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Ukwaja K.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital | Oshi S.N.,Center for Development and Reproductive Health | Alobu I.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme | Oshi D.C.,Center for Development and Reproductive Health
The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

SETTING: One urban tertiary care and one rural secondary care hospital in Nigeria.OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) patients treated with an 8-month or 6-month anti-tuberculosis regimen in a low-resource setting.DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.RESULTS: A total of 928 newly diagnosed smear-positive TB patients were treated with either daily ethambutol (EMB), isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and pyrazinamide (PZA) for 2 months followed by EMB and INH for 6 months (2RHZE/6EH), or the same intensive phase as the first regimen followed by 4 months of daily RMP and INH (2RHZE/4RH). The proportion of successful outcomes was 381/490 (77.8%) with 2RHZE/6EH and 373/438 (85.2%) with 2RHZE/4RH (P = 0.004). Defaulting was significantly more frequent in patients who received 2RHZE/6EH (14.3% vs. 5.5%; P < 0.001). Treatment failure was not significantly higher in patients who received 2RHZE/6EH (2.9% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.15). After adjusting for confounders, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7), 2RHZE/6EH treatment (aOR 1.6) and male sex (aOR 1.5) independently predicted unsuccessful outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus negative TB patients.CONCLUSIONS: Newly diagnosed TB patients on 2RHZE/4RH have a higher treatment success rate than those treated with 2RHZE/6EH under programme conditions in a low-resource, high-burden setting. Current World Health Organization recommendations should be maintained. Source

Ukwaja K.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital | Alobu I.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme | Abimbola S.,National Primary Health Care Development Agency | Hopewell P.C.,San Francisco General Hospital
Infectious Diseases of Poverty

Background: Studies on costs incurred by patients for tuberculosis (TB) care are limited as these costs are reported as averages, and the economic impact of the costs is estimated based on average patient/household incomes. Average expenditures do not represent the poor because they spend less on treatment compared to other economic groups. Thus, the extent to which TB expenditures risk sending households into, or further into, poverty and its determinants, is unknown. We assessed the incidence and determinants of household catastrophic payments for TB care in rural Nigeria. Methods: Data used were obtained from a survey of 452 pulmonary TB patients sampled from three rural health facilities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Using household direct costs and income data, we analyzed the incidence of household catastrophic payments using, as thresholds, the traditional >10% of household income and the ≥40% of non-food income, as recommended by the World Health Organization. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the determinants of catastrophic payments. Results: Average direct household costs for TB were US$157 or 14% of average annual incomes. The incidence catastrophic payment was 44%; with 69% and 15% of the poorest and richest household income-quartiles experiencing catastrophic activity, respectively. Independent determinants of catastrophic payments were: age >40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0, 7.8), male gender (aOR 3.0; CI 1.8, 5.2), urban residence (aOR 3.8; CI 1.9, 7.7), formal education (aOR 4.7; CI 2.5, 8.9), care at a private facility (aOR 2.9; 1.5, 5.9), poor household (aOR 6.7; CI 3.7, 12), household where the patient is the primary earner (aOR 3.8; CI 2.2, 6.6]), and HIV co-infection (aOR 3.1; CI 1.7, 5.6). Conclusions: Current cost-lowering strategies are not enough to prevent households from incurring catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for TB care. Financial and social protection interventions are needed for identified at-risk groups, and community-level interventions may reduce inefficiencies in the care-seeking pathway. These observations should inform post-2015 TB strategies and influence policy-making on health services that are meant to be free of charge. © 2013 Ukwaja et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ukwaja K.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital | Alobu I.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme | lgwenyi C.,Federal Teaching Hospital | Hopewell P.C.,San Francisco General Hospital

Objective:Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income.Results:Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (±11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (≤35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5).Conclusion:Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor. © 2013 Ukwaja et al. Source

Alobu I.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme | Oshi S.N.,Center for Development and Reproductive Health | Oshi D.C.,Center for Development and Reproductive Health | Ukwaja K.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Objective: To evaluate the rates, timing and determinants of default and death among adult tuberculosis patients in Nigeria. Methods: Routine surveillance data were used. A retrospective cohort study of adult tuberculosis patients treated during 2011 and 2012 in two large health facilities in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was conducted. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors for treatment default and death. Results: Of 1 668 treated patients, the default rate was 157 (9.4%), whilst 165 (9.9%) died. Also, 35.7% (56) of the treatment defaults and 151 (91.5%) of deaths occurred during the intensive phase of treatment. Risk of default increased with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), smear-negative TB case (aOR 2.3; CI 1.5-3.6), extrapulmonary TB case (aOR 2.7; CI 1.3-5.2), and patients who received the longer treatment regimen (aOR 1.6; 1.1-2.2). Risk of death was highest in extrapulmonary TB (aOR 3.0; CI 1.4-6.1) and smear-negative TB cases (aOR 2.4; CI 1.7-3.5), rural residents (aOR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.6), HIV co-infected (aOR 2.5; CI 1.7-3.6), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aOR 1.6; CI 1.1-2.9), and not receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (aOR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.6). Conclusions: Targeted interventions to improve treatment adherence for patients with the highest risk of default or death are urgently needed. This needs to be urgently addressed by the National Tuberculosis Programme. © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Source

Rigouts L.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Rigouts L.,University of Antwerp | Hoza A.S.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | De Rijk P.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

SETTING: A national tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance survey in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the Genotype® MTBDRplus line-probe assay (LPA) on smear-positive sputum specimens with conventional culture and isoniazid (INH) plus rifampicin (RMP) drug susceptibility testing (DST). DESIGN: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates tested at the Tanzanian Central TB Reference Laboratory (CTRL) were submitted for quality assurance of phenotypic DST to its supranational reference laboratory (SRL), together with ethanol-preserved sputum specimens for LPA DST. RESULTS: Only 321 samples could be tested using LPA; of these, three were identified as being non-tuberculous mycobacteria using CTRL DST. Both tests had 269 sets with interpretable results. CTRL DST yielded almost the same number of interpretable results as LPA, with 90% concordance (κ = 0.612, P < 0.001). Five (1.9%) multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, 46 (17.1%) resistant to INH only and 0 RMP only, were found by CTRL DST. For the LPA, these results were respectively 5 (1.9%), 26 (9.7%) and 2 (0.7%). With SRL DST as the gold standard, LPA was more accurate than CTRL DST for RMP, but missed almost half the INH-resistant samples. CONCLUSION: LPA applied directly on ethanol-preserved sputum specimens was similar to phenotypic DST in terms of yield of interpretable results. Although probably more accurate for RMP and MDR-TB, it appears to seriously underestimate INH resistance. Considering speed, easy and safe specimen transportation and low infrastructure requirements, LPA DST from sputum can be recommended for surveys in resource-poor settings. © 2011 The Union. Source

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