, the morphology of ontogenetic instars of Gymnodamaeus irregularis Bayartogtokh & Schatz, 2009 is investigated. The larva and nymphs are generally similar in their habitus. Basic characteristics in juveniles are the less sclerotized and unpigmented body with granulate surface of gastronotum, larva with 11 pairs of gastronotal setae (h3 absent) and nymphs with 10 pairs of gastronotal setae (setae la, lm and d-series absent, but setae lp and p-series present). Nymphs with ridge-like structure on prodorsum, and large excrescence on posterior end of gastronotum, bearing one pair of long (h1) and another pair of medium-long (p1) setae. All prodorsal, notogastral and adanal setae of larva and nymphs are densely barbed throughout. Conspicuous characters in the larval stage are the very long interlamellar setae, which are reduced in nymphs and adults to minute setae and the subequal lengths of gastronotal setae. All stages of nymphs carry gastronotic exuviae with reticulate granular sculpture of the previous instars. Adults are coated with thick cerotegument on the idiosoma, legs and most body setae. The sensillus is dilated in its distal part and covered with cerotegument. The notogaster has two pairs of irregular longitudinal ridge-like structures (procuticle); five pairs of notogastral setae; and a pair of strongly developed tubercles Sp on epimeral region III. Gymnodamaeus irregularis is a Western Palaearctic species, currently known from Central (East Tyrol, Austria) and Eastern Europe (Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia) and appears to be primarily an inhabitant of mosses and litter, and it prefers the xeric habitats. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Bayartogtokh B.,National University of Mongolia
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

This work deals with taxonomy, geographical distribution as well as known ecology of oribatid mites of the genus Conchogneta Grandjean, 1963 in the world. The majority of species belonging to this genus is known to be widely distributed in Europe, but only three of them are found in other areas of the northern hemisphere. Most species of Conchogneta are inhabitants of litter of various types of forestas, terricolous and epiphytic bryophytes, epiphytic lichens, and soil of steppe, river valleys, moor, oligotrophic bogs, floodland assemblages etc. A new species, Conchogneta glabrisensillata sp. n. is described, and another species, C. traegardhi (Forsslund, 1947) is redescribed from the northern and western parts of Mongolia, respectively. Conchogneta is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Mongolia. The species status of C. dalecarlica (Forsslund, 1947) is discussed. Species descriptions are accompanied with detailed illustrations. Furthermore, a key is provided for the identification of adults of the known species of Conchogneta in the world. © Badamdorj Bayartogtokh.

The oribatid mite genus Cultroribula Berlese, 1908 is represented in Mongolia with six species. Most species of Cultroribula found in Mongolia are inhabitants of litter of various types of forests, soils of steppes and the high mountain alpine zone, but are also commonly found in lichens growing on trees or bare rock and terricolous bryophytes. In this work, two species, Cultroribula altaica sp. nov. and Cultroribula rarisetosa sp. nov., are described as new to science based on adults collected from litter of cool temperate forests and lichens growing on bare rock, respectively, in western Mongolia. In addition, two known species, Cultroribula berolina Weigmann, 2006 and Cultroribula vtorovi Krivolutsky, 1971 are redescribed. Cultroribula berolina is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Asia. Species descriptions are accompanied with detailed illustrations. Data on geographical distribution and habitat ecology are given for all known species in the world. Issues concerning the taxonomic status of some genera of Astegistidae and species of Cultroribula are discussed. The subgenus Furcoppia (Mexicoppia) is considered as a junior synonym of Cultroribula. The new combination, Cultroribula hauseri (Mahunka, 1983) for Furcoppia (Mexicoppia) hauseri Mahunka, 1983 is proposed. Furthermore, a key is provided for the identification of adults of the known species of Cultroribula in Mongolia. Copyright © 2012. Magnolia Press.

Zhao W.,National University of Mongolia
Proceedings - 2016 8th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, ICMTMA 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper studies the content-based music retrieval and the methods for main modules. It improves the defect of DTW algorithm, which needs longer running time for melody matching, and proposes a DTW melody matching algorithm based on numerical index. It first establishes numerical index according to pitch difference information in the melody feature library. Then it performs rough matching based on the index to find possibly similar fragments with the humming melody, to be matched with DTW algorithm in detail. The experiments verify that the improved algorithm not only reduces the running time of DTW algorithm but also improves the speed of melody matching. © 2016 IEEE.

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