Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina
Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina

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Giacosa R.,Institute Geologia y Recursos Minerales | Giacosa R.,National University of la Patagonia | Fracchia D.,Comision Nacional de la Energia Atomica | Heredia N.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana Igme
Geologica Acta | Year: 2012

This paper describes Late Paleozoic Gondwanan and Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic Andean structures in the Southern Patagonian Andes and an associated Extra-Andean region between lakes San Martín and Viedma. The study area encompasses a 200-km-long W-E section between the Patagonian icefield and the 72°W longitude meridian, in Argentine Patagonia. The oldest structures are of Late Paleozoic age and developed through at least two deformation phases during the Gondwanan Orogeny. The first deformation phase (Dg 1) includes isoclinal and N-overturned WNW trending folds and associated thrusts, including duplexes. The second deformation phase includes NNE trending open folds (Dg 2). Deformation occurred in non-metamorphic to very low-grade metamorphic conditions. A spaced rough cleavage is found near the first phase fold hinges. The Eocene and Miocene Andean structural compression resulted in a N-S oriented fold and thrust belt. This belt is comprised of three morphostructural zones from W to E, with distinctive topographic altitudes and structural styles: Andean; Sub-Andean; and Extra-Andean zones. The first corresponds to the inner fold and thrust belt, while the last two are part of the outer fold and thrust belt. The Andean zone (3400-2000m above sea level) is characterized by N-S to NNE trending, E-vergent, Cenozoic reverse faults and associated minor thrusts. The northern part of the SubAndean zone (2000-1500m above sea level) consists of W-vergent reverse faults and some NNE open folds. The southern part of the Andean zone includes tight folds with box and kink geometries, related to thrusts at deeper levels. In the Extra-Andean zone, with maximum heights of 1500m, the deformation is less intense, and gentle folds deform the Upper Cretaceous sediments. An inherited Jurassic N-S extensional fault system imposed a strong control on this morphostructural zonation. Also the variation of the Austral Basin sedimentary thickness in the N-S direction seems to have influenced the structural styles of the outer fold and thrust belt. Those differences in sedimentary thickness may be related to S-dipping transfer zones associated to W-E Jurassic extension. In turn, the transfer zones may have been controlled by the N-vergent WNW, Dg 1, Gondwanan structural fabric.

Rico A.,National University of la Patagonia | Peralta R.,National University of la Patagonia | Lopez Gappa J.,Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia
Helgoland Marine Research | Year: 2012

Subtidal fouling assemblages usually consist of short-lived organisms. Colonisation sequences on man-made structures may thus be greatly affected by the temporal and spatial variability of propagule supply. This study explores the influence of seasonality on succession in the macrofouling assemblage of a Patagonian harbour (Argentina, Southwest Atlantic). Replicated artificial substrata were suspended horizontally and sampled at quarterly intervals during 1 year. The influence of seasonality on 1-year-old assemblages was further analysed using additional sets of replicated panels submersed at different seasons and collected 1 year later. Upper surfaces were always dominated by ephemeral algae, while lower surfaces exhibited high coverage of filter-feeding invertebrates. Regardless of submersion length, species richness was significantly higher on lower than on upper surfaces. A significant interaction between orientation and submersion length was found for the Shannon diversity index, meaning that temporal changes in diversity depended on substratum orientation. On the lower surfaces, diversity reached a maximum after 9 months and then declined, mainly due to extensive dislodgment of two species of ascidians. On algal-dominated upper surfaces, differences in structure of annual assemblages were due to seasonal changes in the abundance of ephemeral algae. This study shows that constancy or variability of 1-year-old assemblages whose development began at different seasons depended greatly on the life history of the organisms that settled and managed to persist on both surfaces, which in turn depended on substratum orientation. © 2012 Springer-Verlag and AWI.

Vitorino G.P.,National University of la Patagonia | Sperandeo N.R.,National University of Cordoba | Caira M.R.,University of Cape Town | Mazzieri M.R.,National University of Cordoba | Mazzieri M.R.,University of Cape Town
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2013

The interaction in the solid state between ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) was investigated and a new multicomponent molecular complex (COP) was obtained and characterized. It is composed of equimolar quantities of both compounds, according to TLC and 1H NMR data. As single-crystal X-ray analysis showed, COP crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P(1̄). The asymmetric unit comprises three independent zwitterions (A, B, and C) with contributions of both CIP and NOR, as well as 14.6 water molecules. At the zwitterion A site, the occurrence is about 37% (CIP), 63% (NOR); at the B site, there is predominantly CIP (70%); and at the C site the occurrence is about 43% (CIP) and 57% (NOR), yielding an overall 1:1 CIP-NOR ratio in the crystal. TG data evidenced a one-step loss of solvent (about 18% per COP zwitterion) below 110 °C, confirming the presence of water molecules. The propensity for heteroassociation between CIP and NOR, under the conditions described herein, originated a co-crystal reported for the first time between FQs, and became one of the most interesting aspects of this research. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hechem V.,National University of la Patagonia | Calvino C.I.,CONICET | Ezcurra C.,CONICET
Taxon | Year: 2011

Diplolepis, a genus from southern South America traditionally considered monotypic, has recently been shown from molecular data to include a few species that form a monophyletic group at the base of the MOG clade of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae). The species transferred to Diplolepis include plants from temperate South America mostly described under the generic name "Cynanchum". Phylogenetic analyses of cpDNA trnT-trnF and rps16 sequences of 51 accessions of Asclepiadaceae using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods show that all "Cynanchum" from southern Argentina and Chile (except C. atacamense), Tweedia australis and Diplolepis form a well-supported monophyletic group. Within this group, three clades are recognized: two morphologically homogeneous groups from South Andean forests and high elevation areas, and a more diverse group in flower and leaf morphology from southern South American desert and semidesert areas. The phylogenetic position of C. atacamense is equivocal but the species is transferred to Diplolepis based on morphological and biogeographical coherence. The morphological, geographical and environmental characteristics of the three recognized clades of Diplolepis are discussed and eight nomenclatural changes are proposed.

Epele L.B.,CONICET | Miserendino M.L.,National University of la Patagonia
Fundamental and Applied Limnology | Year: 2011

We examined the life history, annual production, diet, habitat preferences and competition of two species of stoneflies Notoperla fasciata and N. magnaspina in a Patagonian mountain headwater stream. Benthic samples and adult collections were taken monthly from July 2004 to June 2005. A habitat selection study was performed concurrently during high and low water periods in five substrate types. Although both species showed long life cycles (N. fasciata: 20 months and N. magnaspina: 3 years) their life histories and temporal dynamics were different. Growth was rapid during summer and early autumn as a result of warmer temperatures but N. magnaspina had a shorter emergence period (November to January) than N. fasciata (January to April). N. fasciata was the dominant Notoperla species with a mean annual density 6 times higher and secondary production 4.5 higher than that of N. magnaspina. While boulders in riffles and pools, and leaf-pack habitats supported significantly more individuals of N. magnaspina in the low water period (ANOVA, p < 0.02) habitat preferences were not observed in the studied species (ANOVA, p > 0.26). N. fasciata dominated in the high water period and N. magnaspina during the low water period. Analysis of gut contents revealed that both species were herbivorous grazers, and consumed the same food types. The interspecific overlap in density, biomass and annual production among habitat types was high in the iow water period (PS > 0.5). However, N fasciata were smaller than N. magnaspina. The existence of different life history strategies and the temporal shift of main generations and density peaks were critical to allow species coexistence and to reduce competition. © 2011 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Moreno L.,CONICET | Bertiller M.B.,CONICET | Bertiller M.B.,National University of la Patagonia
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2012

We asked whether morphological and chemical traits of perennial grasses in semiarid-arid ecosystems are influenced by the abundance of coexisting shrubs, in northern-central Patagonia, Chubut Province, Argentina. We selected populations of two perennial grass species, highly preferred by herbivores (4 for Festuca pallescens and 8 for Poa ligularis) at 10 sites distributed across a wide range of aridity. We assessed the relative shrub cover (shrub cover as percent of total cover) of each site and randomly collected 5 to 10 bunches of each grass species per site in December 2007 (late vegetative-early reproductive growth period). We measured the height of vegetative tillers, and morphological (length, width, area, dry mass, and specific area) and chemical (N, C, soluble phenolics and lignin concentration) attributes of full expanded green blades in the collected bunches. Further, we computed the aridity index of each site using temperature and precipitation data. The aridity index ranged from 1.07 to 3.9 at F. pallescens sites and from 3.6 to 7.3 at P. ligularis sites. The relative shrub cover increased significantly with aridity varying from 0.01 to 99%. Tiller height, blade length, and blade area of P. ligularis increased significantly with increasing relative shrub cover and aridity. Concentration of soluble phenolics in blades of both species decreased with increasing relative shrub cover and aridity. N concentration in blades of P. ligularis and specific blade area in F. pallescens decreased with increasing relative shrub cover and aridity. We conclude that some traits of perennial grasses (phenolics concentration in green blades in both species, and tiller height and some blade attributes in P. ligularis) were influenced by shrub cover itself. The variation in these traits was opposite to that expected by the effect of aridity and could be associated with escape from herbivores and/or drought, enhanced mesophytism, and reduced chemical defenses. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Miserendino M.L.,National University of la Patagonia | Masi C.I.,Iadiza Instituto Argentino Of Investigaciones Of Las Zonas Aridas
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2010

Benthic invertebrates, water quality variables, chlorophyll a and particulate organic matter (POM) were studied in 18 sites of mountain streams in Patagonia (Argentina) subjected to six different land uses: native forest, pine plantation, pasture, harvest forest, urban and reference urban. Three streams of each land use were studied in March 2006. Macroinvertebrates were sampled in three riffles and three pools (n = 108) and biomass of detrital fractions of POM were quantified. Overall benthic POM biomass was higher at native and harvest forest than pastures, whereas fine fraction (FPOM) was higher in harvest forest than in pastures. Regarding to autotrophic subsidies bryophytes were the only that changed consistently among uses. These differences in energy resources were correlated with changes in community attributes. Shredder richness was clearly higher at native and harvest forest than exotic pine plantations, collector gatherers density was consistently high at harvest sites, and total density was significantly higher at urban and harvest forest. Multidimensional scaling ordination based on macroinvertebrate density data showed a clear separation of forested (either native or exotic species) from riparian modified areas (pasture, urban and harvest sites). Environmental variables having explanation power on macroinvertebrate assemblages were mostly related with: detritus availability (wood and leaves biomass) and impairment (total phosphorous and % sand). These results confirm that macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in Patagonian low order streams can be altered by land use practices. Among guild structure measures, those indicators based on benthic community functional attributes, shredders richness and collectors density, resulted good candidates to assess land use impacts. On account of riparian corridor management may be critical to the distribution of benthic taxa, the maintenance of good conditions of vegetation adjacent to rivers will enhance water quality and the environment for highly endemic headwater communities of Patagonian streams. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cerda-Garcia-Rojas C.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Bucio M.A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Gonzalez S.B.,National University of la Patagonia | Garcia-Gutierrez H.A.,Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo | Joseph-Nathan P.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Tetrahedron Asymmetry | Year: 2015

The absolute configurations of natural esquelane derivatives 1 and 2, the main components of a commercially available fragrance, as well as their synthetic derivatives 3-7 were revised by using the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy of 2 and 6 in combination with density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory. The agreement between the experimental and calculated VCD spectra of these bisnorsesquiterpenes revealed that they are in fact (1S,4R,5S)-esquel-6-en-9-one 1 and (1S,4R,5R)-esquel-7-en-9-one 2 instead of the formerly reported enantiomers. The VCD method was also applied to cacalol acetate 9 in order to verify its absolute configuration, since cacalol 8 was previously used as a comparative motif to determine the absolute configuration of esquelane derivatives. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Valenciaga F.,National University of La Plata | Fernandez R.D.,National University of la Patagonia
IET Renewable Power Generation | Year: 2015

This study presents a control design for a grid connected wind energy conversion system based on a gearless PMSG. The generation system structure comprises a three blade turbine, a 2 MW multi-pole PMSG and a full-scale backto-back frequency converter linked to the utility grid. The proposed control scheme allows following dynamical specifications taking into account operational requirements and ancillary services imposed by the recent grid connection codes, that is, reactive power regulation and fault ride-through (FRT) capabilities. The control actions to be applied during normal grid operation are designed through second-order sliding mode techniques using a two-stage cascade structure. The multi-variable controller designed attains to regulate the active and reactive powers delivered to the grid, minimising the resistive losses into the generator and maintaining important internal variables into the desired range. This controller presents attractive advantages such as robustness against unmodelled dynamics and external perturbations, finite time convergence to the sliding surfaces and chattering mitigation. To endorse the controlled system with FRT capabilities, a switching control scheme based on voltage grid measurements is also proposed. The performance of the whole control approach is analysed through representative simulations which include parameter variations, external perturbations and three-phase voltage dips. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.

This study was intended to evaluate the quality chemical parameters of 62 Apis mellifera L. honey samples, from the Province of Chubut, Argentina. Samples were obtained from the three melliferous areas of this province: Andean region, lower Chubut River valley and plains of Senguerr River. The average values obtained for electrical conductivity (0.33 mS cm-1) and pH (4.17) indicate that the analyzed honeys came mainly from nectar. Electrical conductivity was higher in honeys from the Andean region than in honeys from the other two regions. Moisture (water content) was low, with an average value of 14.67%. The hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was very low and ranged between 0.0 and 14.70 mg kg-1. Moisture, HMF and free acidity values show good maturity and absence of undesirable fermentation in all the samples. Diastase activity had a mean value of 13.50 units on the Gothe scale. Color parameter presented variations between honeys from different areas. The analytical values for the samples from the Andean region, the lower Chubut River valley and the plains of the Senguerr River respectively were: 67.73, 40.33 and 23.26 mm Pfund. Results obtained in this study, indicate that honeys produced in Chubut present excellent quality properties according to international standards.

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