Methodological novelties applied to the anthropology of food: Agent-based models and social networks analysis [Novedades metodológicas aplicadas a la antropología alimentaria: Modelos basados en agentes y redes sociales]
Cordova D.D.,National University of Lanus
Salud Colectiva | Year: 2016
The aim of this article is to introduce two methodological strategies that have not often been utilized in the anthropology of food: agent-based models and social networks analysis. In order to illustrate these methods in action, two cases based in materials typical of the anthropology of food are presented. For the first strategy, fieldwork carried out in Quebrada de Humahuaca (province of Jujuy, Argentina) regarding meal recall was used, and for the second, elements of the concept of "domestic consumption strategies" applied by Aguirre were employed. The underlying idea is that, given that eating is recognized as a "total social fact" and, therefore, as a complex phenomenon, the methodological approach must also be characterized by complexity. The greater the number of methods utilized (with the appropriate rigor), the better able we will be to understand the dynamics of feeding in the social environment.
Zunino M.G.,National University of Lanus |
de Souza E.R.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2012
This is a descriptive epidemiological study of firearm mortality in Argentina, 1990-2008. The study compared the firearm mortality percentages and rates between the country's jurisdictions. The data are from the Office of Health Statistics and Information, Ministry of Health. From 1990 to 2008 there were 358,484 deaths from external causes, of which 16.6% (59,339) were caused by firearms. The Province of Buenos Aires showed the highest percentage and crude and adjusted rates. The jurisdictions in the Pampeana region (including the Province of Buenos Aires) showed a more homogeneous profile, similar to that of the country as a whole, with an increase in the rates from 1999 to 2002 and a decrease from 2003 to 2006. These findings are partially explained by the country's deteriorating socioeconomic conditions in the late 20th century, with a greater impact on Buenos Aires, one of the provinces of Argentina with the greatest development and economic dynamism. The situation in Buenos Aires was aggravated by the fact that the Province has one of the country's most repressive police forces.
Duchowicz P.R.,Institute Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA |
Giraudo M.A.,National University of Lanus |
Castro E.A.,Institute Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA |
Pomilio A.B.,University of Buenos Aires
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
Quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) were applied to the aminograms obtained by HPLC in our laboratories for Torrontés and Merlot wines. Dragon theoretical descriptors were derived for a set of optimized amino acid structures with the purpose of establishing QSPR models. The statistical Replacement Method was used for designing the best multi-parametric linear regression models, which included structural features selected from a pool containing 1497 constitutional, topological, geometrical or electronic molecular descriptors. Predicted QSPR results were in good agreement with experimental amino acid profiles. The developed QSPR approach showed to be of practical value for distinguishing each wine varietal, and for calculating experimentally non-available amino acid concentrations of Torrontés and Merlot wines. It was also useful for assessing wine authenticity; the models were especially suitable for Merlot and Torrontés wines. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of overweight/obesity and factors associated with the preventive-predictive value in schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina [Prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad y factores asociados con valor predictivo-preventivo en escolares de 6 a 11 años de Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina]
Padilla I.S.,National University of Lanus
Salud Colectiva | Year: 2011
In Argentina there is little information available about overweight/obesity in schoolchildren. The aims of this study are to analyze the prevalence of overweight/obesity and to determine the factors with preventive value in schoolchildren in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina. This is a prevalence study based on a mixed probability sampling. A total of 1,645 students, aged 6 to 11 years, were interviewed with their parents. The nutritional diagnosis of overweight and obesity was established using body mass index, according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was high: 25.6% (IC95%: 23.5; 27.7) and 13.8% (IC95%: 12.1; 15.5) respectively; these percentages are similar to national results and higher than those found in studies from other provinces and other Latin American countries. A prediction model was constructed using a multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering the overweight as the dependent variable. The final model included as variables: having one sibling or being an only child, maintaining a high level of consumption of fast foods, and maintaining a high level of consumption of soft drinks.
Spinelli H.,National University of Lanus
Salud Colectiva | Year: 2012
This article presents a theoretical overview of personal and institutional governance capacities (experience, leadership and knowledge on the individual level, and organizational capital available on the institutional level) and their relationship to politics and policies in the Latin American context. Using the theoretical production of Carlos Matus regarding the act of governing, diverse dimensions of this problem are put into discussion in relation to other authors and experiences in different historical moments. Theories, methods and techniques of government are explored and the need for state reform with an internal logic is analyzed. It is concluded that there is a need to build a theory for the practice of governing/managing public organizations, and this construction requires creative actions that use theory as a toolbox.
Clinical approach to work-related subjective processes: The perspective of psychodinamic of work [Clínica de los procesos subjetivos en relación al trabajo: el abordaje de la Psicodinámica del Trabajo]
Wlosko M.,National University of Lanus
Vertex (Buenos Aires, Argentina) | Year: 2015
Under what conditions the work activity may be structuring health and in which ones can become a source of disease and suffering? How explain the current situation of deterioration and increased mental pathology in relation to work? The job must be conceived as a trigger among others, or could play a specific role in the etiology of various psychological and psychosomatic pictures? This article addresses these questions from the perspective of Psychodynamic of work. Based on the theory of living labor developed by C. Dejours, the article analyzes the dynamic pleasure-suffering in relation to work and the role of defensive mechanisms in those dynamics. In turn, it characterized the current epidemiological situation, describing the prevalent pathologies related to mental health and work. Finally, the article exposes the thesis of Psychodynamic of work regarding the increase and aggravation of these pathologies. The article aims to present the main axes of Psychodynamics of Work, which is a theory and clinical practice whose object is the psychodynamic analysis of subjective and intersubjective processes mobilized by work situations.
Hugo S.,National University of Lanus
Salud Colectiva | Year: 2010
This text explores the composition of the health field, its agents and the capitals at play, as well as epidemiological profiles and problems and challenges facing workers, administrators, and government officials. We also look into the existence of policies and metapolicies, highlighting the normative character of policies that impede critical reflections by actor-agents and patients and thereby reaffirm an instrumental rationalism. Finally, and with the purpose of exploring new organizational forms in the field, we investigate the terrain of metapolicies through an analysis of the work, the organization, the administration, and the government as possible dimensions through which to enable the creation of new actors and/or structures, irrespective of the actual "policies". The overall aim of the text is to consider the current situation in the health field, in the context of the South, in relation to possible emancipatory actions.
Fleischer N.L.,University of Michigan |
Diez Roux A.V.,University of Michigan |
Alazraqui M.,National University of Lanus |
Spinelli H.,National University of Lanus |
De Maio F.,Simon Fraser University
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011
Objectives. We investigated associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) with chronic disease risk factors, and heterogeneity in this patterning by provincial-level urbanicity in Argentina. Methods. We used generalized estimating equations to determine the relationship between SEP and body mass index, high blood pressure, diabetes, low physical activity, and eating fruit and vegetables, and examined heterogeneity by urbanicity with nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from 2005. All estimates were age adjusted and gender stratified. Results. Among men living in less urban areas, higher education was either not associated with the risk factors or associated adversely. In more urban areas, higher education was associated with better risk factor profiles (P<.05 for 4 of 5 risk factors). Among women, higher education was associated with better risk factor profiles in all areas and more strongly in more urban than in less urban areas (P<0.05 for 3 risk factors). Diet (in men) and physical activity (in men and women) were exceptions to this trend. Conclusions. These results provide evidence for the increased burden of chronic disease risk among those of lower SEP, especially in urban areas.
Brisson M.E.,National University of Lanus |
Schapochnik N.,National University of Lanus
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care | Year: 2014
Objectives: This study reports on the development of a critical process for health technologies incorporation concerning an Argentinean Provincial Ministry of Health (MOH) in collaboration with the University of Lanús from 2008 to 2010. Methods: We describe the approach developed to adapt selected international experiences to provincial scenario. Bibliographic review, regulations examination, key informants interviews and iterative adjustments after various stages of consultation and consensus building with main local players, contribution from foreign experts, and piloting of process and instruments for ultimate fine-tuning are described. We examine final proposal in the light of new updated studies. Results: Analysis of regulations revealed that rules governing the provincial system were historically linked to administrative resolutions in relation to procurement with poor consideration to clinical, epidemiological, organizational, and health policy aspects. Key informants from hospitals, MOH, and other governmental agencies agreed on the lack of a process capable of guaranteeing a decision about health technology incorporation based on a transparent use of the best available information, ready to deal with competitive pressures. This adaptation provided a structured and explicit process (introduction, implementation, and development) as well as essential and supporting tools. Conclusions: MOH adopted the proposal for its progressive implementation while institutional evaluation capacity develops. Further studies are needed on the value placed on health technology assessment-based processes and recommendations by clinicians, managers, policy makers, and patients. © Cambridge University Press 2014.
Spinelli H.,National University of Lanus
Salud Colectiva | Year: 2016
This article, of a conceptual nature, uses critical theory to discuss the programmatic logic within the sociosanitary field as a technical answer without any questions, provided to territories or spaces with questions awaiting translation. The purpose is to put programmatic logic, which is the legacy of public health planning and an expression of instrumental reason, into discussion, and in this way examine the temporal-spatial conception as an axis for thinking and acting within the complexity of the social world, recognizing other knowledge and practices. The questions, answers, knowledge and actions in the sociosanitary field constitute the focus of a reflection rooted in concepts that seek to deconstruct the ideological project represented by health programs through an analysis of their scientific basis (the epistemological component of the technical), which is antagonistic to any emancipatory project.