National University of Cajamarca
Puerto Inca, Peru

The National University of Cajamarca , or UNC for short, is a major public university located in Cajamarca, Peru; capital of the department of Cajamarca. The university was created on February 13, 1962, formally established in accordance with a government decree.UNC currently has approximately 8152 students in ten different academic faculties, making it one of the largest universities in the north of the country. The current Headmaster is Carlos Tirado Soto. Wikipedia.

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PubMed | National University of Cajamarca, Hospital Regional Of Lambayeque and University Catolica Santo Toribio Of Mogrovejo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to determine the genotype of 15 ESBL strains of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to beta-lactams, isolated from inanimate surfaces and phenotypically characterized as producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. After evaluation and screening of the bacterial strains, a PCR was conducted to amplify fragments of 1078 bp and 544 bp corresponding to type TEM and CTX-M ESBL. Eleven strains presented both fragments at the time and only three had blaCTX-M. In conclusion, the presence of ESBL genes in cultures from the environment was demonstrated, some of which may belong to more than one type. This information could serve as a basis for implementing preventive measures to prevent the transmission of multiresistant bacteria from inanimate surfaces to patients, mainly in critical hospital areas.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.3-01 | Award Amount: 12.38M | Year: 2011

Livestock production efficiency is impaired by helminth infection which is ubiquitous in cattle, sheep and goats world-wide. It causes severely debilitating gastro-intestinal, respiratory and hepatic disorders, dependent on the infecting species. The treatment and prevention of helminth parasitism in livestock continues to rely almost exclusively on the use of anthelmintic drugs, an approach threatened by the global emergence of anthelmintic resistance. An alternative approach is vaccination. Members of the present consortium (from the EU and Switzerland, North and South America, North and South Africa, Australia, 2 SMEs and 1 major animal health company) have developed prototype vaccines with the predicted required efficacy to control major gastro-intestinal nematode infections of livestock, notably Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle and Haemonchus contortus in sheep, the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in sheep and cattle with leading positions in subunit vaccine development against Cooperia onchophora, Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle and the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in dogs. This proposal aims to deliver at least one prototype vaccine to the point of uptake by the commercial sector or through government/philanthropic agencies and this will be addressed by 1) Developing effective native or synthetic vaccines, the latter using novel, molecular expression systems. 2) Defining the protective immune responses induced by these vaccines to order to optimise the structure of the antigens and the method of their delivery. 3) Defining vaccine efficacy with trials in both housed and grazing livestock 4) Providing a platform for training and knowledge exchange which includes participation in training programmes, short exchanges of staff, workshops,and web site provision. 5) Interacting closely with computer modellers, the animal health industry, farmer organisations and other stakeholders to define required vaccine characteristics. 6) Knowledge exchange/dissemination to policy makers, scientists, government departments and the general public.

Ninatanta-Ortiz J.A.,National University of Cajamarca | Nunez-Zambrano L.A.,National University of Cajamarca | Garcia-Flores S.A.,National University of Cajamarca | Romani F.R.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2016

Objectives. To calculate the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its associated characteristics in selected populations residing in the urban areas of two districts in the Cajamarca region. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study performed in 2014, obtaining randomized samples from three target study populations: high school students, university students, and schoolchildren mothers. In adults, MetS was defined by means of Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) criteria, and in teenagers, the modified Cook criteria were used. A structured survey on healthy practices and unhealthy habits was implemented. MetS estimations were carried out for each study population, and stratified by sex. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify MetS-related characteristics. Results. We enrolled 1,427 participants (586 high school students, 305 university students, and 536 schoolchildren mothers) The estimated frequency of MetS in high school students was 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-4.8%), 1.6% (95% CI = 0.5-3.8%) in university students, and 23.5% (95% CI = 19.8-27.2%) in mothers. The most prevalent components were low HDL levels (37.0%, 60.5%, and 72.4%) and hypertriglyceridemia (46.4%, 29.9% and 38.4%), in high school students, university students, and mothers, respectively. Conclusions. MetS frequency was higher in the mothers of schoolchildren (adult women). The MetS phenotype profile in adult women was characterized by an elevated frequency of abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol), while dyslipidemia was prevalent in teenagers and university students. © 2016, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

Redding L.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Cubas-Delgado F.,National University of Cajamarca | Sammel M.D.,University of Pennsylvania | Smith G.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Very little is known about the use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in lower/middle-income countries. The use of these drugs can have profound impacts on animal health, farmer income and public health. A survey of 156 farmers was conducted in Cajamarca, a major dairy-producing center in the highlands of Peru characterized by small farms (<15 cows) to assess patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and farmers' knowledge of antibiotics. The reported incidence of disease on these farms was relatively low (0.571 episodes of disease per cow-year), but more than 83% of the reported episodes were treated with antibiotics. The most commonly used antibiotics were oxytetracycline, penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole drugs; antiparasitic drugs were also used to treat what were likely bacterial infections. An increased incidence of treated disease was significantly associated with smaller farm size, lower farmer income, the previous use of the Californian Mastitis test on the farm and antibiotic knowledge. Farmers' knowledge of antibiotics was assessed with a series of questions on antibiotics, resulting in a "knowledge score". Increased knowledge was significantly associated with the use of antibiotics for preventative reasons, the purchase of antibiotics from feed-stores, the experience of complications in animals after having administered antibiotics, the number of workers on the farm and the educational level of the farmer. Overall, antibiotics appeared to be used infrequently, most likely because therapeutic interventions were sought only when the animal had reached an advanced stage of clinical disease. Few farmers were able to define an antibiotic, but many farmers understood that the use of antibiotics carried inherent risks to their animals and potentially to the consumers of dairy products from treated animals. The results of this study are useful for understanding the patterns of antibiotic use and associated management, demographic and knowledge factors of farmers on small dairy farms in rural Peru. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Bargues M.D.,University of Valencia | Artigas P.,University of Valencia | Khoubbane M.,University of Valencia | Ortiz P.,National University of Cajamarca | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a valley transmission pattern, to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Methods: Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results: Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. Conclusions: The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities, given their transmission capacity differences: G. truncatula mainly involved in transmission to humans, L neotropica typically responsible for livestock infection, and L. schirazensis unable for transmission. Although several phenotypic characteristics may be helpful for a preliminary specimen classification, a definitive classification can only be obtained by marker sequencing. Aditionally, L. schirazensis increases the confusion, owing to its ability to mix with other Galba/Fossaria species and distort fascioliasis data such as transmission capacity and infection susceptibility. Second, a problem for epidemiological analysis, surveillance and control by methods as mathematical modelling and Remote Sensing - Geographical Information Systems. In Cajamarca, low resolution mapping may be insufficient, as already verified in Andean areas where different lymnaeid species overlap. © 2012 Bargues et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Valero M.A.,University of Valencia | Perez-Crespo I.,University of Valencia | Khoubbane M.,University of Valencia | Artigas P.,University of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/. Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gonzalez L.C.,University of Valencia | Esteban J.G.,University of Valencia | Bargues M.D.,University of Valencia | Valero M.A.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

A coprological survey including 476 2-18 year old school children from six rural localities between 2627 and 3061 m altitude was performed in Cajamarca province, Peru. Prevalences of fascioliasis ranging from 6.7 to 47.7% (mean 24.4%) proved to be the highest so far recorded in that human hyperendemic area. Higher prevalences in females and in the 2-5 year old group were not significant. Intensities ranged from 24 to 864 eggs per gram (arithmetic mean: 113; geometric mean: 68), the majority shedding less than 100, and without significant differences according to gender or age group. Fasciola hepatica was the most common helminth within a spectrum of 11-12 protozoan and 9-11 helminth species, 97.3% of the children showing infection with at least one parasite. The highest levels corresponded to coinfection with seven different species in females and subjects older than 5 years. Fascioliasis prevalence correlation with altitude appeared significant. An epidemiological characterisation of the valley transmission pattern of fascioliasis in Cajamarca is made by comparison with other better known hyperendemic areas. Results suggest that human fascioliasis may be widespread throughout different parts of Cajamarca province, even far away from the city, and that long-term fascioliasis chronicity and superimposed repetitive infections may be probably frequent. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Tovar C.,Agrarian National University | Duivenvoorden J.F.,University of Amsterdam | Sanchez-Vega I.,National University of Cajamarca | Seijmonsbergen A.C.,University of Amsterdam
Biotropica | Year: 2012

Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered major threats to biodiversity, especially in tropical mountain ecosystems. Most studies focus on the relationships between biodiversity and patch characteristics such as patch size, connectivity or degree of contrast with the surrounding matrix, but leave the rate of change within these variables little explored. We analyzed the importance of changes in patch characteristics over time on species diversity and species composition in the paramo of northern Peru, a tropical grassland ecosystem, locally known as jalca. We obtained land use/cover maps for 1987 and 2007 spanning an area of 6300 km 2, and quantified land use change, jalca patch characteristics and their proportional changes over 20 yr. In 2009, 371 vascular plant species were recorded in 92 plots, each plot representative of single patches. Between 1987 and 2007, jalca cover decreased from 47 to 35 percent due to encroaching agriculture. This activity showed an upward shift probably favored by climate change. The number of jalca patches increased, mean patch size decreased, and the patches showed a higher contrast with the surrounding matrix. Multiple linear regression failed to show that species diversity relates to changes in patch characteristics. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species composition relates to the degree of contrast between the patch and its surrounding matrix and its changes through time. We concluded that changes in patch characteristics are important only for species composition. This study highlights the importance of considering matrix management with a long term perspective for conservation efforts. © 2011 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Ortiz P.,National University of Cajamarca | Scarcella S.,National University of Central Buenos Aires | Cerna C.,National University of Cajamarca | Rosales C.,National University of Cajamarca | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is the most prevalent parasitic disease in dairy cattle from the northern region of Cajamarca, Peru. The control of this parasite is based on the use of Triclabendazole (TCBZ), a drug that has been used for more than fifteen years in this area. Recent studies, however, have reported a lack of clinical efficacy after treating dairy cattle. This research was aimed to determine the efficacy of TCBZ in a clinical trial. Eleven dairy cows all positive to F. hepatica identified by presence of eggs in feces, were treated with TCBZ (Fasinex® 10%) at 12mg/kg body weight. Fourteen and thirty days after treatment, the animals were analyzed for F. hepatica eggs in their feces by the fecal egg count reduction test. The results found show an overall efficacy of 31.05% and 13. 63% (14 and 30 days post treatment, respectively). Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy test was conducted in sheep with metacercariae obtained from eggs isolated from a cow clinically resistant to TCBZ. Eleven sheep divided in two groups, a control group with no treatment (n=5) and a treated group (n=6) were all infected with two hundred metacercariae. One hundred and six days after infection all the animals demonstrated F. hepatica eggs in their feces, confirming the presence of adult parasites in their livers. The animals were then treated with TCBZ (Fasinex® 10%) at 10mg/kg body weight. Fifteen days later, the animals were sacrificed and the number of F. hepatica in their livers counted. The results of this experiment showed an efficacy of the flukicide of 25.2% confirming the resistance to TCBZ of the F. hepatica isolated from dairy cattle in Cajamarca, Peru. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Seminario-Cunya J.F.,National University of Cajamarca | Rumay-Sanchez L.D.,National University of Cajamarca | Seminario-Cunya A.,National University of Cajamarca
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas | Year: 2016

The study was conducted in an area of natural vegetation in Campo Alegre (3708 m), Huanico, Namora district, Cajamarca (Perú), where Valeriana pilosa R. & P. (“valeriana”) grows spontaneously. Plant, seed, natural regeneration, phenology of populations, leaf area and dry matter allocation of the organs of adult bush were described. Germination tests were performed and the growth of seedlings was evaluated. The plant lives in the scrubland, mainly associated with species of Calamagrostis and Stipa. It is regenerated by seed, under the protection of companion plants. The phenology of populations was related to temperature and rainfall. The leaf area per plant was 925 cm2 and the average harvest index of 35.8%. Thousand seeds weighed 0.2 g and had 43% germination. Seedlings were grown 5.6 mm month-1. © 2016 Universidad de Santiago de Chile. All rights reserved.

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