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Puerto Inca, Peru

The National University of Cajamarca , or UNC for short, is a major public university located in Cajamarca, Peru; capital of the department of Cajamarca. The university was created on February 13, 1962, formally established in accordance with a government decree.UNC currently has approximately 8152 students in ten different academic faculties, making it one of the largest universities in the north of the country. The current Headmaster is Carlos Tirado Soto. Wikipedia.

Redding L.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Cubas-Delgado F.,National University of Cajamarca | Sammel M.D.,University of Pennsylvania | Smith G.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Very little is known about the use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in lower/middle-income countries. The use of these drugs can have profound impacts on animal health, farmer income and public health. A survey of 156 farmers was conducted in Cajamarca, a major dairy-producing center in the highlands of Peru characterized by small farms (<15 cows) to assess patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and farmers' knowledge of antibiotics. The reported incidence of disease on these farms was relatively low (0.571 episodes of disease per cow-year), but more than 83% of the reported episodes were treated with antibiotics. The most commonly used antibiotics were oxytetracycline, penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole drugs; antiparasitic drugs were also used to treat what were likely bacterial infections. An increased incidence of treated disease was significantly associated with smaller farm size, lower farmer income, the previous use of the Californian Mastitis test on the farm and antibiotic knowledge. Farmers' knowledge of antibiotics was assessed with a series of questions on antibiotics, resulting in a "knowledge score". Increased knowledge was significantly associated with the use of antibiotics for preventative reasons, the purchase of antibiotics from feed-stores, the experience of complications in animals after having administered antibiotics, the number of workers on the farm and the educational level of the farmer. Overall, antibiotics appeared to be used infrequently, most likely because therapeutic interventions were sought only when the animal had reached an advanced stage of clinical disease. Few farmers were able to define an antibiotic, but many farmers understood that the use of antibiotics carried inherent risks to their animals and potentially to the consumers of dairy products from treated animals. The results of this study are useful for understanding the patterns of antibiotic use and associated management, demographic and knowledge factors of farmers on small dairy farms in rural Peru. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Valero M.A.,University of Valencia | Perez-Crespo I.,University of Valencia | Khoubbane M.,University of Valencia | Artigas P.,University of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/. Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Bargues M.D.,University of Valencia | Artigas P.,University of Valencia | Khoubbane M.,University of Valencia | Ortiz P.,National University of Cajamarca | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a valley transmission pattern, to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Methods: Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results: Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. Conclusions: The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities, given their transmission capacity differences: G. truncatula mainly involved in transmission to humans, L neotropica typically responsible for livestock infection, and L. schirazensis unable for transmission. Although several phenotypic characteristics may be helpful for a preliminary specimen classification, a definitive classification can only be obtained by marker sequencing. Aditionally, L. schirazensis increases the confusion, owing to its ability to mix with other Galba/Fossaria species and distort fascioliasis data such as transmission capacity and infection susceptibility. Second, a problem for epidemiological analysis, surveillance and control by methods as mathematical modelling and Remote Sensing - Geographical Information Systems. In Cajamarca, low resolution mapping may be insufficient, as already verified in Andean areas where different lymnaeid species overlap. © 2012 Bargues et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tovar C.,Agrarian National University | Duivenvoorden J.F.,University of Amsterdam | Sanchez-Vega I.,National University of Cajamarca | Seijmonsbergen A.C.,University of Amsterdam
Biotropica | Year: 2012

Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered major threats to biodiversity, especially in tropical mountain ecosystems. Most studies focus on the relationships between biodiversity and patch characteristics such as patch size, connectivity or degree of contrast with the surrounding matrix, but leave the rate of change within these variables little explored. We analyzed the importance of changes in patch characteristics over time on species diversity and species composition in the paramo of northern Peru, a tropical grassland ecosystem, locally known as jalca. We obtained land use/cover maps for 1987 and 2007 spanning an area of 6300 km 2, and quantified land use change, jalca patch characteristics and their proportional changes over 20 yr. In 2009, 371 vascular plant species were recorded in 92 plots, each plot representative of single patches. Between 1987 and 2007, jalca cover decreased from 47 to 35 percent due to encroaching agriculture. This activity showed an upward shift probably favored by climate change. The number of jalca patches increased, mean patch size decreased, and the patches showed a higher contrast with the surrounding matrix. Multiple linear regression failed to show that species diversity relates to changes in patch characteristics. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species composition relates to the degree of contrast between the patch and its surrounding matrix and its changes through time. We concluded that changes in patch characteristics are important only for species composition. This study highlights the importance of considering matrix management with a long term perspective for conservation efforts. © 2011 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Gonzalez L.C.,University of Valencia | Esteban J.G.,University of Valencia | Bargues M.D.,University of Valencia | Valero M.A.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2011

A coprological survey including 476 2-18 year old school children from six rural localities between 2627 and 3061 m altitude was performed in Cajamarca province, Peru. Prevalences of fascioliasis ranging from 6.7 to 47.7% (mean 24.4%) proved to be the highest so far recorded in that human hyperendemic area. Higher prevalences in females and in the 2-5 year old group were not significant. Intensities ranged from 24 to 864 eggs per gram (arithmetic mean: 113; geometric mean: 68), the majority shedding less than 100, and without significant differences according to gender or age group. Fasciola hepatica was the most common helminth within a spectrum of 11-12 protozoan and 9-11 helminth species, 97.3% of the children showing infection with at least one parasite. The highest levels corresponded to coinfection with seven different species in females and subjects older than 5 years. Fascioliasis prevalence correlation with altitude appeared significant. An epidemiological characterisation of the valley transmission pattern of fascioliasis in Cajamarca is made by comparison with other better known hyperendemic areas. Results suggest that human fascioliasis may be widespread throughout different parts of Cajamarca province, even far away from the city, and that long-term fascioliasis chronicity and superimposed repetitive infections may be probably frequent. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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