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Bates M.,University College London | Mudenda V.,University of Lusaka | Shibemba A.,University of Lusaka | Kaluwaji J.,University College London | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Patients with subclinical tuberculosis, smear-negative tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and asymptomatic tuberculosis are difficult to diagnose and may be missed at all points of health care. We did an autopsy study to ascertain the burden of tuberculosis at post mortem in medical inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: Between April 5, 2012, and May 22, 2013, we did whole-body autopsies on inpatients aged at least 16 years who died in the adult inpatient wards at University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. We did gross pathological and histopathological analysis and processed lung tissues from patients with tuberculosis through the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay to identify patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The primary outcome measure was specific disease or diseases stratified by HIV status. Secondary outcomes were missed tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and comorbidities with tuberculosis. Data were analysed using Pearson χ2, the Mann-Whitney U test, and binary logistic regression. Findings: The median age of the 125 included patients was 35 years (IQR 29-43), 80 (64%) were men, and 101 (81%) were HIV positive. 78 (62%) patients had tuberculosis, of whom 66 (85%) were infected with HIV. 35 (45%) of these 78 patients had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The risk of extrapulmonary tuberculosis was higher among HIV-infected patients than among uninfected patients (adjusted odds ratio 5·14, 95% CI 1·04-24·5; p=0·045). 20 (26%) of 78 patients with tuberculosis were not diagnosed during their life and 13 (17%) had undiagnosed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Common comorbidities with tuberculosis were pyogenic pneumonia in 26 patients (33%) and anaemia in 15 (19%). Interpretation: Increased clinical awareness and more proactive screening for tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in inpatient settings is needed. Further autopsy studies are needed to ascertain the generalisability of the findings. Funding: UBS Optimus Foundation, EuropeAID, and European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kuaban C.,University of Yaounde I | Kuaban C.,University of Bamenda | Rieder H.L.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Rieder H.L.,University of Zurich | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

SETTING: Two specialised multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment units in Cameroon. OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome and adverse drug events with a standardised 12-month regimen for MDR-TB among second-line drug naïve patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of MDR-TB patients treated with a standardised 12-month regimen including gatifloxacin, clofazimine, prothionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide throughout, supplemented by kanamycin and isoniazid during an intensive phase of a minimum of 4 months. Progress was monitored monthly until treatment completion and twice over one year after treatment cessation. RESULTS: Eighty-seven potentially eligible patients were lost and never treated due to delayed availability of test results. Among the 150/236 eligible and treated patients, 134 (89%) successfully completed treatment, 10 died, 5 were lost, 1 failed and none relapsed. The patients' mean age was 33.7 years (range 17-68), 73 (49%) were females, 120 (80%) had failed on previous treatment, 30 (20%) were human immunodeficiency virus seropositive, 62 (43%) had a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 and 41 (27%) had radiographic involvement of five or six of the six lung zones. The most important adverse drug event was hearing impairment, which occurred in 46 of 106 (43%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results add further evidence for the usefulness of shorter, standardised regimens among patients without second-line drug resistance. © 2015 The Union.

Sanchez-Padilla E.,Epicentre | Dlamini T.,National Tuberculosis Control Programme | Ascorra A.,Epicentre | Rusch-Gerdes S.,National Reference Center for Mycobacteria | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

In Africa, although emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents a serious threat in countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic, most countries lack drug-resistant TB data. This finding was particularly true in the Kingdom of Swaziland, which has the world's highest HIV and TB prevalences. Therefore, we conducted a national survey in 2009-2010 to measure prevalence of drug-resistant TB. Of 988 patients screened, 420 new case-patients and 420 previously treated casepatients met the study criteria. Among culture-positive patients, 15.3% new case-patients and 49.5% previously treated case-patients harbored drug-resistant strains. MDR TB prevalence was 7.7% and 33.8% among new casepatients and previously treated case-patients, respectively. HIV infection and past TB treatment were independently associated with MDR TB. The findings assert the need for wide-scale intervention in resource-limited contexts such as Swaziland, where diagnostic and treatment facilities and health personnel are lacking.

Rifat M.,University of Newcastle | Milton A.H.,University of Newcastle | Hall J.,University of Newcastle | Oldmeadow C.,University of Newcastle | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. Methods: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93) and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66), some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85), service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively), smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5), and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34) were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. Conclusion: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh. © 2014 Rifat et al.

Zafar Ullah A.N.,University of Leeds | Huque R.,University of Dhaka | Husain A.,National Tuberculosis Control Programme | Akter S.,Society for Empowerment | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: To implement and evaluate a public-private partnership model involving garment factories to reduce the tuberculosis (TB) burden in this workforce. DESIGN: We used operational research to develop and evaluate a mechanism for effective and sustainable TB control in workplaces in three areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Strategies, protocols, guides and tools were developed with stakeholders. We assessed the impact of the project using quantitative and qualitative measures: changes in TB outcomes were calculated using standard indicators based on factory and DOTS centre records; changes in TB care-seeking behaviour were assessed using qualitative in-depth interviews with factory managers and medical personnel, and focus group discussions with factory workers, including TB patients. FINDINGS: The project brought positive changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices of managers, workers and health care providers on TB care and control. During 2008-2010, a total of 3372 workers from a workforce of 69 000 were referred for sputum microscopy and 598 were diagnosed with smear-positive TB, 145 of whom received care at their workplace. The overall treatment success rate was 100%. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to engage factories in TB control activities in Bangladesh, and thereby increase case notifications and improve treatment outcomes. © 2012 The Union.

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