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Los Varela, Argentina

The National University of La Matanza is an Argentine national university situated in La Matanza Partido, Buenos Aires Province. Wikipedia.

Penchaszadeh V.B.,National University of La Matanza | Rojas-Martinez A.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Llerena A.,University of Extremadura
Genetics and Molecular Biology

José María ("Chema") Cantú (1938-2007), born in Mexico, was a pioneering, loved and respected leader in medical and human genetics and bioethics in Latin America. He graduated as a physician in Mexico and then trained in medical and human genetics in France and the United States. He was instrumental in developing a first-rate research, training and genetic services program in medical and human genetics in Guadalajara, in northwestern Mexico. He acted forcefully at national, regional and international levels to promote scientific development through collaboration and education in science and humanities, while he simultaneously strived for justice, peace, love and human rights. He attained some of the highest honors a scientist and humanist could aspire to as well as the recognition of the communities he served. Hundreds of disciples throughout Latin America and the world have been inspired by his vision of a better world through the conjunction of science, respect for humankind, ethics and love. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética. Source

Penchaszadeh V.B.,National University of La Matanza | Schuler-Faccini L.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Em Genetica Medica Populacional | Schuler-Faccini L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Genetics and Molecular Biology

Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976-1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program "Reencontro", which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual) in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética. Source

Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976–1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic genetics to support the right to identity in Argentina included issues such as the best interest of children being raised by criminals, the right to learn the truth of one’s origin and identity, rights of their biological families, the issue of voluntary versus compulsory testing of victims, as well as the duty of the state to investigate crimes against humanity, punish perpetrators and provide justice and reparation to the victims. In the 30 years following the return to democracy in 1984, the search, localization and DNA testing of disappeared children and young adults has led, so far, to the genetic identification of 116 persons who had been abducted as babies. The high value placed on DNA testing to identify victims of identity suppression did not conflict with the social consensus that personal identity is a complex and dynamic concept, attained by the interaction of genetics with historical, social, emotional, educational, cultural and other important environmental factors. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics within a developing set of ethical and political circumstances. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Penchaszadeh V.B.,National University of La Matanza
Journal of Community Genetics

This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25 % of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public’s health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Tinetti F.G.,National University of La Plata | Martin S.M.,National University of La Matanza
Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems

The particle-particle method for N-Body problems is one of the most commonly used methods in computer driven physics simulation. These algorithms are, in general, very simple to design and code, and highly parallelizable. In this article, we present the most important approaches for the application of the three performance improvement areas on these algorithms when executed on high performance computing (HPC) clusters: 1) sequential optimization (a single core in a node of the cluster), 2) shared memory parallelism (in a single node with multiple CPUs available, just like a multiprocessor), and 3) distributed memory parallelism (in the whole cluster). For each one of the improvement areas we present the employed techniques and the obtained performance gain. Also, we will show how some (sequential/classical) code optimizations are almost essential for obtaining at least acceptable parallel performance and scalability. Source

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