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Gaillimh, Ireland

The National University of Ireland, Galway is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland. It is a tertiary-level educational institution located in Galway, Ireland. The university was founded in 1845 as Queen's College, Galway and was more recently known as University College, Galway . Wikipedia.

Spillane W.,National University of Ireland | Malaubier J.-B.,Roche Holding AG
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The 21 year period of the development of sulfumic acid and its N- and O-substituted derivatives, from 1991 to the end of 2011, is studied. Several ab initio SCF(self-consistent field)-MO studies of sulfamic acid, sulfamate anion, NH2SO3, and N-methylsulfamate anion, MeNHSO3, have been reported. For sulfamic acid and sulfamide the calculated acidities correlate well with the experimentally determined pKa values. The dative bond between nitrogen and sulfur is believed to be only partially formed. 14N, 15N, and 17O NMR were used to study reactions of sulfamic acid with nitrite complexes of palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium giving cis-nitroaqua complexes. Several papers deal with the solubility of sulfamates in water. The kinetics of the dissolution and crystallization of sulfamic acid in water have been extensively probed. Interest in the structure-taste relationships of various mono- and disubstituted phenylsulfamates increased after the discovery in 1989 of the sweetness of some meta-substituted phenylsulfamates. Source

Kelly J.P.,National University of Ireland
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2011

The purpose of this review is to evaluate what is currently known about the pharmacology of cathinone derivatives. Cathinone is the principal active constituent of khat responsible for the stimulant effects that have led khat to be known as a 'natural amphetamine'. Synthetic derivatives have been abused for their amphetamine-like stimulant effects, most notably methylone, methcathinone (ephedrone), and 4-methlymethcathinone (mephedrone). To date, cathinone and methcathinone have been studied most, demonstrating amphetamine-like effects in a range of in vitro and in vivo investigations, albeit less potently than amphetamines. In humans, cathinone derivatives are usually administered orally, and in some cases by insufflation. Methcathinone has a longer history of abuse, being produced from readily available starting materials, and administered by injection. Mephedrone has become the best publicised cathinone derivative, amid considerable media and public concern about its legal status, its ready availability, and reports of serious toxicity and deaths following its use. As a consequence, there has been a clampdown on cathinone derivatives, dramatically changing their legal status in a number of countries. However, little objective evidence-based comparative experiments have been conducted to date between these compounds and their related amphetamines in order to make clear risk judgements. Such assessments have largely been predictive in nature, based on their structural similarity to amphetamines. It can be assumed that, despite their illegal status, cathinone-related compounds will continue to be prevalent drugs of abuse for the foreseeable future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Jager R.,National University of Ireland
Biology of the cell / under the auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization | Year: 2012

One of the early cellular responses to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and the UPR are both implicated in numerous human diseases and pathologies. In spite of this, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell fate following ER stress is limited. The UPR is initiated by three ER transmembrane receptors: PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor (ATF) 6 and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). These proteins sense the accumulation of unfolded proteins and their activation triggers specific adaptive responses to resolve the stress. Intriguingly, the very same receptors can initiate signalling pathways that lead to apoptosis when the attempts to resolve the ER stress fail. In this review, we describe the known pro-apoptotic signalling pathways emanating from activated PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 and discuss how their signalling switches from an adaptive to a pro-apoptotic response. Copyright © 2012 Soçiété Francaise des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Source

Schlosser G.,National University of Ireland
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Cranial placodes (which include the adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, otic, lateral line, profundal/trigeminal, and epibranchial placodes) give rise to many sense organs and ganglia of the vertebrate head. Recent evidence suggests that all cranial placodes may be developmentally related structures, which originate from a common panplacodal primordium at neural plate stages and use similar regulatory mechanisms to control developmental processes shared between different placodes such as neurogenesis and morphogenetic movements. After providing a brief overview of placodal diversity, the present review summarizes current evidence for the existence of a panplacodal primordium and discusses the central role of transcription factors Six1 and Eya1 in the regulation of processes shared between different placodes. Upstream signaling events and transcription factors involved in early embryonic induction and specification of the panplacodal primordium are discussed next. I then review how individual placodes arise from the panplacodal primordium and present a model of multistep placode induction. Finally, I briefly summarize recent advances concerning how placodal neurons and sensory cells are specified, and how morphogenesis of placodes (including delamination and migration of placode-derived cells and invagination) is controlled. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

McDonagh J.,National University of Ireland
Progress in Human Geography | Year: 2014

A dominant discourse in contemporary rural debate relates to food. Deliberated in multiple and complex ways, the conversation vacillates between issues of food sustainability, security, type and provenance, to those of food scarcity, access and safety. Further compounding this complexity, food is equally central to discourses of energy, climate change, biofuels, production patterns, land use and a ‘21st-century land rush’. The use and management of rural resources consequently finds itself near the top of current political, social, economic and environmental agendas. However, while there have been limited contributions by rural geographers on food-related issues, there is no doubting that the oft-declared challenge of providing safe and secure food supplies, and feeding a growing world population, has witnessed increased vigour of engagement. This report explores this engagement, deliberating on the promotion of a ‘new productivism’, the endorsement of the role of GMOs (genetically modified organisms) in securing food supplies, the escalation of global land grabs, and the subsequent impacts on sustainable rural futures. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

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