National University of Modern Languages
Islamabad, Pakistan

The National University of Modern Languages and science , is a public research University located in Islamabad, Pakistan. In addition, the university has seven regional campuses in all four provinces of Pakistan.Established in 1970 as an institute in a view to help the society to communicate and understand each other in different oriental and occidental languages as well as assimilating different cultures and to act as springboard for emerging disciplines. The university is known for its extensive research in scientific advancements of the languages, grammar, and linguistics. The university offers undergraduate, post-graduate, and doctoral programmes in languages, linguistics, social science, communications, management science, and computer science. It is one of the largest university in the country, and currently secured its top ranking in "general category" by the HEC.In addition, the university is also an active member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities. Wikipedia.

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Mahmood Z.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ning H.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ghafoor A.,National University of Modern Languages
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices to measure sensitive data that are highly vulnerable to security attacks due to their constrained resources. In a similar manner, the internet-based lightweight devices used in the Internet of Things (IoT) are facing severe security and privacy issues because of the direct accessibility of devices due to their connection to the internet. Complex and resource-intensive security schemes are infeasible and reduce the network lifetime. In this regard, we have explored the polynomial distribution-based key establishment schemes and identified an issue that the resultant polynomial value is either storage intensive or infeasible when large values are multiplied. It becomes more costly when these polynomials are regenerated dynamically after each node join or leave operation and whenever key is refreshed. To reduce the computation, we have proposed an Efficient Key Management (EKM) scheme for multiparty communication-based scenarios. The proposed session key management protocol is established by applying a symmetric polynomial for group members, and the group head acts as a responsible node. The polynomial generation method uses security credentials and secure hash function. Symmetric cryptographic parameters are efficient in computation, communication, and the storage required. The security justification of the proposed scheme has been completed by using Rubin logic, which guarantees that the protocol attains mutual validation and session key agreement property strongly among the participating entities. Simulation scenarios are performed using NS 2.35 to validate the results for storage, communication, latency, energy, and polynomial calculation costs during authentication, session key generation, node migration, secure joining, and leaving phases. EKM is efficient regarding storage, computation, and communication overhead and can protect WSN-based IoT infrastructure. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Tariq M.,National University of Modern Languages | Abd Latiff M.S.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ayaz M.,University of Tabuk | Abbas M.Z.,University of Technology Malaysia
International Journal of Communication Systems | Year: 2017

Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UW-ASN) are provisioned with limited bandwidth, long variable propagation delay, limited available energy, highly unreliable acoustic channels, and random node mobility. Consequently, efficient data routing between source destination pair requires UW-ASN to apply a technology different than terrestrial networks. For the past few years researchers have proposed many robust and efficient routing protocols for UW-ASN, thus reviewing the challenges posed by stringent underwater environment. These protocols can be broadly categorized into localization based and localization-free protocols. This paper presents a critical review of beacon-based localization-free routing protocols and suggest possible solution to improve the working of studied beacon based protocols. This work categorizes beacon based protocols into hop-by-hop, end-to-end, single, and multiple parameters based forwarding protocols. This categorization will help to differentiate and identify the requirements for the development of new beacon-based protocols. Finally, this paper presents performance comparison based on simulation results and outlines the research gap and future directions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Mahmood Z.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ning H.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Ghafoor A.,National University of Modern Languages
Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things; IEEE Green Computing and Communications; IEEE Cyber, Physical, and Social Computing; IEEE Smart Data, iThings-GreenCom-CPSCom-Smart Data 2016 | Year: 2017

Authentication and secure communication are challenging in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for exchanging confidential information. During recent years, WSN is working in conjunction with Internet of Things (IoT) where sensors sense data, make collaboration and transfer the required information to end users. Authentication and reliable transmission of secure data at end-to-end communication link are challenging in IoT. It requires a lightweight protocol for communication in constrained environments in IoT applications. This paper contributes a Two-level Session Key (TSK) based authentication mechanism for IoT scenario. A node association mechanism is also introduced. TSK provides lightweight and secure communication between end-to-end users. After authenticating and establishing one level session key. The presentation and security investigation give a good reason that the proposed scheme is feasible to set up in a resource constrained environment. Results prove the dominance of TSK over preliminaries and achieve 50% to 100% reduction in energy consumption for communication. © 2016 IEEE.

Rusanganwa J.A.,Linköping University | Rusanganwa J.A.,National University of Modern Languages
Computer Assisted Language Learning | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study is to investigate the process of constructing a Multimedia Assisted Vocabulary Learning (MAVL) instrument at a university in Rwanda in 2009. The instrument is used in a one-computer classroom where students were taught in a foreign language and had little access to books. It consists of video clips featuring images, sound and text intended to facilitate learning and retention of technical vocabulary in a first-year electricity course. The construction takes theories of social constructivism and learning with multimedia as its point of departure. In response to the need for knowledge of scientific vocabulary, the researcher collaborated with a group of 82 students and their two teachers to select and encode 81 video clips of technical terminology. The gains from the process of constructing the instrument enabled collaborative and interdisciplinary learning and showed the potential to facilitate technical vocabulary acquisition. © 2015, Taylor & Francis.

Alam M.A.,National University of Modern Languages
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2015

Cockpit learning is an essential feature of flying profession, but it may be hampered by power distance in the cockpit due to captain/co-pilot subordination. Speaking-up to the captain may be difficult for some co-pilots but not speaking-up resulted in numerous aircraft accidents. This research examines cockpit learning among airline pilots and assumes that power distance reduces cockpit learning whereas pilot's interdependence and pilot's inclination towards teamwork can counter balance it. The study develops a short cockpit-learning-scale and validates it through a stratified sample of 231 pilots chosen from British Airways, Pakistan International Airline and Saudi Arabian Airline. Data analysis indicated a strong negative influence of power distance on cockpit learning, and significant interaction effect of pilot's interdependence and pilot's inclination towards teamwork. Together, the findings suggest that pilot's interdependence and inclination towards teamwork significantly minimize the negative influence of power distance on cockpit learning. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Bender H.A.,New York University | Garica A.M.,National University of Modern Languages | Barr W.B.,New York University
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2010

Few neuropsychological tests have been developed specifically for non-English speakers. Rather, assessment measures are often derived from English source texts (STs) and translated into foreign language target texts (TTs). An abundant literature describes the potential for translation error occurring in test construction. While the neuropsychology community has striven to correct these inadequacies, interdisciplinary approaches to test translation have been largely ignored. Translation studies, which has roots in linguistics, semiotics, computer science, anthropology, and philosophy, may provide a much-needed framework for test development. We aim to apply specific aspects of Descriptive Translation Studies to present unique and heretofore unapplied frameworks to the socio-cultural conceptualizations of translated tests. In doing so, a more theoretical basis for test construction will be explored. To this end, translation theory can provide valuable insights toward the development of linguistically and culturally relevant neuropsychological test measures suitable for an increasingly diverse patient base. Copyright © 2010 The International Neuropsychological Society.

Malik M.A.S.,National University of Modern Languages | Shah S.A.,National University of Modern Languages | Zaman K.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Ghauri S.A.,National University of Modern Languages | Sohail M.F.,National University of Modern Languages
Proceeding - 2013 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, SCOReD 2013 | Year: 2015

In this paper system identification has been done using adaptive filters. System identification is the process of identifying an unknown system form input output signal. It can be defined as the interface between real world of application and mathematical world of control theory and model abstraction. Three types of adaptive filters are used to identify the unknown system Least Mean Square (LMS), Normalized Least Mean Square(NLMS) and Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithms. LMS has less computational complexity than NLMS and RLS while NLMS is the normalized form of LMS adaptive filter. RLS is complex algorithm but it works more efficiently. All these algorithms works on the basis of Least Mean Square Error (LMSE) and filter's weights are recursively updated as to bring output signal equal to the desired signal. These algorithms are applied to the unknown system and the simulation results are compared. © 2013 IEEE.

Subhan F.,National University of Modern Languages | Hasbullah H.,Petronas University of Technology | Ashraf K.,Petronas University of Technology
International Journal of Navigation and Observation | Year: 2013

This paper presents an extended Kalman filter-based hybrid indoor position estimation technique which is based on integration of fingerprinting and trilateration approach. In this paper, Euclidian distance formula is used for the first time instead of radio propagation model to convert the received signal to distance estimates. This technique combines the features of fingerprinting and trilateration approach in a more simple and robust way. The proposed hybrid technique works in two stages. In the first stage, it uses an online phase of fingerprinting and calculates nearest neighbors (NN) of the target node, while in the second stage it uses trilateration approach to estimate the coordinate without the use of radio propagation model. The distance between calculated NN and detective access points (AP) is estimated using Euclidian distance formula. Thus, distance between NN and APs provides radii for trilateration approach. Therefore, the position estimation accuracy compared to the lateration approach is better. Kalman filter is used to further enhance the accuracy of the estimated position. Simulation and experimental results validate the performance of proposed hybrid technique and improve the accuracy up to 53.64% and 25.58% compared to lateration and fingerprinting approaches, respectively. © 2013 Fazli Subhan et al.

Ali L.,Al-Khair University | Akhtar N.,National University of Modern Languages
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2014

The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of income and income gap for male and female workers in Pakistan. We have used province, literacy, education, occupation, industry, status of job, age, marital status and region as explanatory variables to estimate earning functions separately for males and females by applying the OLS method using HIES 2010-11 data. The earnings gap between males and females has also been analyzed by using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Results shows that return to education rises with level of education for workers of both sexes however, they are significantly higher for female workers as compared to male workers. Both males and females working as senior professionals, managers and technicians have been emerged as the highest earners. Male paid employees earn less and female paid employees earn more than their employers & self employed counter parts. Married male workers earn more and married female workers earn less than the singles. We find individual characteristics like education, occupation, job status and marital status as the major determinants of income gap between male and female workers in Pakistan. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2014.

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