National University of East Timor
Dili, East Timor
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Brewster D.R.,National University of East Timor | Morris P.S.,Royal Darwin Hospital Northern Territory
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2015

We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

This work presents a set of indices of information on the composition of landscape mosaics which extends to the concept of ecomosaic. These indices are successive generalizations of the Shannon function, used to measure landscape diversity, and interpreted as statistical entropy, or average value of information of a canonical system, a macroscopic parameter of a stochastic system; the formulas can also be considered to represent average or expected values of preferences, related with utility functions used in a broad sense of the concept. The information indices discussed in this paper are exemplified by a hypothetical scenario planning in the region of Nisa, Portugal, characterized by economic indicators of the value of forest habitats. The indices are also used to anchor a reflection that goes around three beacons relating to the concept of information: the Theories of Situation, Relevance, and Decision. The whole exercise may be seen as an abduction procedure, running a rational strategy that can serve as a basis for decision-making on the planning of the territory or also, it serves to investigate dynamic changes in the composition of the landscape mosaic. In the case exemplified the indices show that the cork oak and the umbrella pine forests are, by far, the most promising habitats in the region, under a scenario with no biophysical constraints.

PubMed | Guido Valadares National Hospital and National University of East Timor
Type: | Journal: ANZ journal of surgery | Year: 2016

Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700000 that has now grown to 1.2million.This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid. The RACS team began to provide 24/7 resident surgical and anaesthesia services in the capital, Dili, from July 2001. The arrival of the Chinese and Cuban Medical Teams provided a medical workforce, and the Cubans initiated undergraduate medical training for about 1000 nationals both in Cuba and in Timor-Leste, whilst RACS focused on specialist medical training.Australian Aid provided AUD$20million through three continuous programmes over 15years. In the first 10years over 10000 operations were performed. Initially only 10% of operations were done by trainees but this reached 77% by 2010. Twenty-one nurse anaesthetists were trained in-country, sufficient to cover the needs of each hospital. Seven Timorese doctors gained specialist qualifications (five surgery, one ophthalmology and one anaesthesia) from regional medical schools in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Indonesia and Malaysia. They introduced local specialist and family medicine diploma programmes for the Cuban graduates.Timor-Leste has developed increasing levels of surgical and anaesthetic self-sufficiency through multi-level collaboration between the Ministry of Health, Universidade Nacional de Timor Lorosae, and sustained, consistent support from external donors including Australian Aid, Cuba and RACS.

Amaral A.C.,National University of East Timor | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney | da Costa Freitas J.,National University of East Timor
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

The continued spread of rabies through the eastern islands of Indonesia poses a risk of rabies introduction to Timor Leste. To prepare for such an incursion and to undertake surveillance activities, the size and distribution of the roaming dog population needs to be estimated. We present the results of the first such surveys ever undertaken in Timor Leste.Roaming dog surveys were undertaken in each capital of the 13 districts of Timor Leste, including the national capital, Dili. Within these locations, local urban areas (aldeias) were targeted and sight-re-sight counts were undertaken on consecutive days. Estimated dog populations were adjusted for the sampling fraction.Overall, counts were performed in a total of 53 of 131 (40.5%) sucos and in 192 of 797 (24.1%) aldeias in these selected sucos. Within the surveyed urban areas, there were an estimated 21.2 people per roaming dog, a ratio substantially higher than the World Health Organization's average global estimate of 10 people per dog. The highest populations of dogs were estimated in the cities of Dili (4919), Baucau vila (3449) and Lospalos (2536). The latter two are important because of their location in the northeast of Timor Leste, where the risk of rabies incursion from recently infected islands in eastern Indonesia, is likely greatest. The sight-resight method of estimating roaming dog populations is practical in developing countries; more use of photography to aid resighting of dogs could increase the accuracy of this method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yuliaty,Curtin University Australia | Yuliaty,National University of East Timor | Low S.,Curtin University Australia | Fisher J.,Curtin University Australia | Dryden G.M.,Dryden Animal Science
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

The metabolisable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance and growth of entire male Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) were determined by regressing liveweight change on ME intake. Cattle were fed either a diet (DM basis) of 52.5% urea-treated rice straw plus 47.5% fresh leucaena forage (Expt 1), or fresh leucaena forage alone (Expt 2). In each experiment, liveweight change and feed intake were measured over 4 weeks, after a 1-week introductory period, and feed constituent digestibilities were measured during the final week. In Expt 1, 10 bulls between 1.5 and 3 years of age and weighing 123.7 ± 11.79 kg (mean ± s.d.) were allocated to DM intakes estimated to provide 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, or 2.0 times the estimated ME requirement for maintenance (based on calculations made from published CSIRO equations for tropical cattle species other than B. javanicus), with either one or two bulls per treatment. In Expt 2, the bulls were given treatments estimated to provide 0.85, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, or 2.2 times the ME requirement for maintenance, with two bulls allocated to each treatment. The measured ME requirements for maintenance were 0.42 ± 0.369 and 0.40 ± 0.153 MJ/kg (coefficient ± standard error, Expts 1 and 2, respectively). The ME requirement for 'production' (i.e. positive liveweight change of male Bali cattle under the specific conditions of the experiment) was calculated to be 39.2 MJ/kg liveweight gain in Expt 2. The calculated efficiency of use of dietary ME for production in Expt 2, was 0.34. © CSIRO 2014.

Valentao P.,University of Porto | Goncalves R.F.,University of Porto | Belo C.,University of Porto | Belo C.,National University of East Timor | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2010

Piper betle is a species growing in South East Asia, where its leaves are economically and medicinally important. To screen the highest possible number of volatile and semivolatile components, the leaves were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction, prior to analysis by GC/MS. Fifty compounds (identified by comparison with standard compounds or tentatively by National Institute of Standards and Technology database) were determined, 23 being described for the first time in this matrix. An aqueous extract was also analysed, in which only seven compounds were characterized. The organic acids' composition of this extract was determined by HPLC/UV and eight compounds are reported for the first time in P. betle. This extract also displayed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gusmao M.,University of Western Australia | Gusmao M.,National University of East Timor | Siddique K.H.M.,University of Western Australia | Flower K.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2012

The grain legume grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is adapted to drought-prone environments, but the extent and mechanisms of its tolerance are not well understood. In a pot experiment, water deficit was imposed on plants by withholding water from first flowering until predawn leaf water potential (LWP pd) was -3.12MPa. Water deficit reduced dry matter, seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency by 60%, 87%, 67% and 75%, respectively, when compared with the controls. Flower production stopped when LWP pd fell to -1.8MPa. At LWP pd-1.5MPa, only 25% of flowers resulted in filled pods (compared with 95% filled pods in the control) with the rest aborted as flowers (48%) or pods (27%). Filled pods had more aborted ovules than controls, resulting in 29% less seeds per pod. Water deficit reduced pollen viability, germination and the number of pollen tubes reaching the ovary by 13%, 25% and 31%, respectively. Emergence from seeds produced from water-deficient plants was 21% less than controls, but seedling shoot dry mass was 18% higher, in accordance with the 19% higher seed mass. The sensitivity of flowering to drought limited pod numbers but enabled plants to retain existing pods and develop near-normal seeds with low β-N-oxalyl-l-α-β-diaminopropionic acid toxin concentrations. This trait is useful for farming systems reliant on harvested seed for the next crop and in cases where seed size influences the value of the product. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Bettencourt E.M.V.,University of Évora | Tilman M.,National University of East Timor | Carvalho M.L.S.,University of Évora | Henriques P.D.S.,University of Évora
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households which include food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The objective of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste. Special attention was given to the socio cultural functions. The primary data used in this study was a questionnaire survey made in 2011 in three rural communities in the district of Bobonaro and as secondary source the numerous studies made about the livestock species of Timor-Leste. The results showed that livestock production and livestock species play important economic functions, as well as social and cultural roles for rural communities of Timor-Leste. Livestock species are a very important driver for the development and wellbeing of rural communities of Timor-Leste and livestock policies should incorporate not only economic but also the social and cultural roles of livestock species.

PubMed | National University of East Timor and University of Évora
Type: | Journal: Environmental technology | Year: 2016

For the activated carbon (AC) production, we used the most common industrial and consumer solid waste, namely polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), alone or blended with other synthetic polymer such polyacrylonitrile (PAN). By mixing PET, with PAN, an improvement in the yield of the AC production was found and the basic character and some textural and chemical properties were enhanced. The PET-PAN mixture was subjected to carbonisation, with a pyrolysis yield of 31.9%, between that obtained with PET (16.9%) or PAN (42.6%) separately. The AC revealed a high surface area (1400, 1230 and 1117m

Martins J.S.,University of New South Wales | Martins J.S.,National University of East Timor | Zwi A.B.,University of New South Wales | Hobday K.,University of New South Wales | And 3 more authors.
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2012

Background Timor-Leste changed its malaria treatment protocol in 2007, replacing the first-line for falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. This study explored the factors affecting the implementation of the revised treatment protocol, with an emphasis on identifying key constraints.Methods A mixed method approach drew on both qualitative and quantitative data. The study included data from District Health Services in seven districts, community health centres in 14 sub-districts, four hospitals, five private clinics, one private pharmacy and the country's autonomous medical store. In-depth interviews with 36 key informants, five group interviews and 15 focus group discussions were conducted. A survey was also undertaken at community health centres and hospitals to assess the availability of a physical copy of the Malaria Treatment Protocol, as well as the availability and utilization of artemether-lumefantrine and sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine.Results Many factors impeded the implementation of the new malaria protocol. These included: inadequate introduction and training around the revised treatment protocol; unclear phasing out of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and phasing in of the revised treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, and the rapid diagnostic test (RDT); lack of supervision; lack of adherence to the revised guidelines by foreign health workers; lack of access to the new drug by the private sector; obstacles in the procurement process; and the use of trade names rather than generic drug description. Insufficient understanding of the rapid diagnostic test and the untimely supply of drugs further hampered implementation.Conclusion To effectively implement a revised malaria treatment protocol, barriers should be identified during the policy formulation process and those emerging during implementation should be recognized promptly and addressed. © 2012 The Author.

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