La Jolla, Costa Rica
La Jolla, Costa Rica

The National University of Costa Rica is a public university in the Republic of Costa Rica, in Central America. The main campus is located in the city of Heredia. It is one of five public universities in the country and the second most prestigious. According to the most recent studies based on the international standards used to evaluate universities, The National University of Costa Rica ranks 85th in Latin America and 1576th in the world. Over 12,000 students study at its main campus. In addition to undergraduate programs, it offers 16 Masters of Art degrees and is strong in ecology, sociology and education related coursework. Wikipedia.

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Conicet, National University of Costa Rica and Plant Bioscience Ltd | Date: 2015-04-30

A polynucleotide having at least 80% sequence identity with the fill-length nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and substantially identical polynucleotides; an isolated polypeptide having at least 80% sequence identity with the full-length amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 and substantially identical polypeptides; and polynucleotides encoding the Ha WRKY76 polypeptide and substantially identical polypeptides are described. Also described are vectors and recombinant expression cassettes containing the c DNA polynucleotide, a polynucleotide encoding the Ha WRKY76 polypeptide, or substantially identical polynucleotides. Transgenic plants containing such expression cassettes, related methods and uses are also provided.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 3.18M | Year: 2009

LiveDiverse (LD) will develop new knowledge on the interactions between human livelihood and biodiversity in riparian and aquatic contexts in four developing countries (Vietnam, India, South Africa, Costa Rica). It has a strong emphasis on dissemination and the constructive engagement of a broad selection of social groups and their governmental and non-governmental representatives. The analysis of biodiversity values, sustainable use and livelihoods (biodiversity governance) within the project adopts vulnerability as a unifying concept, taking the point of departure in the concepts of biodiversity and livelihood vulnerability. Vulnerability will be considered from a combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and cultural/spiritual perspectives, where human ability to conserve and husband biodiversity while at the same time achieving sustainable livelihoods is of vital importance. The analyses of areas will analyse vulnerability in terms of biophysical, socio-economic- legal, and cultural/spiritual issues. Maps of these three perspectives will then be constructed in each case study and incorporated into a GIS system. These maps will identify biodiversity and livelihood hot-spots, that is, places where there is a high risk (according to natural science criteria), and a low capability (according to the socio-economic, law and policy criteria). Finally, biodiversity and livelihood scenarios will be developed. These scenarios will take into account the main perspectives; biological diversity risk, socio economic ability and cultural perceptions to cope with effects of this risk. Working in a 15-year perspective, the scenarios will examine future possible trends, threats and developments in order to formulate strategies and policy to meet the needs of both biodiversity and livelihoods.

Correa-Rotter R.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Wesseling C.,National University of Costa Rica | Johnson R.J.,University of Colorado at Denver
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2014

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin has emerged in the last decade in Central America and has been named Mesoamerican nephropathy. This form of chronic kidney disease is present primarily in young male agricultural workers from communities along the Pacific coast, especially workers in the sugarcane fields. In general, these men have a history of manual labor under very hot conditions in agricultural fields. Clinically, they usually present with normal or mildly elevated systemic blood pressure, asymptomatic yet progressive reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate, low-grade non-nephrotic proteinuria, and often hyperuricemia and or hypokalemia. Diabetes is absent in this population. Kidney biopsies that have been performed show a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with associated secondary glomerulosclerosis and some signs of glomerular ischemia. The cause of the disease is unknown; this article discusses and analyzes some of the etiologic possibilities currently under consideration. It is relevant to highlight that recurrent dehydration is suggested in multiple studies, a condition that possibly could be exacerbated in some cases by other conditions, including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. At present, Mesoamerican nephropathy is a medical enigma yet to be solved. © 2014 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

National University of Costa Rica and Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Date: 2013-10-16

A substantial reduction in traction force demand can be achieved for agricultural tools with modified surface topography comprising dimples arranged in a parallelogram (hexagonal) pattern, the morphological unit of which is an equilateral triangle.

National University of Costa Rica and Conicet | Date: 2012-03-12

We provide methods for increasing yield in plants under moderate stress conditions by expression of a transcription factor gene belonging to the HD Zip family of transcription factors.

Conicet, Ipcva Institute Promocion Of La Carne Vacuna Argentina and National University of Costa Rica | Date: 2012-05-11

The invention relates to a controlled-release injectable microparticle comprising a polyvinyl alcohol polymer and one or more hormones, in particular progesterone. Said microparticle induces estrus in female mammals after a single application. The invention also relates to a method for obtaining the microparticle.

Moreno E.,National University of Costa Rica | Moreno E.,University of Costa Rica
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 and 33000 ya, respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts' fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The "arm race" between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling, and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a "false sense of security" and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential. © 2014 Moreno.

Fernandez-Gaxiola A.C.,National University of Costa Rica
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Daily iron supplementation has been traditionally a standard practice for preventing and treating anaemia but its long term use has been limited as it has been associated with adverse side effects such as nausea, constipation and teeth staining. Intermittent iron supplementation has been suggested as an effective and safer alternative to daily iron supplementation for preventing and reducing anaemia at population level, especially in areas where this condition is highly prevalent. To assess the effects of intermittent oral iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other nutrients, on anaemia and its associated impairments in menstruating women, compared with no intervention, a placebo or daily supplementation. We searched the following databases in May 2011: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years), Science Citation Index (1970 to 27 May 2011), BIOSIS Previews (1969 to current), and CPCI-S (1990 to 27 May 2011). On 7 July 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, metaRegister and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We also contacted relevant organisations (on 11 October 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were menstruating women, that is women beyond menarche and prior to menopause who were not pregnant or lactating and did not have a known condition that impeded the presence of menstrual periods. The intervention was the use of iron supplements intermittently (one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) compared with no intervention, a placebo, or the use of same supplements on a daily basis. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, checked data entry for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We included 21 trials involving 10,258 women. Although the quality across trials was variable, the results consistently show that in comparison with no intervention or a placebo, intermittent iron supplementation (alone or with any other vitamins and minerals) reduces the risk of having anaemia (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95, 10 trials) and improves the concentration of haemoglobin (MD 4.58 g/L; 95% CI 2.56 to 6.59, 13 trials) and ferritin (MD 8.32 μg/L; 95% CI 4.97 to 11.66, six trials). However, in comparison with daily supplementation, women receiving supplements intermittently presented anaemia more frequently (RR 1.26; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.51, six trials), despite achieving similar haemoglobin concentrations on average (MD -0.15 g/L; 95% CI -2.20 to 1.91, eight trials).Information on disease outcomes, adherence, side effects, economic productivity and work performance is scarce and the evidence about the effects of intermittent supplementation on them is unclear.Overall, whether the supplements were given once or twice weekly, for less or more than three months, contained less or more than 60 mg of elemental iron per week, or to populations with different degrees of anaemia at baseline did not seem to affect the findings. Furthermore, the response did not differ in areas where malaria is frequent, although very few trials were conducted in these settings. Intermittent iron supplementation in menstruating women is a feasible intervention in settings where daily supplementation is likely to be unsuccessful or not possible. In comparison with daily supplementation, the provision of iron supplements intermittently is less effective in preventing or controlling anaemia. More information is needed on morbidity (including malaria outcomes), side effects, work performance, economic productivity, depression and adherence to the intervention.

Male reproductive performance in penaeoid aquaculture is a major issue. This review evaluates the current knowledge on male reproduction of open thelyca penaeoid shrimps. This group of shrimp belongs to the genus Penaeus, sub-genus Litopenaeus, and presents a unique reproductive model, characterized by complex spermatophores and thelyca without seminal receptacles; however, sperm seem to reach maturation and capacitation on the open thelyca. Males of this group adapt differently to captivity, being P. (Litopenaeus) vannamei the best adapted species. Nevertheless, three problematic conditions develop in confined environments in one or more species: male reproductive tract degenerative syndrome (MRTDS), male reproductive system melanization (MRSM), and spermatophore deterioration (SD). © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Integrated studies of stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleogeography and tectonic controls on Cenozoic basins provide the basis for a series of time-slice reconstructions of basin evolution in the Andes of southern Peru. The Altiplano and adjacent margin of the Western Cordillera are characterized by several Paleocene-Miocene synorogenic continental basins with thicknesses locally exceeding 10. km. The evolution of these basins has been controlled by NW-trending tectonic features that mark the Altiplano-Western Cordillera and Altiplano-Eastern Cordillera boundaries and the Condoroma structural high. Sedimentary deposits of Paleocene age preserved in the Altiplano are the result of nonmarine sedimentation in a distal foreland basin. During the early Eocene, predominantly dextral strike-slip movements in the Altiplano between the Cusco-Lagunillas and Urcos-Ayaviri fault systems created the transpressional Kayra basin. The Soncco and Anta basins (middle Eocene-early Oligocene) are related to NE shortening (43-30. Ma) and represent proximal, wedge-top and foredeep basin environments preserved on the Altiplano. At ~. 29-28. Ma, a change to predominantly E-W shortening produced sinistral strike-slip motion along NW-striking faults, resulting in intermontane, transpressional basins. In the Altiplano, the Tinajani and Punacancha (29-5. Ma), and Paruro (12-6. Ma) basins were controlled by the Cusco-Lagunillas and the Urcos-Ayaviri fault systems. The Maure, Tincopalca-Huacochullo and Condoroma basins (22-5.Ma) of the Western Cordillera developed between the Condoroma high and the Cusco-Lagunillas fault system. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation commonly evolved from proximal (alluvial) facies along the borders to distal (lacustrine) facies. These basins were linked to sinistral strike-slip faults that evolved into reverse-sinistral structures. Plate kinematics may play a role in Andean basin evolution, with deformation influenced by major preexisting faults that dictated paleogeographic trends, but orientations of regional compression that appear to coincide with the plate convergence direction. However, the processes of slab flattening and steepening exerted a primary control on regional crustal shortening and filling of synorogenic basins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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