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Duarte I.,University of Lisbon | Rego F.C.,University of Lisbon | Casquilho J.P.,University of Lisbon | Casquilho J.P.,National University of East Timor | Arsenio P.,University of Lisbon
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

The 231 habitat types included in the European Environmental Agency (EEA) database of the Natura 2000 Network are distributed throughout more than 22 thousand Sites of Community Importance (SCI) covering around 128 million hectares in Europe. However, individual habitat areas have different conservation relevance according to the Rarity of the habitat type and their Representativeness in relation to the whole type. We propose a Relevance Index and evaluate it for each area of each habitat type, taking into account the Rarity of the habitat type, assessed by the extent of its occurrence in the Natura 2000 Network, and the Representativeness of the area, as the contribution of that area to the total extent of that habitat type in the Network. Results allow for an objective analysis of the Natura 2000 Network indicating, for example, that rarity of a habitat type in Natura 2000 Network does not necessarily correlate with its priority status, suggesting the need for reevaluation of the situation. The Relevance Index proposed for a given habitat area is the product of the Rarity Index of its habitat type and the Representativeness of the area. We demonstrate the application of the Index for the areas of three different Natura 2000 Sites. The Relevance Index of one Site (SRI) will be the sum of the Relevance Indices of its corresponding habitat areas (HRI). The same approach is applicable to regions, countries or for any habitat cluster allowing for the quantification of their contribution to the whole Natura 2000 Network. It is suggested that the Relevance index can also be applied in monitoring the components of the Natura 2000 Network, and is useful to support management decisions for conservation in Europe. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Yuliaty,Curtin University Australia | Yuliaty,National University of East Timor | Low S.,Curtin University Australia | Fisher J.,Curtin University Australia | Dryden G.M.,Dryden Animal Science
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

The metabolisable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance and growth of entire male Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) were determined by regressing liveweight change on ME intake. Cattle were fed either a diet (DM basis) of 52.5% urea-treated rice straw plus 47.5% fresh leucaena forage (Expt 1), or fresh leucaena forage alone (Expt 2). In each experiment, liveweight change and feed intake were measured over 4 weeks, after a 1-week introductory period, and feed constituent digestibilities were measured during the final week. In Expt 1, 10 bulls between 1.5 and 3 years of age and weighing 123.7 ± 11.79 kg (mean ± s.d.) were allocated to DM intakes estimated to provide 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, or 2.0 times the estimated ME requirement for maintenance (based on calculations made from published CSIRO equations for tropical cattle species other than B. javanicus), with either one or two bulls per treatment. In Expt 2, the bulls were given treatments estimated to provide 0.85, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, or 2.2 times the ME requirement for maintenance, with two bulls allocated to each treatment. The measured ME requirements for maintenance were 0.42 ± 0.369 and 0.40 ± 0.153 MJ/kg LW0.75.day (coefficient ± standard error, Expts 1 and 2, respectively). The ME requirement for 'production' (i.e. positive liveweight change of male Bali cattle under the specific conditions of the experiment) was calculated to be 39.2 MJ/kg liveweight gain in Expt 2. The calculated efficiency of use of dietary ME for production in Expt 2, was 0.34. © CSIRO 2014.

Brewster D.R.,National University of East Timor | Morris P.S.,Royal Darwin Hospital Northern Territory
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2015

We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

This work presents a set of indices of information on the composition of landscape mosaics which extends to the concept of ecomosaic. These indices are successive generalizations of the Shannon function, used to measure landscape diversity, and interpreted as statistical entropy, or average value of information of a canonical system, a macroscopic parameter of a stochastic system; the formulas can also be considered to represent average or expected values of preferences, related with utility functions used in a broad sense of the concept. The information indices discussed in this paper are exemplified by a hypothetical scenario planning in the region of Nisa, Portugal, characterized by economic indicators of the value of forest habitats. The indices are also used to anchor a reflection that goes around three beacons relating to the concept of information: the Theories of Situation, Relevance, and Decision. The whole exercise may be seen as an abduction procedure, running a rational strategy that can serve as a basis for decision-making on the planning of the territory or also, it serves to investigate dynamic changes in the composition of the landscape mosaic. In the case exemplified the indices show that the cork oak and the umbrella pine forests are, by far, the most promising habitats in the region, under a scenario with no biophysical constraints.

Valentao P.,University of Porto | Goncalves R.F.,University of Porto | Belo C.,University of Porto | Belo C.,National University of East Timor | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2010

Piper betle is a species growing in South East Asia, where its leaves are economically and medicinally important. To screen the highest possible number of volatile and semivolatile components, the leaves were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction, prior to analysis by GC/MS. Fifty compounds (identified by comparison with standard compounds or tentatively by National Institute of Standards and Technology database) were determined, 23 being described for the first time in this matrix. An aqueous extract was also analysed, in which only seven compounds were characterized. The organic acids' composition of this extract was determined by HPLC/UV and eight compounds are reported for the first time in P. betle. This extract also displayed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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