National University of Indonesia

Jakarta, Indonesia

National University of Indonesia

Jakarta, Indonesia
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The family Acidopsidae Števčić, 2005, is revised; and two subfamilies are recognised. The Acidopsinae Števčić, 2005, is characterised by the coxal male opening, a quadrate basal antennal article and vulvae arranged near the median longitudinal thoracic sternal groove. Three genera are included in the Acidopsinae: Acidops Stimpson, 1871 (with two species), Parapilumnus Kossmann, 1877 (with two species) and Crinitocinus gen. nov. (monotypic for Pilumnus alcocki Borradaile, 1902). The Raouliinae Števčić, 2005 (= Typhlocarcinodidae Števčić, 2005; Caecopilumnidae Števčić , 2011), is characterised by its coxo-sternal male opening, a short basal antennal article which is distinctly wider than long and vulvae arranged submedially on thoracic sternite 6. Four genera are included in the Raouliinae: Raoulia Ng, 1987 (with five species, three of which are described as new), Caecopilumnus Borradaile, 1902 (with three species of which one is described as new), Typhlocarcinodes Alcock, 1900 (monotypic) and Thecaplax gen. nov. (for one new species). © Copyright 2014 Magnolia Press.

Tjiu W.,National University of Malaysia | Marnoto T.,National University of Indonesia | Mat S.,National University of Malaysia | Ruslan M.H.,National University of Malaysia | Sopian K.,National University of Malaysia
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

This paper presents several multi-megawatt offshore Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) projects currently under way. The projects are re-attempting large scale VAWT since Eole, the only multi-megawatt Darrieus VAWT ever built, which was shut down in 1993. In addition, the project's timing is at the moment when horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) is facing major challenges in multi-megawatt range, especially for offshore wind power generation. The obstacles of large scale HAWT are elaborated, and the reasons of why Darrieus VAWT is key to the challenges are also explained. In addition, impacts of HAWT development on Darrieus VAWT are described. Lastly, the innovative designs on Darrieus VAWT are presented, which include current status of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), novel offshore vertical axis (NOVA), Vertax and Vertiwind. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Tjiu W.,National University of Malaysia | Marnoto T.,National University of Indonesia | Mat S.,National University of Malaysia | Ruslan M.H.,National University of Malaysia | Sopian K.,National University of Malaysia
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

This paper aims to assess the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) configurations, including the drawbacks of each variation that hindered the development into large scale rotor. A comprehensive timeline is given as a lineage chart. The variations are assessed on the performance, components and operational reliability. In addition, current development and future prospects of Darrieus VAWT are presented. The Darrieus VAWT patented in France in 1925 and in the US in 1931 had two configurations: (i) curved blades and (ii) straight blades configurations. Curved blades configuration (egg-beater or phi-rotor) has evolved from the conventional guy-wires support into fixed-on-tower and cantilevered versions. Straight blades configuration used to have variable-geometry (Musgrove-rotor), variable-pitch (Giromill), Diamond, Delta and V/Y rotor variations. They were stopped due to low economical value, i.e. high specific cost of energy (COE). Musgrove-rotor has evolved into fixed-pitch straight-bladed H-rotor (referred as H-rotor in this paper for simplicity). H-rotor, in turn, has evolved into several variations: Articulating, Tilted and Helical H-rotors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kusumawati I.,National University of Indonesia | Huang H.-W.,National Taiwan Ocean University
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been established over the world to protect marine resources from over-exploitation. Weh Island, Sabang, Indonesia, has two MPAs: Weh Island Marine Recreational Park (WMRP) and Weh Island Marine Protected Area (WMPA). The WMRP was established by the Government of Indonesia in 1982 and is managed by the Natural Resources Conservation Agency in the Ministry of Forestry. The other, WMPA, was established in 2010 and is managed by the Government of Sabang[U+05F3]s Marine Affairs and Fisheries Agency. First, this study reviews the regulations of the two MPAs. There are 17 regulations related to the management of the two MPAs. WMRP is governed centrally based on Law No. 32, and the WMPA has shifted to a bottom-up system based on Fisheries Law No. 31. In addition, the customary management system called Panglima Laot, which literally translates to "Sea Commander" functions for local residents. Second, 185 questionnaires were completed by government offices, non-governmental organizations, fishermen, and marine tourism operators from January to September 2013. The survey showed all respondents support the development of MPAs. More respondents in the WMPA are familiar with the MPA and received benefits from MPAs. Fishermen of the WMRP considered their participation to be low and have lower trust in the government. The participants in the WMRP considered that "support of all stakeholders[U+05F3] awareness of the marine environment" is most important. On the other hand, "improved understanding of benefits from MPAs" was an influential factor in the WMPA. To further strengthen the management of MPAs, the stakeholders should work together to apply a bottom-up management system, clarify the zoning, set educational programs to inform public perceptions, ensure enforcement capacity, conduct scientific research on the resource, and develop a network of MPAs in the long term. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

van Noordwijk M.A.,University of Zürich | Willems E.P.,University of Zürich | Utami Atmoko S.S.,National University of Indonesia | Kuzawa C.W.,Northwestern University | van Schaik C.P.,University of Zürich
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2013

In most mammals, females pay for reproduction by dramatically increasing net energy intake from conception to mid- or late lactation. To do this, they time their reproductive events in relation to environmental cycles so that periods of peak food availability coincide with peak demand or are used to build energy stores. This timing is not possible in species with slow development in which lactation is prolonged over a multi-year period with fluctuating food availability. Here, mothers are expected to sustain a stable but generally lower level of nutrient transfer. In a sample of over 1,050 complete follow days of eight mother-infant pairs collected over 7 years, we document maternal effort for wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) over their average 6. 5-year lactation period. As predicted, maternal feeding time was independent of the age of her growing offspring, indicating a stable sustained "plateau" effort of ≤ 25 % above baseline level, instead of a short peak lactation as seen in seasonal breeders. Infant orangutans started to regularly supplement milk with self-harvested food when they were 1-1. 5 years old, indicating milk intake was insufficient from this age onwards, even though maternal effort did not decrease. We expect the same regulation of sustained maternal effort in other large and large-brained mammals with slow infant development. We also predict that mother-infant conflict over suckling may show another peak at the onset of the milk + solid food phase, in addition to the well-known conflict around the endpoint of lactation (weaning), which is reached after a long and gradual increase in solid food intake by the infant. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

ArockiaBazilRaj A.,Indian Defence Institute of Advanced Technology | Darusalam U.,National University of Indonesia
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2016

Focal-spot wandering is the main cause for the major power loss in free-space optical communications. Thus,mitigating it is a primary requirement for the successful performance improvement. In order to prove this prerequisite, an experimental set-up using 155-Mbps data transmission is built for the link range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m. In the experiment, the receiver is equiped with a control system to stabilize the received optical propagation at the detector plane which is called as focal-spot wandering mitigation control so as to couple the power in bucket perfectly to the photodetector. The performance improvements due to mitigating focal-spot wandering are regressively investigated in terms of various quality assessment key parameters. Maximum radial distance of 0.25 mm, maximum effective scintillation index of 0.17, optical signal-to-noise ratio of 9 dB, minimum eye-opening of ±0.37 V, minimum eye-height of ±0.51 V, controlled bit-error-rate of 6.45 × 10−9 to 7.09 × 10−8 and the link margin of 1.83 dB are attained even during strong turbulence level while mitigating focal-spot wandering. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Majeri Mangunjaya F.,National University of Indonesia | Elizabeth McKay J.,University of Kent
Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion | Year: 2012

In this paper, the authors argue that while state-sponsored efforts to preserve Indonesia's natural resources have been needed, their effectiveness has been limited due to the paucity of available arable land and the frequent conflicts conservation policies have generated among local populations. Rather than a top-down structural approach, they argue, what is needed is an innovative approach that includes education at the grassroots, which in Indonesia will combine Islamic principles of environmental protection with traditional methods of conservation. After a section presenting an Islamic theology of creation care and then highlighting some projects in the Muslim world, the spotlight is turned on Indonesia, where a number of initiatives involve the cooperation of religious leaders, eco-friendly pesantren (religious boarding schools), international NGOs, and government policy at the national and regional levels. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Sulaksono A.,University of Indonesia | Satiawati L.,National University of Indonesia
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

The density-dependent lepton fractions approach that is used to describe the properties of matter with neutrino trapping is systematically studied. It is found that two sets of the ratio of trapped neutrinos to leptons parameters - i.e., one for a relativistic mean field parameter set with stiff equation of state and one for a parameter set with soft equation of state - yield particle composition profiles at high densities similar to those predicted by the standard fixed lepton fraction approach. However, these sets of parameters produce significantly different behavior at low densities compared to those of standard approach. The consequences of applying the density-dependent lepton fractions approach to some properties of PNS, such as the particle composition, equation of state, the onset of low-density instability, the mass-radius relation, and the mean free path of electron neutrino, are investigated. By comparing the results with those of the standard approach, we obtain the result that the PNS equation of state is not significantly influenced by the low-density behavior difference between the two approaches. However, the density-dependent lepton fractions approach yields a smaller onset of low-density instability matter and core-crust transition density but a slightly larger maximum mass as well as a larger radius of canonical mass than those predicted by the standard approach. The estimated minimum PNS mass and its radius are apparently also sensitive to the parameter used for the ratio of trapped neutrinos to leptons. For electron neutrino transport in PNSs, matter with density-dependent lepton fractions is more transparent than matter with fixed lepton fractions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Safeyah M.,National University of Indonesia | Elviana E.,National University of Indonesia
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

Home Based Enterprises (HBEs) provide an enormous impact on the lives of the citizens and the environment. The impacts include: increase income and welfare of the family, provide job opportunities, improve the quality of homes and the environment, and ensure life sustainability. The existence of the business leads changes to the house. Those changes that made to the house are often ignore the comfort of home space and the environment as living space. This study aims to look at the development of HBEs performed by community in Kampoeng Pandean. The measurement items used are architectural sustainability factors, ie economical sustainability, social sustainability, and enviromental sustainability. The study is located in Kampoeng Pandean Sidoarjo. The method used is a combination of qualitative and quantitative method. The results show that HBEs in Kampoeng Pandean have not fully supported the sustainable architecture. Environmental sustainability has not been met, due to the density of the environment, the high percentage of building area to land area, and the construction of business space does not consider the comfort factor. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

Lorenzen R.P.,National University of Indonesia
Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology | Year: 2015

Bali's rice production is organised in units called subak with compulsory membership for farmers who grow rice. The future of this highly productive system generating some of the highest yields across Indonesia is under threat. Urbanisation, rural diversification and tourism are encroaching on the immaculately groomed rice terraces, undermining a centuries-old sociocultural institution which, interwoven with kinship, neighbourhood and congregation groups, shapes Balinese society. Nonetheless, rice farming remains a vital source of income for many and rice the most important staple food. This predicament raises questions about the future of farmers' livelihoods, the subak, its cultural heritage and rice production in Bali. The author contemplates possible trajectories by developing three scenarios: (1) disintegration; (2) formalisation; and (3) reinvention. The resulting structured narratives are not forecasts but may encourage discussion of the place and value of the subak and local rice supply in the Balinese economy and society. © 2015, © 2015 The Australian National University.

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