Posadas, Argentina
Posadas, Argentina

The National University of Misiones is a public university in Argentina; founded by the law 20.286 on April 16, 1973, as part of the Taquini plan, a program of reorganization of the top education that would take the foundation of universities of Jujuy, La Pampa, Lomas de Zamora, Entre Ríos, Luján, Catamarca, Salta, San Juan, San Luis y Santiago del Estero, form to more than 11.000 pupils, between them numerous foreigners, given their border location with Paraguay and Brazil. It has a publishing house and a radio station, LRH301 FM Universidad Nacional de Misiones, that streams in Ogg Vorbis format. Wikipedia.

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Faunistic studies, with a taxonomically complete inventory of species, provide an important source of quantitative compiled information for several and specific regions. This information can be used in diversity analysis and has great potential in setting conservation priorities. In this study, I used the relatively well known salticid spider fauna of Misiones to generate Clarke & Warwick taxonomic diversity indices. For this, information of three ecoregional salticid diversities was obtained and analyzed between Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (UPAF), Araucaria Moist Forest (AMF), and Southern Cone Mesopotamian Savanna (SCMS). Results showed differences between the three ecoregions of the province, mainly Southern savannas regarding the forests of Northern Misiones. Most species were registered in UPAF followed by AMF, however the α-taxonomic diversity of salticids was higher in SCMS than in UPAF and AMF. The β-taxonomic diversity showed that the proportions of shared species between SCMS and UPAF (or and AMF) were the lowest. The high taxonomic dissimilarity among ecoregions is an indication that the three assemblages are distant, showing a variation in their vegetation habitat and/or bioclimatic characteristics as a possible reason. The need to expand with new samples in subsampled or underexplored areas of Misiones remains essential, however this study contributes to information about biodiversity levels of salticid fauna in three ecoregions of Northeast Argentina, and will provide reference data for future studies for management plans. © 2016, Universidad de Costa Rica. All rights reserved.

Kujawska M.,National University of Misiones | Kujawska M.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Hilgert N.I.,National University of Misiones
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Analyzing how and why phytotherapeutical practices survive a migratory process is important for understanding migrant health seeking behaviour and health demand. Contrary to most studies, which focus on migrants from warm climates who settle in European and American cities, this study explores continuations in the herbal pharmacopoeia of Eastern European peasants who settled down in rural subtropical areas of Argentina. The study also explores the pharmacopoeia among the descendants of the first generation born in Argentina. Material and methods Primary and secondary sources were employed in the study. Data were collected during over 200 interviews (semi-structured, free lists and in-depth) with 94 study participants. Voucher specimens of species mentioned were gathered and identified. Illnesses were reported according to local ethnomedical terminology and classification. Only reports from informants' own experience were included in the analysis. The unit of analysis was a plant use report (plant species×plant part×ailment×informant). The frequency of mentions was calculated for plant parts used and modes of preparation and administration of herbal medicines, and the Informant Diversity Value was also estimated. Secondary information was obtained from ethnobotanical and ethnomedical literature concerning the whole of Poland. A list was made of medicinal plant species known from Poland available in the study area. Then, the similarity between the available species and those used by Polish migrants was evaluated by applying the Simpson index. Results An exhaustive list of 129 plant species used by the Polish community in Misiones, Argentina, was obtained. Among 37 species known form Poland and available in Misiones, 19 were used by the community. There was low consensus on the treatment of health conditions with legacy plants between Polish migrants and the Polish folk pharmacopoeia. The reasons for the relatively low use of legacy species are explained. More continuation has been observed in forms of application and administration of medicinal plants. Most of the continued species are food plants and are predominantly applied as medicinal food. Conclusions In the migratory process, Polish peasants have preserved culturally salient species, which have a wide range of therapeutic applications and are easily accessible. Polish migrants and their descendants have incorporated a great number of local medicinal plant species into their home medicine but at the same time retained traditional ways of administration of herbal medicines. Based on the theory of acculturation, the observed patterns of medicinal plant use in Polish migrant colonies in Misiones indicate good adaptation to the predominant cultural environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Palacios-Gimenez O.M.,Claro | Castillo E.R.,National University of Misiones | Marti D.A.,National University of Misiones | Cabral-De-Mello D.C.,Claro
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

Background: The accumulation of repetitive DNA during sex chromosome differentiation is a common feature of many eukaryotes and becomes more evident after recombination has been restricted or abolished. The accumulated repetitive sequences include multigene families, microsatellites, satellite DNAs and mobile elements, all of which are important for the structural remodeling of heterochromatin. In grasshoppers, derived sex chromosome systems, such as neo-XY♂/XX♀ and neo-X1X2Y♂/X 1X1X2X2♀, are frequently observed in the Melanoplinae subfamily. However, no studies concerning the evolution of sex chromosomes in Melanoplinae have addressed the role of the repetitive DNA sequences. To further investigate the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers, we used classical cytogenetic and FISH analyses to examine the repetitive DNA sequences in six phylogenetically related Melanoplinae species with X0♂/XX♀, neo-XY♂/XX♀ and neo-X1X2Y♂/X1X1X 2X2♀ sex chromosome systems. Results: Our data indicate a non-spreading of heterochromatic blocks and pool of repetitive DNAs (C 0 t-1 DNA) in the sex chromosomes; however, the spreading of multigene families among the neo-sex chromosomes of Eurotettix and Dichromatos was remarkable, particularly for 5S rDNA. In autosomes, FISH mapping of multigene families revealed distinct patterns of chromosomal organization at the intra- and intergenomic levels. Conclusions: These results suggest a common origin and subsequent differential accumulation of repetitive DNAs in the sex chromosomes of Dichromatos and an independent origin of the sex chromosomes of the neo-XY and neo-X1X2Y systems. Our data indicate a possible role for repetitive DNAs in the diversification of sex chromosome systems in grasshoppers. © 2013Palacios-Gimenez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Palacios-Gimenez O.M.,Claro | Marti D.A.,National University of Misiones | Cabral-de-Mello D.C.,Claro
Chromosoma | Year: 2015

Sex chromosomes have evolved many times from morphologically identical autosome pairs, most often presenting several recombination suppression events, followed by accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. In Orthoptera, most species have an X0♂ sex chromosome system. However, in the subfamily Melanoplinae, derived variants of neo-sex chromosomes (neo-XY♂ or neo-X1X2Y♂) emerged several times. Here, we examined the differentiation of neo-sex chromosomes in a Melanoplinae species with a neo-XY♂/XX♀ system, Ronderosia bergi, using several approaches: (i) classical cytogenetic analysis, (ii) mapping via fluorescent in situ hybridization of some selected repetitive DNA sequences and microdissected sex chromosomes, and (iii) immunolocalization of distinct histone modifications. The microdissected sex chromosomes were also used as sources for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA-coding multigene families, to study variants related to the sex chromosomes. Our data suggest that the R. bergi neo-Y has become differentiated after its formation by a Robertsonian translocation and inversions, and has accumulated repetitive DNA sequences. Interestingly, the ex autosomes incorporated into the neo-sex chromosomes retain some autosomal post-translational histone modifications, at least in metaphase I, suggesting that the establishment of functional modifications in neo-sex chromosomes is slower than their sequence differentiation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zurita G.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Zurita G.A.,National University of Misiones | Bellocq M.I.,University of Buenos Aires
Biotropica | Year: 2012

Traditional approaches to the study of species persistence in fragmented landscapes generally consider a binary classification of habitat being suitable or unsuitable; however, the range of human-modified habitats within a region may offer a gradient of habitat suitability (or conservation value) for species. We identified such a gradient by comparing bird assemblages among contrasting land uses (pine plantations of different age, annual crops, clear cuts and cattle pastures) in the Upper Parana Atlantic forest. Bird assemblages and vegetation structure were characterized in an extensive area of 4400 km 2 in Argentina and Paraguay during the breeding seasons of 2005-2010. Similarity of bird assemblages between anthropogenic habitats and the native forest and the proportion of forest species increased with vegetation vertical structure, while the proportion of open-area species decreased. As a consequence, mature tree plantations were the most suitable habitats for forest species and were mainly used by frugivores and bark insectivores. In contrast, open habitats were the least suitable habitat for forest species and were used primarily by insectivores. Human-created habitats that are structurally complex can be used by a subset of forest species, and may improve functional connectivity and mitigate edge effects. The conservation of large tracks of native forests, however, is critical for the long-term persistence of the entire bird assemblage, especially for native forest dependent species. © 2011 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Cardozo D.,National University of Misiones | Toledo L.F.,University of Campinas
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

Pseudopaludicola riopiedadensis was described by Mercadal de Barrio and Barrio (1994) based on two adult females col-lected by Luiz Dino Vizotto in 1963 from Rio Piedade, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. This taxon was differ-entiated from P. ternetzi based on a series of qualitative and morphometric characters. Nevertheless, the original description and the type material of P. ternetzi were not considered by Mercadal de Barrio and Barrio, and the morpho-logical variation of P. ternetzi was not documented. This work reviews the sample collected by Vizotto in P. riopiedadensis type locality, evaluates the advertisement calls obtained from such population, the two vouchers assigned to P. riopie-dadensis, and a large data set, including type specimens of P. ternetzi to document the morphological variation along its known distribution. Results indicate that P. riopiedadensis was described on the basis of highly variable characters applied to a small sample and share the unique P. ternetzi autapomorphy, a robust body structure with immaculate belly. The lack of differentiation in both advertisement call and morphology rejects the status of P. riopiedadensis as distinct species, and we therefore suggest to formally consider P. riopiedadensis as junior synonym of P. ternetzi. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Ramallo L.A.,National University of Misiones | Mascheroni R.H.,National University of La Plata
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

Dehydrofreezing technique involves one step of partial dehydration before freezing, in order to diminish the tissue damage by removing part of water from vegetable tissue prior to freezing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic dehydration and hot air-drying, applied previous to the freezing process, on the end quality of pineapple slices. Quality loss was quantified through drip loss, ascorbic acid content and mechanical properties changes of tissue. Freezing was carried out in a conventional air-blast tunnel at -31.5 ± 2 °C. Mechanical properties of fresh and dehydrated fruit, with and without the later process of freezing, were evaluated through compression tests. Ascorbic acid content was quantified by liquid chromatography. Osmotic dehydration and hot air-drying have the beneficial effect of reducing the time necessary for pineapple samples freezing. The freezing-thawing process affects the values of pineapple samples mechanical properties. Ascorbic acid losses were somewhat greater during the osmotic dehydration than with air dehydration. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zamudio F.,National University of Misiones | Hilgert N.I.,National University of Misiones
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2012

Background: Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications.Methods: The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed.Results: The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective.Conclusions: The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. © 2012 Zamudio and Hilgert; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ramallo L.A.,National University of Misiones | Mascheroni R.H.,National University of La Plata
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2012

Pineapple (Anana comosus) slices were dried by hot-air convective drying technique at fixed temperature (45, 60 and 75 °C) and constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The effect of drying conditions (drying time and air temperature) on the pineapple quality was evaluated. The quality of dehydrated pineapple was analyzed by color and texture changes, l-ascorbic acid loss and the ability of water uptake during rehydration procedure. Water uptake during rehydration was described by Page model. Statistical analysis of data revealed not significant difference (p > 0.05) among color and mechanical characteristics of pineapple samples dried at different drying temperatures to preset moisture content. Pineapple samples dried at 45 °C had better rehydration ability and more l-ascorbic acid retention than those obtained by air drying 75 °C. Hence, 45 °C drying temperature was best condition for pineapple quality preservation. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

De Angelo C.,National University of Misiones | Paviolo A.,National University of Misiones | Di Bitetti M.,National University of Misiones
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2011

Aim Jaguars and pumas, being similar in size and behaviour, are the largest felids of the Neotropics. However, pumas appear to be more resistant to human impacts. Our objective was to compare the response of both species with human impacts at a regional scale in a highly modified region where both species had continuous distribution in the past. Location The Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (UPAF). Methods Pumas and jaguars presence-only data were used in an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA). From the total number of records, we resampled 95 records of each species 10 times to characterize and compare their habitat requirements, built habitat-suitability maps and examined interspecific differences in niche parameters related to present landscape characteristics. Results Both species showed high dependence on native forest and habitat protection, and low tolerance to anthropogenic environments. However, jaguars showed higher differences between their optimal habitat and the available landscape (mean±SD; marginality M=2.290±0.072) and lower tolerance to deviations from their optimal habitat (tolerance T=0.596±0.013) than pumas (M=1.358±0.067, P<0.001; T=0.742±0.022, P<0.001). Although their niches highly overlapped (Pianka's O=0.746±0.069), pumas' higher tolerance resulted in a larger area covered by suitable patches of habitat with higher connectivity. All jaguar-suitable areas were also suitable for pumas; however, 44±8% of puma-suitable areas were unsuitable or marginal for jaguars. Main conclusions Pumas showed more tolerance than jaguars to human impacts at a regional scale in the UPAF, a pattern also observed at local and continental scales. Although the proximate factors responsible for the differential response of pumas to human-altered environments seem to be similar at all spatial scales (e.g. broader trophic niche than jaguars), the resultant spatial configuration of suitable habitat at a regional scale might be another important factor determining puma persistence and higher jaguar demands on conservation efforts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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