National University of Agriculture of La Selva

www.unas.edu.pe
Cusco, Peru
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Aspilcueta-Borquis R.R.,São Paulo State University | Sesana R.C.,São Paulo State University | Berrocal M.H.M.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Seno L.D.O.,São Paulo State University | And 5 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. Copyright © 2009, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética.


Meza S. Z.N.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Garcia L.F.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Garcia P.V.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomia | Year: 2017

With the aim to study The inheritance of leThal gene ‘luteus-Pa’ in Three derivated progenies from self and cross-fertilization of cacao (Theobroma cacao L) varieties, a study was carried out during january to september, 2013. As genetic material C-25, S-5 y Pa-150 varieties were utilized and This one were self and cross pollinated and Their progenies were divided in two replicates with100 seeds each and sowed in plastic recipients containing a substrate 2:1(soil: sand). In order to contrast The observed segregation withits expected homologous 3:1 (monogenic inheritance), The Chi-square (X2) test was utilized. The results shown That only one from self-fertilized progeny of C-25 variety exhibited The mendelian segregation 3:1 in boThreplicates, so That it lead to infer This one is carrier of leThal gene ‘luteus-Pa’ in heterozigote condition whereas That The progenie from Pa-150 x C-25 cross no found none leThal seedling and submitted to Chi-square (X2) test it could be to infer This one no segregate in The proportion 3:1 Therefore, The Pa-150 variety is no carrier of This leThal gene. A better comprehension on photobiological origin, supported by molecular markers and The functional genomics of This mutant can help to identify and understand The factors involve in The photosynThetic mechanisms. © 2017, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.


Kieck J.S.,University of Hamburg | Zug K.L.M.,University of Hamburg | Huamani Yupanqui H.A.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Gomez Aliaga R.,United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime | Cierjacks A.,University of Hamburg
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Biodiversity may be positively related to crop yield, but the mechanisms by which such effects are realized are as yet poorly understood. Reduced pest incidence may be one cause. To better predict the quality and strength of biodiversity effects in cacao agroforestry systems and to disentangle potential drivers, we analyzed relationships of plant diversity with crop quantity (yield, fruit set, fruit size), pathogen incidence (Moniliophthora perniciosa, Moniliophthora roreri, Phytophthora spp.), and with the profile of selected secondary compounds (methylxanthines and polyphenols) in seeds of 48 cacao trees cultivated on 14 farms in Peruvian Amazonia. Our results revealed no correlation of yield per hectare or total fruit set with plant alpha diversity measures on the studied cacao farms. However, the number and size of ripe fruits without fungal infestation increased at higher diversity of the herb and shrub layer and at lower diversity and smaller basal area of shade trees. Greater diversity in the herb and shrub layer reduced the incidence of the Phytophthora pathogen but increased the incidence of M. roreri. At higher alpha diversity in the understory, contents of caffeine, theobromine, and catechin hydrate in cacao seeds significantly increased. The changes in plant secondary compounds showed inconsistent relations with the infestation rates of fungal pathogens. While trees infested with M. perniciosa showed higher contents of polyphenols and caffeine in seeds, cacao trees with higher caffeine content in seeds were less likely to be affected by Phytophthora. Similarly, a higher epicatechin content in seeds was associated with reduced M. roreri incidence. Our data provide evidence for a tight interplay of biodiversity, pathogen incidence, and the crop's secondary metabolism on cacao farms. Overall, considering biochemical traits in yield-diversity relationships allowed for a better understanding of the contribution of biotic interactions to biodiversity effects in tropical agroforestry systems. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Gonzalez-Toril E.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Santofimia E.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana | Blanco Y.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Lopez-Pamo E.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana | And 5 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2015

The exposure of fresh sulfide-rich lithologies by the retracement of the Nevado Pastoruri glacier (Central Andes, Perú) is increasing the presence of heavy metals in the water as well as decreasing the pH, producing an acid rock drainage (ARD) process in the area. We describe the microbial communities of an extreme ARD site in Huascarán National Park as well as their correlation with the water physicochemistry. Microbial biodiversity was analyzed by FLX 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The suggested geomicrobiological model of the area distinguishes three different zones. The proglacial zone is located in the upper part of the valley, where the ARD process is not evident yet. Most of the OTUs detected in this area were related to sequences associated with cold environments (i.e., psychrotolerant species of Cyanobacteria or Bacteroidetes). After the proglacial area, an ARD-influenced zone appeared, characterized by the presence of phylotypes related to acidophiles (Acidiphilium) as well as other species related to acidic and cold environments (i.e., acidophilic species of Chloroflexi, Clostridium and Verrumicrobia). Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) were also identified. The post-ARD area was characterized by the presence of OTUs related to microorganisms detected in soils, permafrost, high mountain environments, and deglaciation areas (Sphingomonadales, Caulobacter or Comamonadaceae). © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Musteata F.M.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences | Sandoval M.,Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences | Sandoval M.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Ruiz-Macedo J.C.,University of the Amazon | And 3 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2016

Introduction Although solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been used extensively for fingerprinting volatile compounds emitted by plants, there are very few such reports for direct insertion SPME. In this research, direct contact of SPME probes with the interstitial fluid of plants was investigated as a method for phytochemical analysis. Objective Medicinal plants from the Amazon have been the source of numerous drugs used in western medicine. However, a large number of species used in traditional medicine have not been characterized chemically, partly due to the difficulty of field work. In this project, the phytochemical composition of plants from several genera was fingerprinted by combining convenient field sampling by solid phase microextraction (SPME) with laboratory analysis by LC-MS. The new method was compared with classical sampling followed by liquid extraction (LE). Methodology SPME probes were prepared by coating stainless steel wires with a mixture of polyacrylonitrile and either RP-amide or HS-F5 silica particles. Sampling was performed by inserting the microextraction probes into various tissues of living plants in their natural environment. After in vivo extraction, the probes were sealed under vacuum and refrigerated until analyzed. The probes were desorbed in mobile phase and analyzed on a Waters Acquity UPLC with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion mode. Results Twenty Amazonian plant species were sampled and unique metabolomic fingerprints were obtained. In addition, quantitative analysis was performed for previously identified compounds in three species. Comparison of the fingerprints obtained by in vivo SPME with those obtained by LE showed that 27% of the chromatographic features were unique to SPME, 57% were unique to LE, and 16% were common to both methods. Conclusion In vivo SPME caused minimal damage to the plants, was much faster than traditional liquid extraction, and provided unique fingerprints for all investigated plants. SPME revealed unique chromatographic features, undetected by traditional extraction, although it produced only half as many peaks as ethanol extraction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Santiago Antúnez de Mayolo National University, National University of Agriculture of La Selva, CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology and Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbial ecology | Year: 2015

The exposure of fresh sulfide-rich lithologies by the retracement of the Nevado Pastoruri glacier (Central Andes, Per) is increasing the presence of heavy metals in the water as well as decreasing the pH, producing an acid rock drainage (ARD) process in the area. We describe the microbial communities of an extreme ARD site in Huascarn National Park as well as their correlation with the water physicochemistry. Microbial biodiversity was analyzed by FLX 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The suggested geomicrobiological model of the area distinguishes three different zones. The proglacial zone is located in the upper part of the valley, where the ARD process is not evident yet. Most of the OTUs detected in this area were related to sequences associated with cold environments (i.e., psychrotolerant species of Cyanobacteria or Bacteroidetes). After the proglacial area, an ARD-influenced zone appeared, characterized by the presence of phylotypes related to acidophiles (Acidiphilium) as well as other species related to acidic and cold environments (i.e., acidophilic species of Chloroflexi, Clostridium and Verrumicrobia). Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) were also identified. The post-ARD area was characterized by the presence of OTUs related to microorganisms detected in soils, permafrost, high mountain environments, and deglaciation areas (Sphingomonadales, Caulobacter or Comamonadaceae).


PubMed | University of Minnesota, Botanical Dimensions, National University of Agriculture of La Selva, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and University of the Amazon
Type: | Journal: Analytica chimica acta | Year: 2016

Although solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been used extensively for fingerprinting volatile compounds emitted by plants, there are very few such reports for direct insertion SPME. In this research, direct contact of SPME probes with the interstitial fluid of plants was investigated as a method for phytochemical analysis.Medicinal plants from the Amazon have been the source of numerous drugs used in western medicine. However, a large number of species used in traditional medicine have not been characterized chemically, partly due to the difficulty of field work. In this project, the phytochemical composition of plants from several genera was fingerprinted by combining convenient field sampling by solid phase microextraction (SPME) with laboratory analysis by LC-MS. The new method was compared with classical sampling followed by liquid extraction (LE).SPME probes were prepared by coating stainless steel wires with a mixture of polyacrylonitrile and either RP-amide or HS-F5 silica particles. Sampling was performed by inserting the microextraction probes into various tissues of living plants in their natural environment. After invivo extraction, the probes were sealed under vacuum and refrigerated until analyzed. The probes were desorbed in mobile phase and analyzed on a Waters Acquity UPLC with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion mode.Twenty Amazonian plant species were sampled and unique metabolomic fingerprints were obtained. In addition, quantitative analysis was performed for previously identified compounds in three species. Comparison of the fingerprints obtained by invivo SPME with those obtained by LE showed that 27% of the chromatographic features were unique to SPME, 57% were unique to LE, and 16% were common to both methods.Invivo SPME caused minimal damage to the plants, was much faster than traditional liquid extraction, and provided unique fingerprints for all investigated plants. SPME revealed unique chromatographic features, undetected by traditional extraction, although it produced only half as many peaks as ethanol extraction.


Aspilcueta-Borquis R.R.,São Paulo State University | Baldi F.,São Paulo State University | Araujo Neto F.R.,São Paulo State University | Albuquerque L.G.,São Paulo State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to apply factor analysis to describe lactation curves in dairy buffaloes in order to estimate the phenotypic and genetic association between common latent factors and cumulative milk yield. A total of 31 257 monthly test-day milk yield records from buffaloes belonging to herds located in the state of Sao Paulo were used to estimate two common latent factors, which were then analysed in a multi-trait animal model for estimating genetic parameters. Estimates of (co)variance components for the two common latent factors and cumulated 270-d milk yield were obtained by Bayesian inference using a multiple trait animal model. Contemporary group, number of milkings per day (two levels) and age of buffalo cow at calving (linear and quadratic) as covariate were included in the model as fixed effects. The additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included as random effects. The first common latent factor (F1) was associated with persistency of lactation and the second common latent factor (F2) with the level of production in early lactation. Heritability estimates for F1 and F2 were 0·12 and 0·07, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between F1 and F2 with cumulative milk yield were positive and moderate (0·63 and 0·52). Multivariate statistics employing factor analysis allowed the extraction of two variables (latent factors) that described the shape of the lactation curve. It is expected that the response to selection to increase lactation persistency is higher than the response obtained from selecting animals to increase lactation peak. Selection for higher total milk yield would result in a favourable correlated response to increase the level of production in early lactation and the lactation persistency. © 2011 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research.


Guerrero T.E.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Vejarano P.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Paredes J.L.,Production and quality control MTC | Cepeda R.,Production and quality control MTC
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The present research had been conducted with phytochemical screening to identify the presence of secondary metabolites in canned white asparagus. Using colored reactive substances we intend to determine the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, leucoanthocyanidins, tannins, saponins, quinones, triterpenes and anthocyanins. Using ultraviolet spectroscopy we also intend to quantify the total flavonoids. The research has found that the presence of alkaloids is questionable, Flavonoids are good, leucoanthocyanidins are moderate, tannins are not shown, saponins are moderate, quinones are low, triterpenes are not present and anthocyanins are not shown. The research has also found that the total flavonoids in canned asparagus are 1.16 mg of quercetin equivalent to one gram of dry sample, or 9.34 mg of quercetin equivalent to 100 g of drained sample. From the analysis we can conclude that even though the preserved white asparagus are sterilized, they keep the good amount of flavonoids, which are very important for the health of consumers.


Juarez J.D.,University of Murcia | Juarez J.D.,National University of Agriculture of La Selva | Parrilla I.,University of Murcia | Vazquez J.M.,University of Murcia | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2011

Two experiments were performed in the present study that demonstrated that boar spermatozoa are capable of surviving rapid cooling rates within a range of 15-5°C before freezing. Boar ejaculates diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) (1:1, v/v) were held at 17-20°C and shipped over a 24-h time period from two AI centres to a cryobiology laboratory, where they were pooled (Experiment 1) or cryopreserved individually (Experiment 2) using a standard 0.5-mL straw freezing protocol. The effects of cooling before freezing were assessed after thawing through the objective evaluation of sperm motility and flow cytometric analysis of membrane integrity, acrosomal status, changes in membrane lipid architecture monitored by merocyanine and annexin V binding and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. In Experiment 1 (six replicates), two semen pools (five ejaculates per pool) were cooled from 15 to 5°C at rates of 0.08, 0.13, 0.40 and 1.50°Cmin-1. These cooling rates did not result in any significant differences (P>0.05) in any of the post-thaw sperm assessments, even in thawed samples incubated under capacitation conditions. In Experiment 2, three individual ejaculates from 16 boars were slowly (0.08°Cmin-1) or rapidly (1.5°Cmin-1) cooled before freezing. A consistent interboar variability (P<0.01) was detected, which was independent of the cooling rate used. Cooling rate only significantly influenced (P<0.05) sperm assessments in four of 16 boars, which exhibited slightly higher percentages of motile cells and intact plasma and acrosomal membranes in the samples that had been cooled slowly. These findings demonstrate that boar spermatozoa undergoing cryopreservation can withstand rapid cooling rates before freezing. © 2011 CSIRO.

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