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Hsinchu, Taiwan

National Tsing Hua University is one of the most prestigious universities within the high-tech democratic industrialized developed country of the 23x15px Republic of China as well as the world. It's high international ranking affords it the status of one of the top elite universities in the world. There are now 7 colleges, 17 departments and 22 independent graduate institutes in the university. Wikipedia.

Dudev T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Metal cations are the simplest, but most versatile, cofactors in protein biochemistry with a plethora of distinctive properties. Intracellular and extracellular fluids contain a mixture of metal cations present in different concentrations. Properties of the metal-binding site such as its relative rigidity and solvent accessibility, as well as the type, number, orientation, and protonation state of the metal coordinating ligands, which determine the metal cavity size, geometry, and charge density, affect metal ion selectivity. In several cases, the host protein alone is not able to withstand attacks from biogenic or alien metal cations, which could displace the cognate metal cofactor from the binding site. Whereas the metal-ligand interaction energy becomes less favorable in going down a main group, it becomes more favorable in going across a row in the periodic table, as the net positive charge on the metal increases, yet monovalent ions can still displace divalent ions in certain proteins. Source

Shih C.-H.,National Chi Nan University | Liang J.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2010

This paper presents a novel Schottky barrier multibit cell with source-side injected programming and reverse drain-side hole erasing. Based on the unique ambipolar conduction of Schottky barrier devices, the source Schottky barrier promotes the amounts of hot electrons at a positive gate voltage to perform source-side injected programming, whereas the drain Schottky barrier enhances the generations of hot holes at a negative gate voltage to carry out reverse drain-side erasing. The proposed Schottky barrier charge-trapping cells are numerically demonstrated to exhibit low-voltage and high-efficiency programming/erasing without the presence of any gate versus source/drain bias tradeoff. The tight and matched distributions of injected carriers make this Schottky barrier cell excellent in future multibit-cell applications. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Tang Q.-W.,Nanjing University | Wang X.-Y.,Nanjing University | Thomas Tam P.-H.,National Tsing Hua University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ∼5.5σ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a "proton calorimeter." It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed. © 2014 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Yeh W.-C.,University of Technology, Sydney | Yeh W.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems | Year: 2012

The end-of-life (EOL) disassembly sequencing problem (DSP) has become increasingly important in the process of handling EOL products. This paper proposes a solution procedure for the "EOL DSP"; the procedure is based on a novel soft-computing algorithm that utilizes modified "simplified swarm optimization", and the procedure combines the precedence preservative operator, feasible solution generator, self-adaptive parameter control, and repetitive pairwise exchange procedures. By taking into consideration the non-deterministic polynomial time (NP)-complete nature of the problem, the proposed algorithm efficiently seeks the optimal disassembly sequence with a novel approach; this approach involves reducing the initial solution space and using a combination of soft-computing algorithms for achieving higher computational efficiency and solution quality. The results presented in this paper show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of solution quality achieved in a limited computation time. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Chen L.J.,National Tsing Hua University | Wu W.W.,National Chiao Tung University
Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports | Year: 2010

In situ investigation of the temperature induced phase transformation, structural and chemical evolution of nanocrystals is important for understanding the structure and stability of nanomaterials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), one of the most powerful tools for characterizing nanostructured materials, is essential for the development of nanotechnology. In situ TEM is a technique that allows a direct observation of dynamic properties in nanoscale. Recent development of ultra-high vacuum TEM (UHV-TEM) further enables the investigation on atomic-scale materials systems in a clean environment. The appropriate utilization of the UHV-TEM will be beneficial in studying the fundamental mechanisms of dynamic reactions, formation of transient phase, solid-state amorphization, epitaxial growth, growth kinetics and evolution of defects. In this paper, we present the most recent progress in observing dynamic processes in nanoscale by in situ UHV-TEM. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chiang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University
Engineering Fracture Mechanics | Year: 2013

Explicit and closed-form expressions for the electromechanical fields around a screw dislocation in a cubic piezoelectric crystal are presented. Governing equations for anti-plane elastic deformation coupled with in-plane electric field are derived and solutions in terms of complex variables are obtained. The effect of coordinate rotation on the solution is studied. The results are expressed in both rectangular and cylindrical coordinates. Also determined is the electric enthalpy associated with the dislocation. The interaction of two parallel dislocations is discussed with reference to the Peach-Koehler force. A crack problem is solved as an illustration of the application of present solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chou C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

The Schrödinger-Langevin equation with linear dissipation is integrated by propagating an ensemble of Bohmian trajectories for the ground state of quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the Schrödinger-Langevin equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with linear dissipation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation is simultaneously integrated with the trajectory guidance equation. Then, the computational method is applied to the harmonic oscillator, the double well potential, and the ground vibrational state of methyl iodide. The excellent agreement between the computational and the exact results for the ground state energies and wave functions shows that this study provides a synthetic trajectory approach to the ground state of quantum systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Kuo C.-H.,Hsinchu | Yang Y.-C.,Hsinchu | Gwo S.,Hsinchu | Gwo S.,National Tsing Hua University | Huang M.H.,Hsinchu
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

We report highly facet-dependent electrical properties of Cu2O nanocubes and octahedra and significant enhancement of gold nanocrystal cores to the electrical conductivity of Au-Cu2O core-shell octahedra. Cu 2O nanocubes and octahedra and Au-Cu2O coreshell cubes and octahedra were synthesized by following our reported facile procedures at room temperature. Two oxide-free tungsten probes attached to a nanomanipulator installed inside a scanning electron microscope made contacts to a single Cu2O nanocrystal for the I-V measurements. Pristine Cu2O octahedra bounded by {111} facets are 1100 times more conductive than pristine Cu2O cubes enclosed by {100} faces, which are barely conductive. Core-shell cubes are only slightly more conductive than pristine cubes. A 10 000-fold increase in conductivity over a cube has been recorded for an octahedron. Remarkably, core-shell octahedra are far more conductive than pristine octahedra. The same facet-dependent electrical behavior can still be observed on a single nanocrystal exposing both {111} and {100} facets. This new fundamental property may be observable in other semiconductor nanocrystals. We also have shown that both core-shell cubes and octahedra outperform pristine cubes and octahedra in the photodegradation of methyl orange. Efficient photoinduced charge separation is attributed to this enhanced photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, facet-selective etching occurred over the {100} corners of some octahedra and core-shell octahedra during photocatalysis. The successful preparation of Au-Cu2O core-shell heterostructures with precise shape control has offered opportunities to discover new and exciting physical and chemical properties of nanocrystals. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Chang Y.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin C.-T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen T.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Hsu C.-L.,National Chiao Tung University | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

A three-dimensional Ni foam deposited with graphene layers on surfaces is used as a conducting solid support to load MoSx catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. The graphene sheets grown on Ni foams provide robust protection and efficiently increase the stability in acid. The superior performance of hydrogen evolution is attributed to the relatively high catalyst loading weight as well as its relatively low resistance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Yeh J.-W.,National Tsing Hua University
JOM | Year: 2013

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are newly emerging advanced materials. In contrast to conventional alloys, HEAs contain multiple principal elements, often five or more in equimolar or near-equimolar ratios. The basic principle behind HEAs is that solid-solution phases are relatively stabilized by their significantly high entropy of mixing compared to intermetallic compounds, especially at high temperatures. This makes them feasibly synthesized, processed, analyzed, and manipulated, and as well provides many opportunities for us. There are huge numbers of possible compositions and combinations of properties in the HEA field. Wise alloy design strategies for suitable compositions and processes to fit the requirements for either academic studies or industrial applications thus become especially important. In this article, four core effects were emphasized, several misconceptions on HEAs were clarified, and several routes for future HEA research and development were suggested. © 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Source

Yeh W.-C.,University of Technology, Sydney | Yeh W.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

This work uses a novel rule-based classifier design method, constructed by using improved simplified swarm optimization (SSO), to mine a thyroid gland dataset from UCI databases. An elite concept is added to the proposed method to improve solution quality, close interval encoding (CIE) is added to efficiently represent the rule structure, and the orthogonal array test (OAT) is added to powerfully prune rules to avoid over-fitting the training dataset. To evaluate the classification performance of the proposed improved SSO, computer simulations are performed on well-known thyroid gland data. Computational results compare favorably with those obtained using existing algorithms such as conventional classifiers, including Bayes classifier, k-NN, k-Means, and 2D-SOM, and soft computing based methods such as the simple SSO, immune-estimation of distribution algorithms (IEDA), and genetic algorithm (GA). © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Liu Y.A.,National Tsing Hua University
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology | Year: 2012

Morphological changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been proposed to characterize motility disorders. However, a global view of the network orientations of ICC subgroups has not been established to illustrate their three-dimensional (3-D) architectures in the human colon. In this research, we integrate c-kit immunostaining, 3-D microscopy with optical clearing, and image rendering to present the location-dependent network orientations with high definition. Full-depth colonic tissues were obtained from colectomies performed for nonobstructing carcinoma. Specimens of colon wall were prepared away from the tumor site. C-kit and nuclear fluorescent staining were used to identify the ICC processes and cell body. Optical clearing was used to generate transparent colon specimens, which led to panoramic visualization of the fluorescence-labeled ICC networks at the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY), longitudinal (ICC-LM) and circular (ICC-CM) muscles, and submucosal boundary (ICC-SM) up to 300 μm in depth via confocal microscopy with subcellular level resolution. We observed four distinct network patterns: 1) periganglionic ICC-MY that connect with ICC-LM and ICC-CM, 2) plexuses of ICC-LM within the longitudinal muscle and extending toward the serosa, 3) repetitive and organized ICC-CM layers running parallel to the circular muscle axis and extending toward the submucosa, and 4) a condensed ICC-SM layer lining the submucosal border. Among the four patterns, the orderly aligned ICC-CM layers provide an appropriate target for quantitation. Our results demonstrate the location-dependent network orientations of ICC subgroups and suggest a practical approach for in-depth imaging and quantitative analysis of ICC in the human colon specimen. Source

Yeh W.-C.,University of Technology, Sydney | Yeh W.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

A new soft computing method called the parameter-free simplified swarm optimization (SSO)-based artificial neural network (ANN), or improved SSO for short, is proposed to adjust the weights in ANNs. The method is a modification of the SSO, and seeks to overcome some of the drawbacks of SSO. In the experiments, the iSSO is compared with five other famous soft computing methods, including the backpropagation algorithm, the genetic algorithm, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, cooperative random learning PSO, and the SSO, and its performance is tested on five famous time-series benchmark data to adjust the weights of two ANN models (multilayer perceptron and single multiplicative neuron model). The experimental results demonstrate that iSSO is robust and more efficient than the other five algorithms. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Balakin A.B.,Kazan Federal University | Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2014

We study the problem of axion-photon coupling in the magnetic field influenced by gravitational radiation. We focus on exact solutions to the equations for axion electrodynamics in the pp-wave gravitational background for two models with initially constant magnetic field. The first model describes the response of an initially constant magnetic field in a gravitational-wave vacuum with unit refraction index; the second model is characterized by a non-unit refraction index prescribed to the presence of ordinary and/or dark matter. We show that both models demonstrate anomalous behavior of the electromagnetic field generated by the axion-photon coupling in the presence of magnetic field, evolving in the gravitational wave background. The role of axionic dark matter in the formation of the anomalous response of this electrodynamic system is discussed. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Chiang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2014

Half-space problems of a cubic piezoelectric material subjected to anti-plane deformation and in-plane electric field are studied. A general solution in terms of the integration of the boundary data prescribed over the surface of the semi-infinite domain is derived. Based on the general solution, the problem of a concentrated line force acting on the surface is treated and ensuing electromechanical response is determined. The solution to the problem of a screw dislocation in the half-space is also obtained, and the result is exploited to study a sub-surface crack problem by simulating the crack as a continuous distribution of dislocations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

We address the issue of spacetime structure determined empirically from the premetric formulation of electromagnetism and explore the role of skewons in the construction of spacetime metric. Type II skewon part is not constrained in the first order. In the second order it induces birefringence and is constrained to ∼10-19. However, an additional nonmetric induced second-order contribution to the core-metric principal part makes it nonbirefringent. This second-order contribution is just the extra piece to the core-metric principal constitutive tensor induced by the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric metric which is nonbirefringent. The antisymmetric metric induced constitutive tensor has a pseudoscalar part. The variation of this part is constrained by observation on cosmic polarization rotation to <0.03, and gives one constraint on the 6-degree-of-freedom antisymmetric metric. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chang K.-H.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2015

Stochastic Trust-Region Response-Surface method (STRONG) is a new response-surface-based framework for simulation optimization. The appeal of STRONG lies in that it preserves the advantages, yet eliminates the disadvantages, of traditional response surface methodology (RSM) that has been used for more than 50 years. Specifically, STRONG does not require human involvement in the search process and can guarantee to converge to the true optimum with probability one (w.p.1). In this paper, we propose an improved framework, called STRONG-X, that enhances the efficiency and efficacy of STRONG to widen its applicability to more practical problems. For efficiency improvement, STRONG-X includes a newly-developed experimental scheme that consists of construction of optimal simulation designs and an assignment strategy for random number streams to obtain computational gains. For efficacy improvement, a new variant, called STRONG-XG, is developed to achieve convergence under generally-distributed responses, as opposed to STRONG and STRONG-X where convergence is guaranteed only when the response is normal. An extensive numerical study is conducted to evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of STRONG-X and STRONG-XG. Moreover, two illustrative examples are provided to show the viability of STRONG-X and STRONG-XG in practical settings. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

Ziauddin,National Tsing Hua University | Ziauddin,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2015

The influence of spontaneous generated coherence (SGC) on the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in the reflected light is presented. A weak probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level gaseous atomic medium consist of 85Rb atoms. The atom-field interaction follows electromagnetically induced transparency configuration, and the SGC modifies the dispersion and absorption properties of a system [Y. Niu and S. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053811 (2006)]. The SGC enhances the Kerr nonlinearity which leads to giant negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light. Further, the control of negative and positive GH shifts is achieved via manipulation of probe field detuning. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Chou P.-T.,National Taiwan University | Chi Y.,National Tsing Hua University | Chung M.-W.,National Taiwan University | Lin C.-C.,National Taiwan University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2011

The main goal of this review is to provide systematic elucidation of the correlation between structural characters and the photophysical properties of a series of heavy transition metal complexes. Depending on types of metal ions, chromophoric and ancillary ligands, several intriguing cases encountered in our recent studies will be exemplified as prototypes to shed light on their excited-state relaxation pathways. Particular attention is paid to: (i) the intersystem crossing and/or radiative decay rates versus contribution of the metal dπ orbital, (ii) crucial factors that facilitate the radiationless deactivation, such as the metal-centred dd transition, resulting in weakness of the metal-ligand bond, and other transitions weakening the specific bonds and flexible structural framework that induces the low-frequency vibrational deactivation, (iii) intra-ligand versus inter-ligand charge transfer affecting the photophysical properties; that is, an issue of current interest regarding whether to treat the whole transition metal complex as a single entity or as several distinctive chromophores separated by the core metal ion. We then formulate a discussion from the standpoint of fundamental photophysical theory. The results, together with modern computational approaches for supplementary support, allow us to make adequate comparison with respect to classic organic fluorescence counterparts. Many similarities can be identified between organic fluorophores and late transition metal based phosphors; nevertheless, certain distinctions can also be extracted. We then conclude this review by providing guidelines on how to harvest the emission via suppressing the weighting of radiationless deactivation routes. However, for transition metal complexes, quantitative assessment of radiationless deactivation and hence the accurate prediction of emission efficiency is still a long term goal to be attained. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chou C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract A computational method is presented for the evaluation of transmission probabilities for thin potential barriers by evolving an ensemble of transmitted quantum trajectories. A single row of second-order trajectories computed using the derivative propagation method is propagated to determine the initial conditions for transmitted quantum trajectories. As time evolves, trajectories reflected from the potential barrier are deleted from the ensemble. This method is applied to a two-dimensional system involving either a thin Eckart or Gaussian barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator. Transmission probabilities are in good agreement with the exact results. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chang J.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics | Year: 2011

In this paper, design and analysis of an energy harvester named piezo-elastica energy harvester (PEEH) to harvest wasted mechanical energy generated by flex cable kinetic and vibratory motions are presented. A coupled piezo-elastic model is developed for the harvester with focus given to understanding piezoelectricity generated by its PVDF layer over its underlying largely deformed flex cable elatica structure. Design for manufacturing for the proposed harvester is detailed in this work. Numerical finite element simulations and laboratory measurements using noncontact laser interferometry validate the mode with respect to the PEEH's profiles, natural frequencies and mode shapes as well as electric energy generated resulted from flex cable's dynamics. It is observed that about 25% of the power consumed by disk drive's voice coil motor can be harvested by the proposed design. Among harvested energy, it is found that 58% comes from significant change of PEEH's profile when rotary actuator swings between disk's outer diameter and inner diameter regions, 33% from PEEN's 2nd bending mode, and 9% from its 1st bending mode. The work presented in this paper suggests the possibility of scavenging and converting flex cable's mechanical vibrations and dynamics into electrical form for power conservation inside computer hard disk drives. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Chang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University | Blackstone C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Mitochondria in cells comprise a tubulovesicular network shaped continuously by complementary fission and fusion events. The mammalian Drp1 protein plays a key role in fission, while Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1 are required for fusion. Shifts in the balance between these opposing processes can occur rapidly, indicating that modifications to these proteins may regulate mitochondrial membrane dynamics. We highlight posttranslational modifications of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, for which these regulatory mechanisms are best characterized. This dynamin-related GTPase undergoes a number of steps to mediate mitochondrial fission, including translocation from cytoplasm to the mitochondrial outer membrane, higher-order assembly into spirals, GTP hydrolysis associated with a conformational change and membrane deformation, and ultimately disassembly. Many of these steps may be influenced by covalent modification of Drp1. We discuss the dynamic nature of Drp1 modifications and how they contribute not only to the normal regulation of mitochondrial division, but also to neuropathologic processes. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Kong A.K.H.,National Tsing Hua University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012

We report on the optical detection of the black hole X-ray transient MAXIJ1659-152 during its quiescent state. By using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed MAXIJ1659-152 about seven months after the end of an X-ray outburst. The optical counterpart of MAXIJ1659-152 is clearly detected with an r′-band magnitude of 23.6-23.8. The detection confirms that the optical emission of MAXIJ1659-152 during quiescence is relatively bright compared to other black hole X-ray transients. This implies that the distance to MAXIJ1659-152 is 4.6-7.5kpc for an M2 dwarf companion star or 2.3-3.8kpc for an M5 dwarf companion star. By comparing with other measurements, an M2 dwarf companion is more likely. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Chang S.,National Tsing Hua University
Chinese Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

Physiological rhythms are ubiquitous and essential to our life. They usually interact with one another and also with the outside environment. Disappearance of normal rhythms and emergence of abnormal rhythms are called dynamical diseases. In this article, we will first review the current knowledge on the genesis of physiological rhythms. Then, models of rhythmic interactions among themselves and with external stimuli will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on the methods that can diagnose abnormal rhythms. Finally, treatment of dynamical diseases will be discussed. It turns out that the models of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise based on dynamical systems have the potential to become biomarkers in differentiating and evaluating normal from abnormal physiological rhythms in dynamical diseases. Meanwhile, in order to explain how acupuncture works, a feasible model of meridians based on communication networks is also included. © 2010 by The Chinese Physiological Society. Source

Liu Y.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

This review paper covers recent publications on the developments of highly proton-conductive sulfonated polymers for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The PEMs presenting proton conductivities exceeding that of Nafion membranes are especially focused on. The proton conductivities of PEMs have been correlated to their ion exchange values and morphological phase-separation. Formation of ionic channels is an effective approach to develop highly proton-conductive PEMs. The approaches could be grouped into (1) developments of microphase-separation with block copolymers, (2) side-chain and grafted sulfonated polymers, and (3) locally and densely sulfonated polymers. Formation of nanocomposites of PEMs with nanofillers has also shown great ability to increase the proton conductivities of the existed PEMs. Besides proton conductivities, the formation of nanocomposites also improves some PEM properties including mechanical strength, dimensional stability, and oxidative stability. The discussed publications have provided promising PEMs for the development of high performance fuel cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012. Source

Cai J.,National Tsing Hua University
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Orchidaceae, renowned for its spectacular flowers and other reproductive and ecological adaptations, is one of the most diverse plant families. Here we present the genome sequence of the tropical epiphytic orchid Phalaenopsis equestris, a frequently used parent species for orchid breeding. P. equestris is the first plant with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for which the genome has been sequenced. Our assembled genome contains 29,431 predicted protein-coding genes. We find that contigs likely to be underassembled, owing to heterozygosity, are enriched for genes that might be involved in self-incompatibility pathways. We find evidence for an orchid-specific paleopolyploidy event that preceded the radiation of most orchid clades, and our results suggest that gene duplication might have contributed to the evolution of CAM photosynthesis in P. equestris. Finally, we find expanded and diversified families of MADS-box C/D-class, B-class AP3 and AGL6-class genes, which might contribute to the highly specialized morphology of orchid flowers. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Source

Yeh C.-H.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Chow C.-W.,National Chiao Tung University | Pan C.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
Laser Physics Letters | Year: 2011

In this investigation, we propose and demonstrate a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser scheme with external-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) technology, in single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output behavior. Here, the output power and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of the proposed laser scheme can be obtained between -3.9 and 1.3 dBm and 30.1 and 50.5 dB in the operating wavelengths of 1523.65 and 1561.50 nm with 1.12 nm tuning step, respectively, according to the output mode-spacing of FP-LD used. Besides, the lasing stabilities of output power and wavelength are also investigated and discussed. © 2011 by Astro Ltd., published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source

Tsai Y.-D.,National Tsing Hua University | Wu X.N.,CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science | Yang Y.,National Chiao Tung University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We study the critical phenomena of Kerr-AdS black hole. Phase structures are observed at different temperatures, T L, T c1 and T c2 with various features. We discuss the thermal stability considering the isothermal compressibility and how phase transitions related to each other. The asymptotic value of the angular momentum also has an implication on separating stable and unstable part. Near critical temperature T c1, the order parameter is determined to calculate the critical exponents. All the critical exponents (α,β,γ,δ)=(0,12,1, 3) are identical to that of mean field systems. We plot the phase diagram near this critical point, and discuss the scaling symmetry of the free energy. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Dudev T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Ion selectivity of four-domain voltage-gated Ca2+ and Na + channels, which is controlled by the selectivity filter (the narrowest region of an open pore), is crucial for electrical signaling. Over billions of years of evolution, mutation of the Glu from domain II/III in the EEEE/DEEA selectivity filters of Ca2+-selective channels to Lys made these channels Na+-selective. Why Lys is sufficient for Na + selectivity and why the DKEA selectivity filter is less Na +-selective than the DEKA one are intriguing, fundamental questions. By computing the free energy for replacing Ca2+ inside model selectivity filters with Na+, we find that the nonmetal-ligating Lys in the DKEA/DEKA selectivity filter attenuates metal-protein interactions to such an extent that solvation effects become dominant, favoring Na+. It constricts and rigidifies the DEKA pore to bind Na+ optimally, highlighting the importance of lysine's nonobvious structural role, in addition to its electrostatic role, in the selectivity of Na+ over Ca 2+. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Jung D.-W.,National Tsing Hua University | Jung D.-W.,National Center for Theoretical science | Lee J.S.,National Center for Theoretical science
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

If the forward-backward (FB) asymmetry of top quark (AFB) observed at the Tevatron deviates from the SM prediction, there must be P-violating interactions in qq→tt. This new interaction will necessarily affect the top spin polarization. In this Letter, we perform a model independent analysis on the longitudinal (anti)top polarization (PL and PL) using an effective lagrangian with dim-6 four-quark operators relevant for qq→tt, and show that the P-odd observable corresponding to the polarization difference (PL-PL) gives important informations on the chiral structures of new physics that might be relevant to the AFB. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lin H.,National Tsing Hua University
Language, Learning and Technology | Year: 2014

Drawing on interactionist and socio-cultural theories, tools provided in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments have long been considered able to create an environment that shares many communicative features with face-to-face communication. Over the past two decades, researchers have employed a variety of strategies to examine the asserted advantages and possible limitations of learning a second language in such a computer mediated environment. Despite its seeming appeal to language educators, the literature on the effectiveness of CMC in SLA is unable to conclusively support its benefits. This meta-analysis aims to systematically synthesize findings from (quasi-) experimental studies conducted between 2000-2012 to examine whether there was a link between the use of CMC and second language acquisition (SLA). Results from 59 primary studies show a positive and medium effect from CMC interventions. Additionally, communication taking place either asynchronously or synchronously does not seem to have a differential effect on SLA. Furthermore, learners’ proficiency level, interlocutor type, research context and task type were found to be variables that would significantly moderate the effectiveness of interaction in such an environment. The above results, however, were interpreted as tentative due to the small n-size of some categories of variables under comparison. © Huifen Lin. Source

Dudev T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Lithium is used (in the form of soluble salts) to treat bipolar disorder and has been considered as a possible drug in treating chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and Huntingtons diseases. One of the proposed mechanisms of Li+ action involves a competition between the alien Li+ and native Mg2+ for metal-binding sites and subsequent inhibition of key enzymes involved in specific neurotransmission pathways, but not vital Mg2+ proteins in the cell. This raises the following intriguing questions: Why does Li+ replace Mg2+ only in enzymes involved in bipolar disorder, but not in Mg2+ proteins essential to cells? In general, what factors allow monovalent Li + to displace divalent Mg2+ in proteins? Specifically, how do the composition, overall charge, and solvent exposure of the metal-binding site as well as a metal-bound phosphate affect the selectivity of Li+ over Mg2+? Among the many possible factors, we show that the competition between Mg2+ and Li+ depends on the net charge of the metal complex, which is determined by the numbers of metal cations and negatively charged ligands, as well as the relative solvent exposure of the metal cavity. The protein itself is found to select Mg2+ over the monovalent Li+ by providing a solvent-inaccessible Mg 2+-binding site lined by negatively charged Asp/Glu, whereas the cell machinery was found to select Mg2+ among other competing divalent cations in the cellular fluids such as Ca2+ and Zn2+ by maintaining a high concentration ratio of Mg2+ to its biogenic competitor in various biological compartments. The calculations reveal why Li+ replaces Mg2+ only in enzymes that are known targets of Li+ therapy, but not in Mg2+ enzymes essential to cells, and also reveal features common to the former that differ from those in the latter proteins. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Hwang K.C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2010

In this review paper, the processes for the fabrication of carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanospheres, carbon onions, onion-like carbons and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules are reviewed. These processes include carbon arc discharge, metal catalysed chemical vapour deposition, thermal pyrolysis of organometallics and nanodiamonds, electric arc in liquid (e.g. liquid N 2, H2O and organic solvents), and microwave arcing. The applications of both hollow and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules/nanoparticles as x-ray target materials, nanolubricants, broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers, catalysts for organic reactions, electrode materials for batteries and electrochemical immunoassays, biomedical gene/drug transporters, etc are also reviewed. The future prospects are also discussed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Chang M.,National Health Research Institute | Chang M.,National Tsing Hua University | Yang C.-S.,National Health Research Institute | Huang D.-M.,National Health Research Institute
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

DNA can be used to nanofabricate three-dimensional (3D) polyhedra. A variety of applications of 3D DNA assemblies have been proposed. Drug encasulation and intracellular delivery using DNA nanoparticles, however, have remained a challenge. Here, we create a distinct five-point-star motif and aptamer-conjugated six-point-star motif using well-used primer sequences to intermolecularly construct DNA icosahedra as a nanocarrier for doxorubicin. Aptamer-conjugated doxorubicin-intercalated DNA icosahedra (Doxo@Apt-DNA-icosa) show an efficient and specific internalization for killing epithelial cancer cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Chang T.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Jian F.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Jian F.-Y.,National Chiao Tung University | Chen S.-C.,National Tsing Hua University | Tsai Y.-T.,National Chiao Tung University
Materials Today | Year: 2011

Flash nonvolatile memory has been widely applied in portable electronic products. However, traditional flash memory is expected to reach physical limits as its dimensions are scaled down; the charges stored in the floating gate can leak out more easily through a thin tunneling oxide, causing a serious reliability issue. In order to solve this problem, discrete nanocrystal memory has been proposed and is considered to be a promising candidate for the next generation of nonvolatile memories due to its high operation speed, good scalability, and superior reliability. This paper reviews the current status of research in nanocrystal memory and focuses on its materials, fabrication, structures, and treatment methods to provide an in-depth perspective of state-of-the-art nanocrystal memory. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chang S.,National Tsing Hua University
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture has been used to heal various diseases and physiologic malfunctions in clinical practice for more than 2500 years. Due to its efficacy, acupuncture has been recommended by the World Health Organization in 1980 as an effective alternative therapy for 43 different disorders. Over the past few decades, various theories of the meridian system and mechanisms have been proposed to explain how acupuncture might work. Most of these mechanisms, however, cannot yet explain conclusively why acupuncture is efficacious in treating so many different diseases. A plausible mechanism has been unavailable until recently. This is the first of a three-part series that aims to provide a comparative review of the aforementioned topics. Part 1 reviews the current indications for acupuncture, basic concepts of TCM, and the essence of the meridian system. To establish a mathematically rigorous framework of TCM, the chaotic wave theory of fractal continuum is proposed. This theory is then applied to characterize the essence of the meridian system. Parts 2 and 3 will review the possible mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture therapies, respectively, based on biochemical, bioelectromagnetic, chaotic wave, and neurophysiologic approaches. It is sincerely hoped that this series of review articles can promote an understanding of the meridian system and acupuncture mechanisms to help patients in a logical and passionate way. © 2012. Source

Huang Y.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

I present a theoretical and simulation study of a desktop, megawatt (MW), terahertz (THz) superradiance free-electron laser (FEL) driven by a THz-pulse-train photoinjector. With nominal electron parameters from a THz-pulse-train photoinjector, this superradiant FEL is capable of generating more than 5 MW power at THz frequencies from a half-meter, single-pass undulator. Tapering the undulator to a length of 1.5 m can further increase the FEL output power to nearly 15 MW. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source

Lu M.-P.,National Nano Device Laboratories | Lu M.-Y.,National Chung Cheng University | Chen L.-J.,National Tsing Hua University
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Persistent challenges in the nanofabrication of optoelectronic memory elements with ready size-scalability, multibit data storage, and ultralow optical writing energy have limited progress toward the construction of optical data storage/buffering elements in high-density photonic-electronic circuits. Here, a multibit programmable optoelectronic nanowire (NW) memory is described that operates with an ultralow optical writing energy [ca. 180 aJ bit -1 (ca. 330 photons bit-1)] and a low standby power consumption (<1 pW) at room temperature. In this system, photoionized charged defects behave as surface trapped charges to achieve the electrical memory effect. As a result of the high surface electric field, the rate of dissociation of the photoexcited charge is amplified, thereby decreasing the optical writing energy. Moreover, the extremely high dynamic photoconductive gain (ca. 10 10) makes it possible to write multibit optical data bit-by-bit into the NW. These findings should open new opportunities in next-generation multifunctional nanochips for optical data storage/buffering, optical data processing, and optical sensing purposes. A multibit programmable optoelectronic nanowire (NW) memory operates with an ultralow optical writing energy (ca. 330 photons bit-1) at room temperature. In this system, photoionized charged defects behave as surface trapped charges to achieve the electrical memory effect. The extremely high dynamic photoconductive gain (ca. 10 10) makes it possible to write multibit optical data bit-by-bit into the NW. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Liu Z.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen J.-C.,National Chiao Tung University
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

The WiMAX Forum has defined a two-tiered mobility management to minimize handover delay and packet loss. However, it leads to another problem: When to perform ASN GW relocation? The standards only define the ASN GW relocation procedures without specifying when the ASN GW relocation should be performed. It is left for vendors and operators to develop their own proprietary solutions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, which incorporates traditional Admission Control (AC) and Wiener Process (WP)-based prediction algorithms to determine when to carry out ASN GW relocation. We further develop an analytical model to analyze the proposed algorithm. Simulations are also conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the performance significantly in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability, average serving rate, and average signaling overhead. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Hou C.-C.,Chung Hua University | Shih C.-C.,Delta Electronics Inc | Cheng P.-T.,National Tsing Hua University | Hava A.M.,Middle East Technical University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper experimentally investigates the performance of three-phase voltage source pulsewidth modulation (PWM) converter, with the grid interfaced photovoltaic energy conversion system being the main application. In such applications the ground leakage current [common mode current (CMC)] should be much less than an ampere and this is difficult to obtain in transformerless (direct) connected systems. With the target being the reduction of the common mode voltage (CMV) and CMC, the converter performance is investigated thoroughly. Conventional PWM methods [space vector PWM (SVPWM) and discontinuous PWM (DPWM)] and recently developed reduced commonmode voltage PWM(RCMV-PWM) methods [active zero state PWM (AZSPWM) and near state PWM (NSPWM)] are considered. The performance of a 1-kW rated PWM rectifier with additional common-mode capacitor emulating a PV system has been experimentally investigated. It is shown that the CMV and CMC of the tested RCMV-PWM methods is significantly less than conventional methods. In particular, NSPWM yields the best overall performance including low ground leakage current, low inverter output (phase current) and input (dc-link current) ripple, and low switching losses. Accounting for the parasitic capacitance effect, the resonant frequency of the common-mode circuit is identified and it is used in the converter design for the purpose of avoiding resonances involving large CMV-CMC. This paper aims help the design engineer select the appropriate PWM method for grid-connected applications and provides some design rules of thumb. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Rodriguez-Lara B.M.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2010

The normalization of energy divergent Weber waves and finite energy Weber-Gauss beams is reported. The well-known Bessel and Mathieu waves are used to derive the integral relations between circular, elliptic, and parabolic waves and to present the Bessel and Mathieu wave decomposition of the Weber waves. The efficiency to approximate a Weber-Gauss beam as a finite superposition of Bessel-Gauss beams is also given. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source

Annie Ho J.-A.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chang H.-C.,National Tsing Hua University | Su W.-T.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this paper, we describe a simple one-pot method, employing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as a reducing/capping reagent, for the synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Within a short reaction time of 15 min (excluding the time required for purification), this strategy allows the fabrication of homogeneous AuNCs having the capability to sense ferric ions (Fe 3+). The as-prepared AuNCs exhibited a fluorescence emission at 525 nm and a quantum yield of 1.7%. On the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism, these fluorescent AuNCs offer acceptable sensitivity, high selectivity, and a limit of detection of 3.5 μM for the determination of Fe 3+ ions, which is lower than the maximum level (0.3 mg L -1, equivalent to 5.4 μM) of Fe 3+ permitted in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Huang M.J.,National Chung Hsing University | Sung P.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

In this paper, a simple isoclinic phase map unwrapping method is proposed to retrieve map with ambiguities at photoelastic isotropic points. Regional phase unwrapping method is also utilized to enhance the retrieving efficiency after all phase inconsistencies have been fully detected and branch cutting works have been properly done to ensure blockings of all the paths which could cause incorrect integrations while involuntarily crossing them. The correctly retrieved isoclinic data are then fed into isochromatic formulation, and as a consequence an inconsistency free isochromatic phase map will be obtained. This map can be unwrapped by any simple and fast unwrapping algorithm accurately and effectively. Circular disk and ring under diametric compression samples are both applied for the verification of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show the proposed algorithm can successfully solve the annoying problems occurred at photoelastic isotropic points with a processing time of roughly 2 seconds for a 420 x 420 pixels map by a general personal computer. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source

Nessi N.,National University of La Plata | Iucci A.,National University of La Plata | Cazalilla M.A.,National Tsing Hua University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We study the effect of suddenly turning on a long-range interaction in a spinless Fermi gas in two dimensions. The short- to intermediate-time dynamics is described using the method of bosonization of the Fermi surface. The space-time dependence of the nonequilibrium fermion density matrix as well as the evolution after the quench of the discontinuity at the Fermi momentum of the momentum distribution are computed. We find that the asymptotic state predicted by bosonization is consistent with the existence of a prethermalization plateau, which is also predicted by a perturbative approach in terms of the fermionic degrees of freedom. The bosonized representation, however, explicitly allows for the construction of the generalized Gibbs ensemble describing the prethermalized state. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

Hsiao M.C.,National Tsing Hua University
Physics in medicine and biology | Year: 2013

Neutron and gamma-ray mixed field dosimetry remains one of the most challenging topics in radiation dosimetry studies. However, the requirement for accurate mixed field dosimetry is increasing because of the considerable interest in high-energy radiotherapy machines, medical ion beams and BNCT epithermal neutron beams. Therefore, this study investigated the GafChromic® EBT2 film. The linearity, reproducibility, energy dependence and homogeneity of the film were tested in a (60)Co medical beam, 6-MV LINAC and 10-MV LINAC. The linearity and self-developing effect of the film irradiated in an epithermal neutron beam were also examined. These basic detector characteristics showed that EBT2 film can be effectively applied in mixed field dosimetry. A general detector response model was developed to determine the neutron relative effectiveness (RE) values. The RE value of fast neutrons varies with neutron spectra. By contrast, the RE value of thermal neutrons was determined as a constant; it is only 32.5% in relation to gamma rays. No synergy effect was observed in this study. The lithium-6 capture reaction dominates the neutron response in the thermal neutron energy range, and the recoil hydrogen dose becomes the dominant component in the fast neutron energy region. Based on this study, the application of the EBT2 film in the neutron and gamma-ray mixed field is feasible. Source

Pradhan T.K.,National Chiao Tung University | Lin C.C.,National Tsing Hua University | Mong K.-K.T.,National Chiao Tung University
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

A practical method for the synthesis of KDO glycal donors was developed. The prepared KDO donors exhibited excellent disastereoselectivity of glycosylation in a CH2Cl2-CH3CN solvent mixture, which was found to be associated with the isopropylidene protection at the C-4 and C-5 hydroxyls. The synthetic use of the KDO donor was demonstrated in the preparation of β-KDO-containing oligosaccharides. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Tsai Y.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

The easily electronically and sterically tunable β-diketiminates are widely used auxiliary ligands for the creation of a wide range of metal complexes with various oxidation states in all groups of the periodic table. This review article highlights the recent advances of univalent β-diketiminatometal complexes. Such low-valent metals supported by β-diketiminates display remarkable metal-metal bonding, organic functionality and small molecule activations, reactivity relevant to biological active sites, and catalytic reactivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Qu D.,Johns Hopkins University | Huang S.Y.,Johns Hopkins University | Huang S.Y.,National Tsing Hua University | Hu J.,University of California at Irvine | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The acute magnetic proximity effects in Pt/YIG compromise the suitability of Pt as a spin current detector. We show that Au/YIG, with no anomalous Hall effect and a negligible magnetoresistance, allows the measurements of the intrinsic spin Seebeck effect with a magnitude much smaller than that in Pt/YIG. The experiment results are consistent with the spin polarized density functional calculations for Pt with a sizable and Au with a negligible magnetic moment near the interface with YIG. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Yeh W.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Reliability | Year: 2015

Many real-world systems, such as electric power and transportation, satisfy the flow conservation law, and can be considered to be multistate flow networks (MFN). Reliability is a popular index for evaluating MFN performance, and the sum-of-disjoint products (SDP) technique is a popular tool for evaluating MFN reliability. An improved SDP (iSDP) is proposed in this study by adding simplification procedures to reduce the number of multiplications and summations to increase the efficiency of the SDP; the validity and effectiveness of the iSDP is also demonstrated in this study. The iSDP's computational complexity is also analyzed, and one benchmark example is given to illustrate how MFN reliability is determined using the proposed iSDP method. In addition, computational experiments with two MFN are conducted to test the performance of the iSDP method, along with comparisons to the existing best-known SDP method. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Yeh W.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Reliability | Year: 2015

Many real-world multi-state systems can be modeled as multistate flow networks (MFN) such that the net flow into and out of a node (excluding the source and target nodes) is equal to zero, e.g., distribution systems and supply chains. The quickest path (QP) reliability problem is to evaluate the probability, i.e., R{(d, t)-QP}}, that at least d units of data can be sent from the source node to the sink node through a single special minimal path (MP) within t units of time in an MFN. Such a special MP is called a (d, t)-QP here. In this study, a novel algorithm based on depth-first-search (DFS) is proposed to search for all (d, t)-{QPs} without solving two NP-hard problems: finding all minimal paths (MPs) in advance, and removing all infeasible (d, t)-{rm QPs} candidates. The correctness of the proposed Depth-First-Search (DFS)-based algorithm is proven, and an example is provided to illustrate the generation of all (d, t)-{rm QPs}. Furthermore, the analysis of the algorithm's computational complexity and computer experiments indicate that it is more efficient than known algorithms. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Modern Physics Letters A | Year: 2010

In this paper we first present a complete classification of gravitational waves according to their frequencies: (i) Ultra high frequency band (above 1 THz); (ii) Very high frequency band (100 kHz1 THz); (iii) High frequency band (10 Hz100 kHz); (iv) Middle frequency band (0.1 Hz10 Hz); (v) Low frequency band (100 nHz0.1 Hz); (vi) Very low frequency band (300 pHz100 nHz); (vii) Ultra low frequency band (10 fHz300 pHz); (viii) Hubble (extremely low) frequency band (1 aHz10 fHz); (ix) Infra-Hubble frequency band (below 1 aHz). After briefly discussing the method of detection for different frequency bands, we review the concept and status of space gravitational-wave missions LISA, ASTROD, ASTROD-GW, Super-ASTROD, DECIGO and Big Bang Observer. We then address to the determination of dark energy equation, and probing the inflationary physics using space gravitational wave detectors. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Chiu S.W.,National Tsing Hua University
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip. Source

Li C.-P.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wang S.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wang C.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

Selected mapping (SLM) schemes are commonly employed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. It has been shown that the computational complexity of the traditional SLM scheme can be substantially reduced by adopting conversion vectors obtained by using the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of the phase rotation vectors in place of the conventional IFFT operations [C.-L. Wang and Y. Ouyang, "Low-Complexity Selected Mapping Schemes for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM Systems," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 4652-4660, Dec. 2005]. To ensure that the elements of these phase rotation vectors have an equal magnitude, conversion vectors should have the form of a perfect sequence. This paper presents three novel classes of perfect sequence, each of which comprises certain base vectors and their cyclically shifted versions. Three novel low-complexity SLM schemes are then proposed based upon the unique structures of these perfect sequences. It is shown that while the PAPR reduction performances of the proposed schemes are marginally poorer than that of the traditional SLM scheme, the three schemes achieve a substantially lower computational complexity. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Chen Y.C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wright J.D.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

DR-bind is a web server that automatically predicts DNA-binding residues, given the respective protein structure based on (i) electrostatics, (ii) evolution and (iii) geometry. In contrast to machine-learning methods, DR-bind does not require a training data set or any parameters. It predicts DNA-binding residues by detecting a cluster of conserved, solvent-accessible residues that are electrostatically stabilized upon mutation to Asp-/Glu -. The server requires as input the DNA-binding protein structure in PDB format and outputs a downloadable text file of the predicted DNA-binding residues, a 3D visualization of the predicted residues highlighted in the given protein structure, and a downloadable PyMol script for visualization of the results. Calibration on 83 and 55 non-redundant DNA-bound and DNA-free protein structures yielded a DNA-binding residue prediction accuracy/precision of 90/47 and 88/42, respectively. Since DR-bind does not require any training using protein-DNA complex structures, it may predict DNA-binding residues in novel structures of DNA-binding proteins resulting from structural genomics projects with no conservation data. The DR-bind server is freely available with no login requirement at http://dnasite.limlab.ibms.sinica.edu.tw. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Chang K.-H.,National Tsing Hua University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2014

Due to the growing concern about climate change and environmental sustainability, hybrid renewable energy system (HRES), which refers to a system that combines several renewable power sources and a conventional power generator to cover the power shortage when the renewable power is insufficient, has gained more and more popularity over the decades. While the HRES is very attractive due to the minimal environmental and health impact compared to fossil fuels, the planning and coordination of HRES so as to supply stable power in a cost effective way are very challenging. This is mainly due to the unknown power demand, the highly volatile amount of renewable power supply and the complex topology of power network. In this paper, we model the planning and coordination of HRES in uncertain environments and develop an efficient heuristic to solve the model. A decision support system(DSS) integrating the proposed model and the heuristic is developed as an efficient decision tool to enable effective and efficient energy management of HRES. The visualized outputs of DSS allow decision makers to gain better understanding about the management of HRES, facilitating the decision making process. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tu J.Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Structural Control and Health Monitoring | Year: 2013

Substructured and analytical frameworks for the development of numerical-substructure-based and output-based substructuring controllers are proposed. The principle of numerical-substructure-based control systems utilises online parameters and signals related to numerical substructures for the control gain synthesis. Output-based controllers consider only online information related to transfer systems. The resulting linear feedforward and feedback controllers are synthesised using state-space and transfer-function techniques, assuming that the dynamics of tested specimens are to be completely unknown, and thus can cope with nonlinear substructuring tasks. Selection of the controllers for implementation depends on the synchronisation requirement and the dynamic properties of the controllers in real-time conditions. Experimental results of a two-mass-spring system verifying the controller designs are presented, which also show that the addition of feedback controllers can effectively reduce the synchronised errors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Cheung K.,Konkuk University | Cheung K.,National Tsing Hua University | Song J.,Konkuk University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The latest CDF anomaly, the excess of dijet events in the invariant-mass window 120-160Â GeV in associated production with a W boson, can be explained by a baryonic Z′ model in which the Z ′ boson has negligible couplings to leptons. Although this Z′ model is hardly subject to the Drell-Yan constraint from Tevatron, it is constrained by the dijet data from UA2 (√s=630GeV), and the precision measurements at LEP through the mixing with the SM Z boson. We show that under these constraints this model can still explain the excess in the Mjj∼120-160GeV window, as well as the claimed cross section σ(WZ′)∼4pb. Implications at the Tevatron would be the associated production of γZ′, ZZ′, and Z′Z′ with the Z′→jj. We show that with tightened jet cuts and improved systematic uncertainties both γZ′→γjj and ZZ′→ +-jj channels could be useful to probe this model at the Tevatron. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Chao A.,National Tsing Hua University | Jost L.,EcoMinga Foundation
Ecology | Year: 2012

We propose an integrated sampling, rarefaction, and extrapolation methodology to compare species richness of a set of communities based on samples of equal completeness (as measured by sample coverage) instead of equal size. Traditional rarefaction or extrapolation to equal-sized samples can misrepresent the relationships between the richnesses of the communities being compared because a sample of a given size may be sufficient to fully characterize the lower diversity community, but insufficient to characterize the richer community. Thus, the traditional method systematically biases the degree of differences between community richnesses. We derived a new analytic method for seamless coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation. We show that this method yields less biased comparisons of richness between communities, and manages this with less total sampling effort. When this approach is integrated with an adaptive coverage-based stopping rule during sampling, samples may be compared directly without rarefaction, so no extra data is taken and none is thrown away. Even if this stopping rule is not used during data collection, coveragebased rarefaction throws away less data than traditional size-based rarefaction, and more efficiently finds the correct ranking of communities according to their true richnesses. Several hypothetical and real examples demonstrate these advantages. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

Dudev T.,Sofia University | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

(Chemical Equation Presented) CONSPECTUS: Sodium ion channels selectively transport Na+ cations across the cell membrane. These integral parts of the cell machinery are implicated in regulating the cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, nerve impulses, salt and water homeostasis, as well as pain and taste perception. Their malfunction often results in various channelopathies of the heart, brain, skeletal muscles, and lung; thus, sodium channels are key drug targets for various disorders including cardiac arrhythmias, heart attack, stroke, migraine, epilepsy, pain, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. The ability of sodium channels to discriminate the native Na+ among other competing ions in the surrounding fluids is crucial for proper cellular functions. The selectivity filter (SF), the narrowest part of the channel's open pore, lined with amino acid residues that specifically interact with the permeating ion, plays a major role in determining Na+ selectivity. Different sodium channels have different SFs, which vary in the symmetry, number, charge, arrangement, and chemical type of the metal-ligating groups and pore size: epithelial/degenerin/acid-sensing ion channels have generally trimeric SFs lined with three conserved neutral serines and/or backbone carbonyls; eukaryotic sodium channels have EKEE, EEKE, DKEA, and DEKA SFs with an invariant positively charged lysine from the second or third domain; and bacterial voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels exhibit symmetrical EEEE SFs, reminiscent of eukaryotic voltage-gated calcium channels. How do these different sodium channel SFs achieve high selectivity for Na+ over its key rivals, K+ and Ca2+? What factors govern the metal competition in these SFs and which of these factors are exploited to achieve Na+ selectivity in the different sodium channel SFs? The free energies for replacing K+ or Ca2+ bound inside different model SFs with Na+, evaluated by a combination of density functional theory and continuum dielectric calculations, have shed light on these questions. The SFs of epithelial and eukaryotic Nav channels select Na+ by providing an optimal number and ligating strength of metal ligands as well as a rigid pore whose size fits the cognate Na+ ideally. On the other hand, the SFs of bacterial Nav channels select Na+, as the protein matrix attenuates ion-protein interactions relative to ion-solvent interactions by enlarging the pore and allowing water to enter, so the ion interacts indirectly with the conserved glutamates via bridging water molecules. This shows how these various SFs have adapted to the specific physicochemical properties of the native ion, using different strategies to select Na+ among its contenders. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Ferng Y.-M.,National Tsing Hua University
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2010

Based on the requirements of TSTF-449 or NEI 97-06, operational assessment (OA) should be performed to guarantee the steam generator (SG) tube integrity. OA is a forward looking evaluation of the SG tube conditions. One of main evaluations for the OA is to estimate the growth rate of tube degradation prior to the next SG tube inspection. Therefore, the majority of this paper is to predict the growth rate of wall thinning for the SG tubes by way of a statistical methodology. The wall thinning of degraded SG tubes predicted by the present model agrees well with the plant measured one. The relative errors between the predictions and measurements are less than 10%. In addition, the present model would over-predict the wall thinning in most cases, revealing that this methodology could provide a useful and conservative tool for the PWR plant staff to execute the OA for SG tubes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Murrell S.,University of Manitoba | Wu S.-C.,National Tsing Hua University | Wu S.-C.,National Health Research Institute | Butler M.,University of Manitoba
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Dengue viral infection has become an increasing global health concern with over two-fifths of the world's population at risk of infection. It is the most rapidly spreading vector borne disease, attributed to changing demographics, urbanization, environment, and global travel. It continues to be a threat in over 100 tropical and sub-tropical countries, affecting predominantly children. Dengue also carries a hefty financial burden on the health care systems in affected areas, as those infected seek care for their symptoms. The search for a suitable vaccine for dengue has been ongoing for the last sixty years, yet any effective treatment or vaccine remains elusive. A vaccine must be protective for all four serotypes of dengue and be cost-effective. Many approaches to developing candidate vaccines have been employed. The candidates include live attenuated tetravalent vaccines, chimeric tetravalent vaccines based on attenuated dengue virus or Yellow Fever 17D, and recombinant DNA vaccines based on flavivirus and non-flavivirus vectors. This review outlines the challenges involved in dengue vaccine development and presents the current stages of proposed vaccine candidate development. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Chen P.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University | McKittrick J.,University of California at San Diego | Meyers M.A.,University of California at San Diego
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2012

Biological materials are typically multifunctional but many have evolved to optimize a chief mechanical function. These functions include impact or fracture resistance, armor and protection, sharp and cutting components, light weight for flight, or special nanomechanical/chemical extremities for reversible adhesive purposes. We illustrate these principles through examples from our own research as well as selected literature sources. We conduct this analysis connecting the structure (nano, micro, meso, and macro) to the mechanical properties important for a specific function. In particular, we address how biological systems respond and adapt to external mechanical stimuli. Biological materials can essentially be divided into mineralized and non-mineralized. In mineralized biological materials, the ceramics impart compressive strength, sharpness (cutting edges), and stiffness while the organic components impart tensile strength, toughness and ductility. Non-mineralized biological materials in general have higher tensile than compressive strength, since they are fibrous. Thus, the mineralized components operate optimally in compression and the organic components in tension. There is a trade-off between strength and toughness and the stiffness and density, with optimization. Mineralization provides load bearing capability (strength and stiffness) whereas the biopolymer constituents provide viscoelastic damping and toughness. The most important component of the nascent field of Biological Materials Science is the development of bioinspired materials and structures and understanding of the structure-property relationships across various length scales, from the macro-down to the molecular level. The most successful efforts at developing bioinspired materials that attempt to duplicate some of the outstanding properties are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Wu K.-A.,Northwestern University | Wu K.-A.,National Tsing Hua University | Voorhees P.W.,Northwestern University
Acta Materialia | Year: 2012

We study two-dimensional grain growth at the nanoscale using the phase field crystal (PFC) model. Our results show that for circular grains with large misorientations the grain area decreases linearly with time, in good agreement with classical grain growth theory. For circular grains with small initial misorientations, grain rotation occurs as a result of the coupled motion between the normal motion of the grain boundary and the tangential motion of the adjacent grains. Despite this rotation and its effect on the grain boundary energy, the grain area decreases linearly with time. In addition, for intermediate initial grain misorientations, we find a repeating faceting-defaceting transition during grain shrinkage and a different relationship between the grain area and time, which suggests a different grain growth mechanism than that for small and large misorientations. For a circular grain embedded between a bicrystal with a symmetric tilt boundary, we find that the evolution of the embedded grain closely depends on dislocation reactions at triple junctions. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Leong M.-I.,Instituto para os Assuntos Civicos e Municipais IACM | Fuh M.-R.,Soochow University of Taiwan | Huang S.-D.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and other dispersion liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) methods have been developed since the first DLLME method was reported in 2006. DLLME is simple, rapid, and affords high enrichment factor, this is due to the large contact surface area of the extraction solvent. DLLME is a method suitable for the extraction in many different water samples, but it requires using chlorinated solvents. In recent years, interest in DLLME or dispersion LPME has been focused on the use of low-toxicity solvents and more conveniently practical procedures. This review examines some of the most interesting developments in the past few years. In the first section, DLLME methods are separated in two categories: DLLME with low-density extraction solvent and DLLME with high-density extraction solvent. Besides these methods, many novel special devices for collecting low-density extraction solvent are also mentioned. In addition, various dispersion techniques with LPME, including manual shaking, air-assisted LPME (aspirating and injecting the extraction mixture by syringe), ultrasound-assisted emulsification, vortex-assisted emulsification, surfactant-assisted emulsification, and microwave-assisted emulsification are described. Besides the above methods, combinations of DLLME with other extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion and supercritical fluid extraction) are introduced. The combination of nanotechnique with DLLME is also introduced. Furthermore, this review illustrates the application of DLLME or dispersion LPME methods to separate and preconcentrate various organic analytes, inorganic analytes, and samples. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Abstract The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action is approximately solved by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories in real space. Equations of motion for the complex action and its spatial derivatives are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. We transform these equations into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. Setting higher-order derivatives equal to zero, we obtain a truncated system of equations of motion describing the rate of change in the complex action and its spatial derivatives transported along approximate Bohmian trajectories. A set of test trajectories is propagated to determine appropriate initial positions for transmitted trajectories. Computational results for transmitted wave packets and transmission probabilities are presented and analyzed for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a two-dimensional system involving either a thick or thin Eckart barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chou C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Chang K.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | Hong L.J.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Wan H.,Purdue University
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2013

Response surface methodology (RSM) is a widely used method for simulation optimization. Its strategy is to explore small subregions of the decision space in succession instead of attempting to explore the entire decision space in a single attempt. This method is especially suitable for complex stochastic systems where little knowledge is available. Although RSM is popular in practice, its current applications in simulation optimization treat simulation experiments the same as real experiments. However, the unique properties of simulation experiments make traditional RSM inappropriate in two important aspects: (1) It is not automated; human involvement is required at each step of the search process; (2) RSM is a heuristic procedure without convergence guarantee; the quality of the final solution cannot be quantified. We propose the stochastic trust-region response-surface method (STRONG) for simulation optimization in attempts to solve these problems. STRONG combines RSM with the classic trust-region method developed for deterministic optimization to eliminate the need for human intervention and to achieve the desired convergence properties. The numerical study shows that STRONG can outperform the existing methodologies, especially for problems that have grossly noisy response surfaces, and its computational advantage becomes more obvious when the dimension of the problem increases. © 2013 INFORMS. Source

Song W.T.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

A classic problem of stochastic simulation is estimating the variance of point estimators, the prototype estimator being the sample mean from a steady-state autocorrelated process. The traditional batch means (BM) estimator requires knowledge of the sample size a priori. This paper proposes an algorithm to implement certain BM estimators without knowing the sample size in advance. The proposed algorithm is useful when the run length is random or is extremely long in simulation models. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Hu H.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li H.-N.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Li H.-N.,National Cheng Kung University | Li H.-N.,National Tsing Hua University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We calculate the time-like pion-photon transition form factor and the pion electromagnetic form factor up to next-to-leading order (NLO) of the strong coupling constant in the leading-twist kT factorization formalism. It is found that the NLO corrections to the magnitude (phase) are lower than 30% (30°) for the former, and lower than 25% (10°) for the latter at large invariant mass squared Q2>30GeV2 of the virtual photons. The increase of the strong phases with Q2 is obtained, consistent with the tendency indicated by experimental data. This behavior is attributed to the inclusion of parton transverse momenta kT, implying that the kT factorization is an appropriate framework for analyzing complex time-like form factors. Potential extensions of our formalism to two-body and three-body hadronic B meson decays are pointed out. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Babu C.S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Dudev T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Divalent metal cations are essential cofactors for many enzyme functions. Although Mg2+ is the native cofactor in many enzymes such as ribonuclease H, its competitor Ca2+ may also bind to the enzyme but inhibit catalysis. Thus, the competition between Mg2+ and Ca 2+ for a given metal-binding site in an enzyme and their effects on enzyme activity are of great interest. Most studies have focused on the interactions between Mg2+ or Ca2+ and the metal ligands in the first and sometimes second coordination shell. However, no study (to our knowledge) has examined the role of the protein architecture and surrounding aqueous environment on the binding of Mg2+ vs Ca2+ to a given protein metal-binding site. In this work, the free energy barriers for the binding of a catalytically essential aspartate to Mg2+ or Ca 2+ in ribonuclease H from two organisms were computed using umbrella sampling with a classical force field ("classical" model). The corresponding free energy barriers in water were computed using the "classical" model as well as density functional theory combined with a self-consistent reaction field. The results reveal that, relative to water, the protein architecture and coupled protein-water interactions raise the free energy barrier for binding of the catalytically essential aspartate to the native Mg2+ cofactor more than the respective binding to Ca 2+. They also reveal the physical basis for the different observed binding modes of Mg2+ and Ca2+ and highlight limitations of simulations with classical force fields that do not explicitly account for charge transfer and polarization effects. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Chou H.-C.,National Hsinchu University of Education | Chan H.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

5-Methoxytryptophan (5-MTP), a catabolic product of tryptophan, can block Cox-2 overexpression in cancer cells as well as suppress cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to in vitro examine whether 5-MTP is able to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced heart ischemia reperfusion injury and activate the cardiomyocyte's damage surveillance systems. Accordingly, rattus cardiomyocytes were treated with H2O2 as a heart ischemia reperfusion model prior to incubation with/without 5-MTP and proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the physiologic protection of 5-MTP in H2O2-induced ischemia reperfusion in cardiomyocyte. Our data demonstrated that 5-MTP treatment does protect cardiomyocyte in the ROS-induced ischemia reperfusion model. 5-MTP has also been shown to significantly facilitate cell migration and wound healing via cytoskeletal regulations. Additionally, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis showed that 5-MTP might modulate growth-associated proteins, cytoskeleton regulation, redox regulation and protein folding to stimulate wound healing as well as prevent these ischemia reperfusion-damaged cardiomyocytes from cell death through maintaining cellular redox-balance and reducing ER-stress. To our knowledge, we report for the first time the cell repair mechanism of 5-MTP against ischemia reperfusion-damage in cardiomyocytes based on cell biology and proteomic analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Chou C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2014

The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (CQHJE) for the action function is integrated by propagating correlated Bohmian trajectories in real space. We transform the CQHJE into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The ALE version describes the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration of the CQHJE are evaluated with a moving least squares algorithm. The method is applied to a squeezed state in the harmonic potential and to a two-dimensional barrier scattering problem.© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chang S.,National Tsing Hua University
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pain is never merely a sign of discomfort. It is usually an integral part of a particular disease or physiological malfunction. Thus pain should not be treated in isolation since it will disappear as soon as its cause is identified and removed. Hence, in this Part 2 of a three-part series, initially, clinical pathologies in modern medicine and TCM are compared. Then, the pain pathophysiologies of these two schools of thought are reviewed. In addition, certain unique features of acupuncture effects that any valid mechanism must account for are outlined. Finally, various mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia are reviewed. One plausible mechanism based on the meridian system of Part 1, i.e., the chaotic wave theory of fractal continuum in terms of the neurovascular network, is also proposed. It contends that the injury current due to acupuncture at an acupoint will trigger electromagnetic inductive effects so that the impedances of correlated neurovascular bundles are drastically changed. Two consequent scenarios are possible. (1) If the impedance of the meridian hugely mismatches with that of the brain after acupuncture, then the traveling wave of pain signal will be largely reflected back and only partially transmitted to the brain, hence pain relief can be achieved. (2) If the impedance of the meridian entirely matches that of the pain source after acupuncture, then the pain source would appear to be nonexistent to the brain, hence analgesia can be achieved. The former mechanism can be used to explain the relief for chronic pain and the latter one for acute pain. It is believed that the proposed mechanisms via match or mismatch of the impedances can explain how the acupuncture works not only in the treatment of pain, but also in various other therapies of Part 3. © 2013. Source

Fu H.-W.,National Tsing Hua University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) was originally identified as a virulence factor of H. pylori for its ability to activate neutrophils to generate respiratory burst by releasing reactive oxygen species. Later on, HP-NAP was also found to be involved in the protection of H. pylori from DNA damage, supporting the survival of H. pylori under oxidative stress. This protein is highly conserved and expressed by virtually all clinical isolates of H. pylori. The majority of patients infected with H. pylori produced antibodies specific for HP-NAP, suggesting its important role in immunity. In addition to acting as a pathogenic factor by activating the innate immunity through a wide range of human leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells, HP-NAP also mediates adaptive immunity through the induction of T helper cell type I responses. The pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of HP-NAP not only make it play an important role in disease pathogenesis but also make it a potential candidate for clinical use. Even though there is no convincing evidence to link HP-NAP to a disease outcome, recent findings supporting the pathogenic role of HP-NAP will be reviewed. In addition, the potential clinical applications of HP-NAP in vaccine development, clinical diagnosis, and drug development will be discussed. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Sie E.J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | McLver J.W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | McLver J.W.,Harvard University | Lee Y.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2015

Breaking space-time symmetries in two-dimensional crystals can markedly influence their macroscopic electronic properties. Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are prime examples where the intrinsically broken crystal inversion symmetry permits the generation of valley-selective electron populations, even though the two valleys are energetically degenerate, locked by time-reversal symmetry. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley-specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. Although applying a magnetic field should, in principle, accomplish this task, experiments so far have not shown valley-selective energy level shifts in fields accessible in the laboratory. Here, we show the first direct evidence of lifted valley degeneracy in the monolayer TMD WS2. By applying intense circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, we demonstrate that the exciton level in each valley can be selectively tuned by as much as 18 meV through the optical Stark effect. These results offer a new way to control the valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new Floquet topological phases in two-dimensional TMDs. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Dudev T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Dudev T.,Sofia University | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Magnesium ion channels and transporters regulate the cellular concentrations of Mg2+, which must be tightly controlled as imbalances have been associated with diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, and high blood pressure in humans. The channels and transporters allow the "native" Mg2+ to be transported against a high background concentration of its major competitor, Ca2+. Their selectivity filters (the narrowest part of the open pore) control metal ion selectivity. As the structures of Mg2+ channels in an open conformation with bound Mg2+ have not yet been solved, the key determinants of Mg 2+/Ca2+ selectivity in Mg2+ ion channels remain elusive. Here, using density functional theory combined with continuum dielectric methods, we evaluated how the competition between Mg2+ and Ca2+ in model selectivity filters depends on the degree of metal hydration, which correlates with the pore size/rigidity as well as the composition and solvent accessibility of the selectivity filter. The key determinant of the selectivity for Mg2+ over Ca2+ in the Mg2+ channel selectivity filter is a pore that is sufficiently large to accommodate hexahydrated Mg ions. In such wide pores, the hexahydrated metal ions interact indirectly with the protein ligands, hence metal desolvation and ligand-ligand steric repulsion become less important than Mg2+-water- protein interactions. These wide pores are Mg2+-selective because compared to Ca2+ or Na+ and K+ monocations, Mg2+ better polarizes the bound water molecules resulting in stronger Mg2+-water-protein interactions. Although both tetrameric and pentameric filters with pores that can accommodate hexahydrated metal ions could select Mg2+ over Ca2+, a bilayered pentameric filter lined with a ring of amides and a ring of carboxylates seems to best discriminate the "native" Mg2+ from its key rival, Ca 2+. Our results are consistent with available experimental data and help to elucidate the selectivity filters in the Mg2+-selective TRPM6 and CorA channels. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Huang Y.-H.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems | Year: 2010

The soft error problem in digital circuits is becoming increasingly important as the IC fabrication technology progresses from the deep submicrometer scale to the nanometer scale. This paper proposes a subword-detection processing (SDP) technique and a fine-grain soft-error-tolerance (FGSET) architecture to improve the performance of the digital signal processing circuit. In the SDP technique, the logic masking property of the soft error in the combinational circuit is utilized to mask the single-event upset (SEU) caused by disturbing particles in the inactive area. To further improve the performance, the masked portion of the datapath can be used as the estimation redundancy in the algorithmic softerror- tolerance (ASET) technique. This technique is called subword- detection and redundant processing (SDRP). In the FGSET architecture, the soft error in each processing element (fine grain) can be recovered by the arithmetic datapath-level ASET technique. Analysis of the fast Fourier transform processor example shows that the proposed FGSET architecture can improve the performance of the coarse-grain SET (CGSET) by 8.5 dB. The low-cost SDP technique (1.03× ) yields a noise reduction of 5.3 dB over the CGSET approach (1.40× ), while the efficient SDRP I (1.57× ) and SDRP II (1.88× ) techniques outperform the CGSET approach by 24.5 and 30.5 dB, respectively. © 2009 IEEE. Source

Chang W.-F.,National Tsing Hua University | Ng J.N.,TRIUMF Laboratory Particle and Nuclear Physics
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We extend the singlet Majoron model of dark radiation by adding another singlet scalar of unit lepton charge. The spontaneous breaking of global U(1)L connects dark radiation with neutrino mass generation via the type-I seesaw mechanism. The model naturally has a stable scalar dark matter field. It also predicts the existence of a light scalar of mass less than 1 GeV that mixes with the Standard Model Higgs boson. We perform a numerical analysis of the parameters of the model by imposing constraints from giving correct relic abundance and satisfying bounds from direct dark matter detection, rare decays of the B meson, and invisible width of the Higgs boson. The viability of the model in accommodating the gamma rays from the Galactic center is discussed as well. The model gives rise to new rare Higgs boson decays such as four-muon final states with displaced vertices. Another unique signal is two muons and missing energy recoil against the muon pair. Our result also shows that such a bridge between dark radiation and the seesaw mechanism will put the seesaw scale in the range of 1-100 TeV. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

Jen H.H.,National Tsing Hua University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The superradiant emission properties from an atomic ensemble with cascade level configuration is numerically simulated. The correlated spontaneous emissions (signal then idler fields) are purely stochastic processes which are initiated by quantum fluctuations. We utilize the positive-P phase-space method to investigate the dynamics of the atoms and counterpropagating emissions. The light field intensities are calculated, and the signal-idler correlation function is studied for different optical depths of the atomic ensemble. A shorter correlation time scale for a denser atomic ensemble implies a broader spectral window needed to store or retrieve the idler pulse. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Yun-Hong Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2011

Postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein supramolecule lying underneath the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses and has been implicated to play important roles in synaptic structure and function in mammalian central nervous system. Here, PSDs were isolated from two distinct regions of porcine brain, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicated that cerebral and cerebellar PSDs consisted of a similar set of proteins with noticeable differences in the abundance of various proteins between these samples. Subsequently, protein localization in these PSDs was analyzed by using the Nano-Depth-Tagging method. This method involved the use of three synthetic reagents, as agarose beads whose surface was covalently linked with a fluorescent, photoactivable, and cleavable chemical crosslinker by spacers of varied lengths. After its application was verified by using a synthetic complex consisting of four layers of different proteins, the Nano-Depth-Tagging method was used here to yield information concerning the depth distribution of various proteins in the PSD. The results indicated that in both cerebral and cerebellar PSDs, glutamate receptors, actin, and actin binding proteins resided in the peripheral regions within ∼ 10 nm deep from the surface and that scaffold proteins, tubulin subunits, microtubule-binding proteins, and membrane cytoskeleton proteins found in mammalian erythrocytes resided in the interiors deeper than 10 nm from the surface in the PSD. Finally, by using the immunoabsorption method, binding partner proteins of two proteins residing in the interiors, PSD-95 and α-tubulin, and those of two proteins residing in the peripheral regions, elongation factor-1α and calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α subunit, of cerebral and cerebellar PSDs were identified. Overall, the results indicate a striking similarity in protein organization between the PSDs isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A model of the molecular structure of the PSD has also been proposed here. Source

Pandey S.K.,Sejong University | Kim K.-H.,Sejong University | Tang K.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

We review sensor-based methods commonly employed for monitoring hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), and recent developments in H 2S-sensing instrumentation.We evaluate the basic quality-assurance parameters of different sensor types for quantifying H 2S in terms of major operational criteria (e.g., response time, limit of detection, common operating range of concentrations, and stability). We also describe the applicability of these sensor-based methods with respect to practicality in various environmental settings. Finally, we highlight the limitations and the future prospects of these sensor-based methods. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hirotani K.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Hirotani K.,National Tsing Hua University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We investigate the electrodynamic structure of a pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator and the resulting gamma-ray emission. By considering the condition for the accelerator to be self-sustained, we derive how the trans-magnetic-field thickness of the accelerator evolves with the pulsar age. It is found that the thickness is small but increases steadily if the neutron-star envelope is contaminated by sufficient light elements. For such a light element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity of the accelerator is kept approximately constant as a function of age in the initial 10,000 yr, forming the lower bound of the observed distribution of the gamma-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars. If the envelope consists of only heavy elements, on the other hand, the thickness is greater, but it increases less rapidly than a light element envelope. For such a heavy element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity decreases relatively rapidly, forming the upper bound of the observed distribution. The gamma-ray luminosity of a general pulsar resides between these two extreme cases, reflecting the envelope composition and the magnetic inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. The cutoff energy of the primary curvature emission is regulated below several GeV even for young pulsars because the gap thickness, and hence the acceleration electric field, is suppressed by the polarization of the produced pairs. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Zhao H.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories | Chou D.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We study the mode conversion between different radial orders for solar acoustic waves interacting with sunspots. Solar acoustic waves are modified in the presence of sunspots. The modification in the wave can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave inside and around the sunspot. The wavefunction of the acoustic wave on the solar surface is computed from the cross-correlation function. The wavefunction of the scattered wave is obtained by subtracting the wavefunction of the incident wave from that of the total wave. We use the incident waves of radial order n = 0-5 to measure the scattered wavefunctions from n to another radial order n′ for NOAAs 11084 and 11092. The strength of scattered waves decreases rapidly with |Δn|, where Δn ≡ n′-n. The scattered waves of Δn = ±1 are visible for n ≤ 1, and significant for n ≥ 2. For the scattered wave of Δn = ±2, only few cases are visible. None of the scattered waves of Δn = ±3 are visible. The properties of scattered waves for Δn = 0 and Δn ≠ 0 are different. The scattered wave amplitude relative to the incident wave amplitude decreases with n for Δn = 0, while it increases with n for Δn ≠ 0. The scattered wave amplitudes of Δn = 0 are greater for the larger sunspot, while those of Δn ≠ 0 are insensitive to the sunspot size. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Huang Y.-H.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2011

Cooperative spectrum sensing has recently become an important research topic for cognitive radio systems because it solves the hidden terminal problem in single-user spectrum sensing. However, idle cognitive users must consume massive spectrum sensing energy for one operating cognitive user. This characteristic reduces the attraction of the cooperative spectrum sensing technique in practical cognitive radio systems. Therefore, this paper develops a partial spectrum sensing algorithm with decision result prediction (DRP) and decision result modification (DRM) techniques to reduce the cooperative spectrum sensing energy. This study also designs and implements an energy-saving spectrum sensing processor for cognitive radio systems. The proposed cooperative spectrum sensing chip reduces energy consumption by about 64% for one fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectrum sensing calculation. For any given specified spectrum detection time, the proposed chip could also improve the detection performance compared to the traditional FFT spectrum sensing. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Chang W.-F.,National Tsing Hua University | Ng J.N.,TRIUMF Laboratory Particle and Nuclear Physics | Wu J.M.S.,National Center for Theoretical science
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We study the implications the recent results from the LHC Higgs searches have on scalar new physics. We study the impact on both the Higgs production and decay from scalars with and without color, and in cases where decoupling does and does not happen. We investigate possible constraints on scalar parameters from the production rate in the diphoton channel, and also the two vector boson channels. Measurements from both channels can help disentangle new physics due to color from that due to charge, and thus reveal the nature of the new scalar states. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Chiang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University
Engineering Fracture Mechanics | Year: 2016

Green's function in a cubic piezoelectric crystal is used to find Eshelby's tensor for an elliptic inclusion explicitly in terms of material properties and shape ratio of the inclusion. Inhomogeneity problems are then solved by the equivalent inclusion method and the solutions are specialized for cavity problems. It is found that the medium inside the cavity has a strong influence on the electric response. Explicit formulas are obtained for the stress and electric-displacement concentration factors of elliptic cavities. The relationship between the electromechanical field concentrations of a slender cavity and those of an associated crack is developed and discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang Y.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Shim M.S.,Incheon National University | Levinson N.S.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Sung H.-W.,National Tsing Hua University | Xia Y.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Stimuli-responsive materials are so named because they can alter their physicochemical properties and/or structural conformations in response to specific stimuli. The stimuli can be internal, such as physiological or pathological variations in the target cells/tissues, or external, such as optical and ultrasound radiations. In recent years, these materials have gained increasing interest in biomedical applications due to their potential for spatially and temporally controlled release of theranostic agents in response to the specific stimuli. This article highlights several recent advances in the development of such materials, with a focus on their molecular designs and formulations. The future of stimuli-responsive materials will also be explored, including combination with molecular imaging probes and targeting moieties, which could enable simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of a specific disease, as well as multi-functionality and responsiveness to multiple stimuli, all important in overcoming intrinsic biological barriers and increasing clinical viability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Chen H.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP | Year: 2010

This paper presents a new algorithm to solve the problem of co-saliency detection, i.e., to find the common salient objects that are present in both of a pair of input images. Unlike most previous approaches, which require correspondence matching, we seek to solve the problem of co-saliency detection under a preattentive scheme. Our algorithm does not need to perform the correspondence matching between the two input images, and is able to achieve co-saliency detection before the focused attention occurs. The joint information provided by the image pair enables our algorithm to inhibit the responses of other salient objects that appear in just one of the images. Through experiments we show that our algorithm is effective in localizing the co-salient objects inside input image pairs. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Lin S.-C.,National Chiayi University | Jong T.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2012

Microstrip bandpass filters designed with various types of transmission-line resonators are newly proposed in this study. The connected-coupling mechanisms are theoretically analyzed and then appropriately applied in the design of an all-connected-coupling basic filter for preliminary validation. With the simultaneous utilization of conventional edge-coupling and the proposed connected-coupling mechanisms, a fifth-order stopband-extended filter with half- and quarter-wave resonators is then accomplished based on resonance misalignment. After that, the newly proposed three-way resonators made possible by the proposed coupling schemes have been employed as the frequency-selective power-splitting/combing elements for design of dual-band filters and diplexers. Specifically, in the constructed dual-band filter, the three-way resonators not only serve as a power splitter/combiner, but also play the important role of resonant components among filters. As for the presented diplexer, the three-way resonator splits the signal to two channels without necessitating extra matching circuits and thereby economizes the occupied area. The proposed approaches have been validated by experimental results that are well predicted by simulations. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Ni W.-T.,Shanghai Normal University | Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The ultraprecise Gravity Probe B experiment measured the frame-dragging effect and geodetic precession on four quartz gyros. We use this result to test WEP II (weak equivalence principle II) which includes rotation in the universal free-fall motion. The free-fall Eötvös parameter η for a rotating body is ≤10-11 with a four-order improvement over previous results. The anomalous torque per unit angular momentum parameter λ is constrained to (-0.05±3.67)×10-15s-1, (0.24±0.98)×10-15s-1, and (0±3.6)×10-13s-1, respectively, in the directions of geodetic effect, frame-dragging effect, and angular momentum axis; the dimensionless frequency-dependence parameter κ is constrained to (1.75±4.96)×10-17, (1.80±1.34)×10 -17, and (0±3)×10-14, respectively. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Viswanathan S.,Polytechnic Institute of Porto | Rani C.,Government of Tamilnadu | Ho J.-A.A.,National Tsing Hua University
Talanta | Year: 2012

Bacterial food poisoning is an ever-present threat that can be prevented with proper care and handling of food products. A disposable electrochemical immunosensor for the simultaneous measurements of common food pathogenic bacteria namely Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli), campylobacter and salmonella were developed. The immunosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the mixture of anti-E. coli, anti-campylobacter and anti-salmonella antibodies with a ratio of 1:1:1 on the surface of the multiwall carbon nanotube-polyallylamine modified screen printed electrode (MWCNT-PAH/SPE). Bacteria suspension became attached to the immobilized antibodies when the immunosensor was incubated in liquid samples. The sandwich immunoassay was performed with three antibodies conjugated with specific nanocrystal (α-E. coli-CdS, α-campylobacter-PbS and α-salmonella-CuS) which has releasable metal ions for electrochemical measurements. The square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was employed to measure released metal ions from bound antibody nanocrystal conjugates. The calibration curves for three selected bacteria were found in the range of 1 × 10 3-5 × 10 5 cells mL -1 with the limit of detection (LOD) 400 cells mL -1 for salmonella, 400 cells mL -1 for campylobacter and 800 cells mL -1 for E. coli. The precision and sensitivity of this method show the feasibility of multiplexed determination of bacteria in milk samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kong A.K.H.,National Tsing Hua University | Hui C.Y.,Chungnam National University | Cheng K.S.,University of Hong Kong
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2010

We report the discovery of gamma-ray emission from the Galactic globular cluster (GC) Terzan 5 using data taken with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, from 2008 August 8 to 2010 January 1. Terzan 5 is clearly detected in the 0.5-20 GeV band by Fermi at ∼27σ level. This makes Terzan 5 the second gamma-ray-emitting GC seen by Fermi after 47 Tuc. The energy spectrum of Terzan 5 is best represented by an exponential cutoff power-law model, with a photon index of ∼1.9 and a cutoff energy at ∼3.8 GeV. By comparing Terzan 5 to 47 Tuc, we suggest that the observed gamma-ray emission is associated with millisecond pulsars and is either from the magnetospheres or inverse Compton scattering between the relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar winds and the background soft photons from the Galactic plane. Furthermore, it is suggestive that the distance to Terzan 5 is less than 10 kpc and >10 GeV photons can be seen in the future. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Wang Y.-H.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Chang C.-M.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Liu Y.-L.,National Tsing Hua University
Polymer | Year: 2012

Functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been carried out using benzoxazine-containing compound (BPA-FBz) and polymer (PFBz) as modifiers through Diels-Alder reaction. The benzoxazine-functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNT-FBz and MWCNT-PFBz) have been characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. MWCNT-FBz and MWCNT-PFBz are thermally cross-linkable nanomaterials and could be fabricated with press molding and other thermal-forming processes. The cross-linked pellets of MWCNT-FBz and MWCNT-PFBz show surface electrical conductivities of 0.05 S cm -1. Moreover, nanocomposites have also been prepared from BPA-FBz and MWCNT-FBz. The nanocomposites have shown high electrical conductivities (about 7 × 10 -5 S cm -1) and good mechanical strength. The attractive properties have been attributed to the good compatibility between the polybenzoxazine matrix and MWCNT-FBz, as the benzoxazine groups of MWCNT-FBz could copolymerize with BPA-FBz in the preparation of nanocomposites. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lin W.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University | Law J.,Open University Milton Keynes
Social Studies of Science | Year: 2014

How might Science and Technology Studies learn more from the intersection between ‘Western’ and ‘other’ forms of knowledge? In this article, we use Eduardo Viveiros de Castro’s writing on equivocal translation to explore a moment of encounter in a Chinese Medical consultation in Taiwan in which a practitioner hybridizes Chinese Medicine and biomedicine. Our description is symmetrical, but creates a descriptive equivocation in which ‘Western’ analytical terms are used to describe a ‘Chinese’ medical reality. Drawing on the history of Chinese Medicine, we argue that the latter is not analytical, but ‘correlative’ in a specifically ‘Chinese’ manner that explores patternings, flows, and propensities in local collections of things and symptoms. In particular, it both handles difference without seeking to unearth stable causal mechanisms and absorbs new elements including relevant features of biomedicine. We conclude by briefly considering the scope of a possible post-colonial and ‘correlative’ STS and show that a ‘correlative’ description of the same Chinese Medical consultation would differ markedly from one making use of ‘Western’ analytical assumptions. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Chiang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University
International Journal of Fracture | Year: 2012

An exact and closed-form solution is found for the electric potential generated by a screw dislocation in a cubic piezoelectric medium. The governing equations for the antiplane elastic deformation coupled with the in-plane electric field are formulated in terms of the elastic displacement and the electric potential, and a general solution is obtained. The complex logarithm function is exploited to find the electric potential around the screw dislocation. It is found that the equipotential lines are straight lines passing through the dislocation which is a singular point. Two cubic piezoelectric crystals (Bismuth Germanate and Bismuth Germanium Oxide) are used to illustrate the angular variation of the electric potential around the dislocation. It is concluded that a two-term Fourier series representation is an excellent approximation for Bismuth Germanate, but it is not good enough for Bismuth Germanium Oxide. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Chen C.-T.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen C.-H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Ong T.-G.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A gallamide-containing pseudoenantiomeric helicene pair bearing a (10R,11R)-dimethoxymethyldibenzosuberane core can self-assemble by intermolecular amide H-bonding and π-π stacking into bundled helical fibers with helical tunnels of complementary helicity in CH2Cl 2. The helicenes undergo excellent complementary photoswitchings of ternary logic at 280, 318, and 343 nm through (-)-gel-sol-(+)-gel interconversion. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Tang S.-N.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Liao C.-H.,Phison Inc. | Chang T.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2012

This paper presents a multimode FFT processor for wireless personal area network (WPAN), wireless local area network (WLAN), and wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN) applications. Using the proposed flexible-radix- configuration multipath-delay-feedback (FRCMDF) architecture, variable-length/multiple-stream FFTs capable of achieving a high throughput can be performed in a hardware-efficient manner. Based on the FRCMDF structure, a dual-optimized multiplication scheme is also proposed to further improve the area and energy efficiency. In addition, the proposed configuration scheme can provide an architectural support for power scalability across FFT modes. A test chip for the proposed FFT processor has been designed and fabricated using a TSMC-0.18 $\mu$m CMOS process with a core size of 3.2 mm 2 and a signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR) of over 40 dB. When the FFT mode is configured to operate as a 2.4 GS/s 512-point FFT at 300 MHz, the measured power consumption is 507 mW. Compared with previous multimode FFT designs, our FFT chip is more area- and energy-efficient as it is able to provide relatively higher throughput per unit area or per unit power consumption. Also, the power scalability across FFT modes is relatively exhibited in the proposed FFT processor. © 2012 IEEE. Source

The interaction between prM and E proteins in flavivirus-infected cells is a major driving force for the assembly of flavivirus particles. We used site-directed mutagenesis to study the potential role of the transmembrane domains of the prM proteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in prM-E heterodimerization as well as subviral particle formation. Alanine insertion scanning mutagenesis within the GXXXG motif in the first transmembrane segment of JEV prM protein affected the prM-E heterodimerization; its specificity was confirmed by replacing the two glycines of the GXXXG motif with alanine, leucine and valine. The GXXXG motif was found to be conserved in the JEV serocomplex viruses but not other flavivirus groups. These mutants with alanine inserted in the two prM transmembrane segments all impaired subviral particle formation in cell cultures. The prM transmembrane domains of JEV may play importation roles in prM-E heterodimerization and viral particle assembly. Source

Mizuno Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2013

We have investigated the role of the equation of state in resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics using a newly developed resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code. A number of numerical tests in one dimension and multi-dimensions are carried out in order to check the robustness and accuracy of the new code. The code passes all the tests in situations involving both small and large uniform conductivities. Equations of state that closely approximate the single-component perfect relativistic gas are introduced. Results from selected numerical tests using different equations of state are compared. The main conclusion is that the choice of the equation of state as well as the value of the electric conductivity can result in considerable dynamical differences in simulations involving shocks, instabilities, and magnetic reconnection. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Liao C.H.,National Central University | Yen H.R.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2012

This article reports a comparative study of five measures that quantify the degree of research collaboration, including the collaborative index, the degree of collaboration, the collaborative coefficient, the revised collaborative coefficient, and degree centrality. The empirical results showed that these measures all capture the notion of research collaboration, which is consistent with prior studies. Moreover, the results showed that degree centrality, the revised collaborative coefficient, and the degree of collaboration had the highest coefficient estimates on research productivity, the average JIF, and the average number of citations, respectively. Overall, this article suggests that the degree of collaboration and the revised collaborative coefficient are superior measures that can be applied to bibliometric studies for future researchers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ling X.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Lee Y.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | Lin Y.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Fang W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

The thinnest semiconductor, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer, exhibits promising prospects in the applications of optoelectronics and valleytronics. A uniform and highly crystalline MoS2 monolayer in a large area is highly desirable for both fundamental studies and substantial applications. Here, utilizing various aromatic molecules as seeding promoters, a large-area, highly crystalline, and uniform MoS2 monolayer was achieved with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a relatively low growth temperature (650 C). The dependence of the growth results on the seed concentration and on the use of different seeding promoters is further investigated. It is also found that an optimized concentration of seed molecules is helpful for the nucleation of the MoS2. The newly identified seed molecules can be easily deposited on various substrates and allows the direct growth of monolayer MoS2 on Au, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and graphene to achieve various hybrid structures. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Liou H.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Computer Assisted Language Learning | Year: 2012

Various language learning projects using Second Life (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course for 25 college students through task design in a limited Internet connection context. Four tasks - orientation of SL and chatting, pedagogical activities, peer review, and an SL tour - were designed with their influence examined. Although students' frustration about the unstable Internet connection was shown from responses of an evaluation questionnaire, they confirmed the benefits of using SL for English learning and teaching. SL provides affordances of interaction and immersion, which are conducive to their English learning, and SL can easily establish an authentic environment for communication. It is argued, as supported in the previous literature of various educational contexts, that sound pedagogy with appropriate tasks, instead of 3D virtual worldsoftware alone, guides SL applications in the multi-member community (instructors, teachers assistants, students, and other users not in this class) advancing toward language learning objectives or sense-making in student learning. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ray S.,National Tsing Hua University | Kim S.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Morris J.G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Information Systems Research | Year: 2012

The highly competitive and rapidly changing market for online services is becoming increasingly effective Tat locking users in through the coercive effects of switching costs. Although the information systems field increasingly recognizes that switching costs plays a big part in enforcing loyalty, little is known about what factors users regard as switching costs or why they perceive these costs. Consequently, it is hard for online services to know what lock-in strategies to use and when to apply them. We address this problem by first developing a theory-driven structure of online users' perceived switching costs that distinguishes between vendor-related and user-related factors. We then propose that important antecedent influences on switching costs from economic value, technical self-efficacy, and past investments are more complex and intertwined than previously thought. We empirically validated the proposed model using data collected from home users of Internet service providers. Our findings demonstrate that an online service's economic value more heavily influences users' perceptions of vendor-related switching costs than does technical self-efficacy. However, users' technical abilities outweigh economic value in influencing user-related switching costs. Furthermore, although we confirmed the commonly held notion that deeply invested users are generally more vulnerable to lock- in, we also found that this relationship is contingent on users' technical abilities. Finally, we found that our multidimensional measure of switching costs is a valid predictor of user loyalty and is more powerful than previous global measures. Overall, this study uncovered a finer network of switching-cost production than had been previously established and suggests a new approach to modeling and exploiting online users' perceived switching costs. © 2012 INFORMS. Source

Sun Y.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Chang Y.-J.,National Tsing Hua University
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2012

This study examines how blogs and their interactive and collaborative features help academically-advanced graduate students process academic writing knowledge and make sense of their writer identity. Seven graduate students undertaking Master's level study in TESOL and Linguistics participated. The research questions are: (a) What kinds of writing-related topics do students blog about? (b) How do students' collaborative dialogues on blogs help them process and reconstruct knowledge about academic writing? (c) How do students' collaborative dialogues on blogs facilitate their negotiation of academic identities and construction of authorship? Open-coding and content analysis were conducted to inductively identify salient themes and patterns regarding students' learning and perception of their writer identities. The results suggest that the blog activity not only encourages students to actively and reflectively engage in knowledge sharing, knowledge generation, and the development of numerous strategies to cope with difficulties encountered in the learning process. Blogs also endow students with a sense of authorship as the writers of blog entries and, at the same time, provide a space for them to sort out what being an author entails, their purposes of writing, and their authority in writing. © 2012. Source

Kim S.,University of California at Irvine | Chou P.H.,University of California at Irvine | Chou P.H.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper explores sizing and topology reconfiguration strategies for charging and discharging multiple supercapacitors as energy storage in sub-Watt-scale energy harvesters. To maximize energy efficiency for storage (ηEstorage), total leakage power is kept low by selecting the supercapacitors to charge sequentially, alternately, or in series based on their voltages. To maximize energy efficiency for driving load (η Edriving), residual energy is minimized by switching to series composition of the supercapacitors in order to raise the voltage above theminimum input voltage of the load-side dc-dc converter. Due to the nonlinear, stateful, load-dependent behavior of such harvesters, parameter sweeping is used for system-level optimization. A topology-reconfigurable structure consisting of two larger, symmetric "reservoir" supercapacitors and one voltage-raising "bootcap" proves to be efficient and practical when considering combinations of symmetric and asymmetric capacitance values. Experimental results on an actual implementation show that for charging, series topology is best when input power is high due to lower leakage, and individual topology is best when input power is low due to lower voltage; for discharging, series topology is effective in reducing residual energy while individual topology with alternating discharging effectively minimizes leakage. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Yeh W.-C.,University of Technology, Sydney | Yeh W.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2012

In classical disassembly sequencing problems (DSPs), the disassembly time of each item is assumed fixed and sequence-independent. From a practical perspective, the actual processing time of a component could depend on its position in the sequence. In this paper, a novel DSP called the learning-effect DSP (LDSP) is proposed by considering the general effects of learning in DSP. A modified simplified swarm optimization (SSO) method developed by revising the most recently published variants of SSO is proposed to solve this new problem. The presented SSO scheme improves the update mechanism, which is the core of any soft computing based methods, and revises the self-adaptive parameter control procedure. The conducted computational experiment with up to 500 components reflects the effectiveness of the modified SSO method in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chiang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University
Acta Mechanica | Year: 2013

Mode-III crack problems in a cubic piezoelectric medium are investigated. Electromechanical fields near the crack tip are derived, and explicit expressions are obtained. It is shown that the asymptotic stress and electric fields are characterized by the inverse square root of the distance from the tip with at most two independent coefficients. The energy release rate associated with the crack is determined, and comparison is made with the counterpart in materials of hexagonal symmetry. The fundamental problem concerning a screw dislocation which is accompanied by other line singularities of different physical nature is addressed. A class of crack problems is solved by reducing it to the standard Riemann-Hilbert problem in complex function theory. It is concluded that under certain conditions, for the same crack configuration and loading, the stress intensity factors found for isotropic elastic materials are applicable to cubic piezoelectric media. Finally, three crack problems are explicitly solved. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Biagioni P.,Polytechnic of Milan | Huang J.-S.,National Tsing Hua University | Hecht B.,University of Wurzburg
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2012

Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation can strongly enhance the interaction of light with nanoscale matter by their ability to efficiently link propagating and spatially localized optical fields. This ability unlocks an enormous potential for applications ranging from nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy over solar energy conversion, integrated optical nanocircuitry, opto-electronics and density-of-states engineering to ultra-sensing as well as enhancement of optical nonlinearities. Here we review the current understanding of metallic optical antennas based on the background of both well-developed radiowave antenna engineering and plasmonics. In particular, we discuss the role of plasmonic resonances on the performance of nanoantennas and address the influence of geometrical parameters imposed by nanofabrication. Finally, we give a brief account of the current status of the field and the major established and emerging lines of investigation in this vivid area of research. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Hu M.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

The Hsinchu Science Park in Taiwan has been synonymous with dynamic and flourishing high-tech industries and companies since the 1980s. Using patent citation data, this empirical study shows that Taiwan's Hsinchu Science Park is a healthy and knowledge-based cluster surrounded by the semiconductor sector, in which external knowledge is continuously playing an important role, while internalized capability is building up quickly; new and extended industrial clusters are being established by the growth of new ventures; and the linkages of capital, manpower, and technology flows are conducted respectively by the large business groups, the NTHU and NCTU, and the ITRI in the region. Subsequent sectors, repeating the successful model created by and catalyzed from the semiconductor sector are flourishing; the thin-film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) and integrated circuit (IC) design sectors have been growing rapidly since the beginning of the 2000s, and the solar photovoltaic and LED (Light-Emitting Diode) sectors emerged quickly in mid-2005. The continuous evolving and growing industries along with the significant increase of value added in the Hsinchu Science Park have demonstrated it is acting as a healthy and vivid innovation region. The policy implications derived from this study can thus shed light, for the Southeast Asian, Latin American or other latecomers, on the strategies for formulating regional research and innovation policies in the process of developing a knowledge-based economy. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó. Source

Hsieh M.-H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Yen W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University | Hsu L.-Y.,Chung Yuan Christian University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

Though the entanglement-assisted formalism provides a universal connection between a classical linear code and an entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting code (EAQECC), the issue of maintaining large amount of pure maximally entangled states in constructing EAQECCs is a practical obstacle to its use. It is also conjectured that the power of entanglement-assisted formalism to convert those good classical codes comes from massive consumption of maximally entangled states. We show that the above conjecture is wrong by providing families of EAQECCs with an entanglement consumption rate that diminishes linearly as a function of the code length. Notably, two families of EAQECCs constructed in the paper require only one copy of maximally entangled state no matter how large the code length is. These families of EAQECCs that are constructed from classical finite geometric LDPC codes perform very well according to our numerical simulations. Our work indicates that EAQECCs are not only theoretically interesting, but also physically implementable. Finally, these high performance entanglement-assisted LDPC codes with low entanglement consumption rates allow one to construct high-performance standard QECCs with very similar parameters. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Tzeng J.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Computers and Education | Year: 2011

Technology-acceptance tests are traditionally conducted after users have obtained at least a certain amount of experience with a technology. Taking college students who had no real interaction with a prospective eportfolio system, this study investigated both their perceptions of the system and the perceptions' association with attitude towards and intention of using the system. A pre-implementation value-assessment model was proposed, and the results indicate that for prospective users, attitudes appear to have the strongest significant direct effect on usage intentions. Perceived functional value serves as the preliminary conditions that mediate the effect of the perceived epistemic value on attitude. Perceived contextual value influences users' attitude and intention via the mediation of perceived epistemic value and perceived functional value. This model provides a systemic understanding of prospective users' perceptions of the system, and such an understanding can help change agents to examine their assumptions about prospective users' perceptions concerning the value and acceptance of a new technology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lin Y.-H.,Carnegie Mellon University | Chang S.-Y.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Sun H.-M.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2013

For wireless sensor networks, data aggregation scheme that reduces a large amount of transmission is the most practical technique. In previous studies, homomorphic encryptions have been applied to conceal communication during aggregation such that enciphered data can be aggregated algebraically without decryption. Since aggregators collect data without decryption, adversaries are not able to forge aggregated results by compromising them. However, these schemes are not satisfy multi-application environments. Second, these schemes become insecure in case some sensor nodes are compromised. Third, these schemes do not provide secure counting; thus, they may suffer unauthorized aggregation attacks. Therefore, we propose a new concealed data aggregation scheme extended from Boneh et al.'s homomorphic public encryption system. The proposed scheme has three contributions. First, it is designed for a multi-application environment. The base station extracts application-specific data from aggregated ciphertexts. Next, it mitigates the impact of compromising attacks in single application environments. Finally, it degrades the damage from unauthorized aggregations. To prove the proposed scheme's robustness and efficiency, we also conducted the comprehensive analyses and comparisons in the end. © 1989-2012 IEEE. Source

Hsu P.-F.,National Tsing Hua University
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2013

A true e-business enabled firm needs the support from a well-tuned enterprise resource planning (ERP) system for providing real time data. However, many companies complain that after their huge investments in ERP systems, they found the ERP systems do not bring them new orders, new profits, or competitive advantage as ERP vendors claim. Academic studies also found mixed results regarding ERP's payoff. In line with resource based view (RBV), the study proposes an integrated model to shed light on the ERP value paradox. We try to answer "With what organizational resources and by building what firm specific capabilities, the investment in ERP systems may bring firms competitive advantage". Using a sample of 150 ERP and e-business adopters in the US, we found that (1) organizational resources such as managerial skills and organizational change management play a more important role than IT resources (ERP, e-Business technologies) in generating business integration capability. (2) However, neither IT resources nor organizational resources directly provide firms with competitive advantage. Instead, business integration capability built from the two resources plays a mediating role through which business achieves competitive advantage. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

This work presents a novel orthogonal simplified swarm optimization scheme (OSSO) that combines repetitive orthogonal array testing (ROA), re-initialize population (RIP), and SSO for solving intractable large-scale engineering problems. This scheme is applied to the series-parallel redundancy allocation problem (RAP) with a mix of components. RAP involves setting reliability objectives for components or subsystems in order to meet the resource consumption constraint, e.g., the total cost. RAP has been an active area of research for the past four decades. The difficulties confronted by RAP are to maintain feasibility with respect to three nonlinear constraints, namely, cost-, weight-, and volume-related constraints. As evidence of the utility of the proposed approach, we present extensive computational results on random test problems. The computational results compare favorably with previously developed algorithms in the literature. The results in this paper show that the proposed OSSO can perform excellently in a limited computation time. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Isobe M.,National Tsing Hua University
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2013

Trimethylzincate is known to react through conjugate addition to α,β-unsaturated ketones, but adds much faster to α,β-unsaturated esters at low temperatures. Since the intermediate zinc enolate behaves differently from that of dimethylcuprate, it offers scope for application in a partial synthesis of gibberellin A3. A second example involving vinylsulfones having an oxygen atom on the γ-carbon strongly directs incoming nucleophiles in conjugate addition mode. Heteroatom-directed conjugate addition (HADCA) provides very reactive carbanion intermediates leading to cyclobutane ring formation, necessary for synthesis of solanoeclepin A. An alternative reaction for the four-membered carbocyclic ring closure was explored to make a bond formation between the propargylic cation of Nicholas type and allyltrimethylsilane nucleophile of Hosomi-Sakurai type. This method allowed a formation of tricyclo[,6]decene framework. © 2013 IUPAC. Source

Dudev T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lim C.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Monovalent Na+ and K+ ion channels, specialized pore-forming proteins that play crucial biological roles such as controlling cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle contraction, are characterized by a remarkable metal selectivity, conducting the native cation while rejecting its monovalent contender and other ions present in the cellular/extracellular milieu. Compared to K+ channels, the principles governing Na + vs K+ selectivity in both epithelial and voltage-gated Na+ channels are much less well understood due mainly to the lack of high-resolution 3D structures. Thus, many questions remain. It is not clear if the serines lining the pore of epithelial Na+ channel bind to the metal cation via their backbone or side chain O atoms and why substituting the Lys lining the pore of voltage-gated Na+ channels to another residue such as Arg drastically reduces or even reverses the Na+/K + selectivity. This work systematically evaluates the effects of various factors such as (i) the number, chemical type, and charge of the pore's coordinating groups, (ii) the hydration number and coordination number of the metal cation, and (iii) the solvent exposure and the size/rigidity of the pore on the Na+ vs K+ selectivity in model Na+ channel selectivity filters (the narrowest part of the pore) using a combined density functional theory/continuum dielectric approach. The results reveal that the Na+ channel's selectivity for Na+ over K+ increases if (1) the pore provides three rather than four protein ligands to coordinate to the metal ion, (2) the protein ligands have strong charge-donating ability such as Asp/Glu carboxylate or backbone carbonyl groups, (3) the passing Na+ is bare or less well hydrated inside the filter than the competing K+, and (4) the pore is relatively rigid, constricted, and solvent exposed. They also reveal that factors favoring Na+/K + selectivity in Na+ channels generally disfavor K +/Na+ selectivity in K+ channels and vice versa. The different selectivity principles for the K+ and Na + channels are consistent with the different architecture, composition, and properties of their selectivity filters. They provide clues to the metal-binding site structure in the selectivity filters of epithelial and voltage-gated Na+ channels. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Ko C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Huang M.-J.,National Taiwan University | Fu M.-D.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen C.-H.,National Taiwan University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

One of the critical issues for the realization of molecular electronics is the development of ideal molecule-electrode contacts that render efficient charge transportation and thus attenuate the unwanted voltage drop and power loss. The conductance at the single-molecule level has long been expected to be correlated strongly with the electrode materials. However, other than gold, systematic studies of a homologous series of molecules to extract the headgroup-metal contact conductance (Gn=0) have not been reported. Carefully examined herein are the conductances of alkanedithiols anchored onto electrode materials of Au and Pt as well as the conductances of alkanediisothiocyanates on Au, Pd, and Pt by utilizing the method of STM-BJ (scanning tunneling microscopy break junction). In comparison with Au substrate, Pd and Pt are group 10 elements with stronger d-orbital characteristics, and larger local density of states near the Fermi level. The model compounds, SCN(CH2)nNCS (n = 4, 6, and 8), are studied because the isothiocyanate (-NCS) headgroup is a versatile ligand for organometallics, an emerging class of molecular wires, and can bind to substrates of noble metals to complete a metal-molecule-metal configuration for external I-V measurements. Also studied include alkanedithiols, one of the most scrutinized systems in the field of single-molecule conductance. The results show that the conductance for single molecules bridged between a pair of Pt electrodes is about 3.5-fold superior to those between Au electrodes. On all electrode materials, observed are two sets of conductance values, with the smaller set being 1 order of magnitude less conductive. These findings are ascribed to the degree of electronic coupling between the headgroup and the electrode. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Hsu C.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Hsu C.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | Hung S.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu C.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Carbohydrates have been shown to play important roles in biological processes. The pace of development in carbohydrate research is, however, relatively slow due to the problems associated with the complexity of carbohydrate structures and the lack of general synthetic methods and tools available for the study of this class of biomolecules. Recent advances in synthesis have demonstrated that many of these problems can be circumvented. In this Review, we describe the methods developed to tackle the problems of carbohydrate-mediated biological processes, with particular focus on the issue related to the development of the automated synthesis of oligosaccharides. Further applications of carbohydrate microarrays and vaccines to human diseases are also highlighted. Sweet dreams: Carbohydrates play important roles in biological processes. The pace of carbohydrate research is, however, relatively slow due, amongst other things, to the lack of general synthetic methods. Current developments in the automated synthesis of oligosaccharides can help overcome many of these problems and to pave the way for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
International Journal of Modern Physics D | Year: 2013

In this paper, we present an overview of Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices (ASTROD-GW) optimized for Gravitational Wave (GW) detection mission concept and its studies. ASTROD-GW is an optimization of ASTROD which focuses on low frequency GW detection. The detection sensitivity is shifted by a factor of 260 (52) towards longer wavelengths compared with that of NGO/eLISA (LISA). The mission consists of three spacecraft, each of which orbits near one of the Sun-Earth Lagrange points (L3, L4 and L5), such that the array forms an almost equilateral triangle. The three spacecraft range interferometrically with one another with an arm length of about 260 million kilometers. The orbits have been optimized resulting in arm length changes of less than ± 0.00015 AU or, fractionally, less than ±10 -4 in 20 years, and relative Doppler velocities of the three spacecraft of less than ±3 m/s. In this paper, we present an overview of the mission covering: the scientific aims, the sensitivity spectrum, the basic orbit configuration, the simulation and optimization of the spacecraft orbits, the deployment of ASTROD-GW formation, Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) and the payload. The science goals are the detection of GWs from (i) Supermassive Black Holes; (ii) Extreme-Mass-Ratio Black Hole Inspirals; (iii) Intermediate-Mass Black Holes; (iv) Galactic Compact Binaries and (v) Relic GW Background. For the purposes of primordial GW detection, a six spacecraft formation would be needed to enable the correlated detection of stochastic GWs. A brief discussion of the six spacecraft orbit optimization is also presented. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Yang H.-L.,Hungkuang University | Teng J.-T.,William Paterson University | Chern M.-S.,National Tsing Hua University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we extend Teng, J.T., Chang, H.J., Dye, C.Y., Hung, C.H. [2002. An optimal replenishment policy for deteriorating items with time-varying demand and partial backlogging. Operations Research Letters 30(6), 387-393.] and Hou, K.L. [2006. An inventory model for deteriorating items with stock-dependent consumption rate and shortages under inflation and time discounting. European Journal of Operational Research 168(2), 463-474.] by considering an inventory lot-size model under inflation for deteriorating items with stock-dependent consumption rate when shortages are partial backlogging. The proposed model allows for (1) partial backlogging, (2) time-varying replenishment cycles, and (3) time-varying shortage intervals. Consequently, the proposed model is in a general framework that includes numerous previous models as special cases. We then prove that the optimal replenishment schedule exists uniquely, and provide a good estimate for finding the optimal replenishment number. Furthermore, we briefly discuss some special cases of the proposed model related to previous models. Finally, numerical examples to illustrate the solution process and some managerial implications are provided. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chiang C.-R.,National Tsing Hua University
International Journal of Fracture | Year: 2014

An exact and closed-form solution is obtained for a screw dislocation near a semi-infinite crack in cubic piezoelectric crystals. The solution is expressed explicitly in terms of two complex functions which contain three major sources: (a) the electromechanical field associated with the isolated dislocation, (b) the attendant fields generated by the "image" singularities of the dislocation, and (c) the interaction between the crack and the dislocation. The shielding or anti-shielding contribution from the dislocation to the electromechanical K K -field of the crack tip is quantitatively assessed. The theoretical findings are discussed and graphically illustrated. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Wu T.-F.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2016

Pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converters have been widely applied for power processing, and they are typically the stems of other types of converters, such as quasi-resonant, Z-source, and switched-inductor hybrid converters. Development of PWM converters has been spanning over a century, starting from the buck converter. The well-known PWM converters include buck, boost, buck-boost, Ćuk, single ended primary inductive converter (SEPIC), zeta, Z-source, quasi-Z source, etc. Many attempts have been proposed to develop these converters based mostly on canonical cell concepts and by introducing extra LC filters to the cells. This paper presents an enhancement to the layer and graft schemes by introducing the ideas of dc voltage/current offsetting, capacitor/inductor component splitting, diode grafting, and inverse operation of PWM converters. The PWM converters, which can be operated in continuous conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), therefore can be synthesized systematically according to decoded transfer gains. Decoding and synthesizing PWM converters uniquely bridge transfer gains to converter topologies and provide readers a comprehensive understanding of PWM-converter evolution from the original converter, the buck converter. Additionally, in this paper, the Ćuk, SEPIC, and zeta converters all with the same transfer gain of D/(1 - D) are proved to be equivalent to the buck-boost converter with an extra LC filter. For further illustrating the proposed approaches, various types of Z-source converters, switched-capacitor/switched-inductor hybrid converters, and a single-stage interleaved converter are reviewed, and new PWM converters are developed. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Li C.-F.,National Tsing Hua University
EMBO Journal | Year: 2011

Like spliceosomal introns, the ribozyme-containing group II introns are excised as branched, lariat structures: a 2-2-"5-2 bond is created between the first nucleotide of the intron and an adenosine in domain VI, a component which is missing from available crystal structures of the ribozyme. Comparative sequence analysis, modelling and nucleotide substitutions point to the existence, and probable location, of a specific RNA receptor for the section of domain VI that lies just distal to the branchpoint adenosine. By designing oligonucleotides that tether domain VI to this novel binding site, we have been able to specifically activate lariat formation in an engineered, defective group II ribozyme. The location of the newly identified receptor implies that prior to exon ligation, the distal part of domain VI undergoes a major translocation, which can now be brought under control by the system of anchoring oligonucleotides we have developed. Interestingly, these oligonucleotides, which link the branchpoint helix and the binding site for intron nucleotides 3-"4, may be viewed as counterparts of U2-"U6 helix III in the spliceosome. © 2011 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

Chu T.-S.,National Tsing Hua University | Hashemi H.,University of Southern California
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2013

A broadband true-time-delay-based multi-beam array architecture is presented in this paper that is applicable to 1-D and 2-D linear antenna arrays. A 1-D millimeter-wave multi-beam array receiver and a 2-D ultra-wide band multi-beam array receiver have been implemented in 0.13-μm SiGe and a 0.13-μm CMOS technology, respectively. The 1-D millimeter-wave multi-beam array receiver with six antennas and seven beams covers the entire 30-40-GHz instantaneous bandwidth, and achieves 18° spatial resolution and ±54° spatial coverage with 4-mm antenna spacing. The 2-D ultra-wideband multi-beam array receiver with 2 × 2 antennas and 7× 7 beams covers the 3-15-GHz instantaneous bandwidth, and achieves 10° spatial resolution and ± 30° spatial coverage in each dimension with 3-cm antenna spacing. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

Jen H.H.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The ladder configuration of atomic levels provides a source for telecom photons (signal) from the upper atomic transition. For rubidium and caesium atoms, the signal field has the range around 1.3-1.5 μm that can be coupled to an optical fibre and transmitted to a remote location. Cascade emission may result in pairs of photons, the signal entangled with the subsequently emitted infrared photon (idler) from the lower atomic transition. This correlated two-photon source is potentially useful in the DLCZ (Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller) protocol for the quantum repeater. We implement the cascade emission to construct a modified DLCZ quantum repeater and investigate the role of the time-frequency entanglement in the protocol. The dependence of the protocol on the resolving and non-resolving photon-number detectors is also studied. We find that the frequency entanglement deteriorates the performance but the harmful effect can be diminished by using shorter pump pulses to generate the cascade emission. An optimal cascade-emission-based DLCZ scheme is realized by applying a pure two-photon source in addition to using detectors of perfect quantum efficiency. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Cardona C.,National Tsing Hua University | Kalousios C.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2016

The goal of this work is threefold. First, we give an expression of the most general five point integral on ℳ0,n (Formula Presented.) in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. Second, we choose a special kinematics that transforms the polynomial form of the scattering equations to a linear system of symmetric polynomials. We then explain how this can be used to explicitly evaluate arbitrary point integrals on ℳ0,n (Formula Presented.). Third, we comment on the recently presented method of companion matrices and we show its equivalence to the elimination theory and an algorithm previously developed by one of the authors. © 2016, The Author(s). Source

Leow D.,Institute Of Bioengineering And Nanotechnology, Singapore | Leow D.,National Tsing Hua University
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

Amides are prevalent in organic synthesis. Developing an efficient synthesis that avoids expensive oxidants and heating is highly desirable. Here the oxidative amidation of aromatic aldehydes is reported using an inexpensive metal-free visible light photocatalyst, phenazine ethosulfate, at low catalytic loading (1-2 mol %). The reaction proceeds at ambient temperature and uses air as the sole oxidant. The operationally easy procedure provides an economical, green, and mild alternative for the formation of amide bonds. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Tang Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Modern Physics Letters A | Year: 2013

The long-awaited Higgs particle H around 125 GeV has been observed at the LHC. Interpreting it as the Standard Model Higgs boson and if there is no new physics between electroweak and Planck scale, we then do not have a stable vacuum. Here, we give a brief review of the electroweak vacuum stability and some related theoretical issues in the Standard Model. Possible ways to save the stability are also discussed. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Alemu D.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Alemu D.,National Tsing Hua University | Wei H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Ho K.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

We proposed a simple yet robust film treatment method with methanol having only one hydroxyl group to enhance the conductivity of poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by four orders of magnitude. Different methods of film treatment: immersing PEDOT:PSS film in the methanol solution; dropping methanol on the film; and a combination of these are employed and the results are compared. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films was enhanced from 0.3 S cm -1 to 1362 S cm -1 after film treatment with methanol. Other alcohols like ethanol and propanol were also used to treat the PEDOT:PSS film and showed inferior conductivity enhancement compared to methanol. The conductivity enhancement was greatly affected by the hydrophilicity and dielectric constant of the alcohols used. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement was investigated through various characterization techniques including FTIR, XPS and AFM. Removal of the insulator PSS from the film, and morphology and conformational changes are the mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement. The treated films also showed high transmittance and low sheet resistance desirable for a standalone electrode. ITO-free polymer solar cells were fabricated using PEDOT:PSS electrodes treated with methanol and showed almost equal performance to ITO electrodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Wu K.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen B.-S.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2012

In this paper, we address the synchronization problem of coupled partial differential systems (PDSs). First, the asymptotical synchronization and the H∞ synchronization of N-coupled PDSs with space-independent coefficients are considered without or with spatio-temporal disturbance, respectively. The sufficient conditions to guarantee the asymptotical synchronization and the H∞ synchronization are derived. The effect of the spatial domain on the synchronization of the coupled PDSs is also presented. Then the problem of asymptotical synchronization of N-coupled PDSs with space-dependent coefficients is dealt with and the sufficient condition to guarantee the asymptotical synchronization is obtained by using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii method. The condition of the H∞ synchronization for N-coupled PDSs with space-dependent coefficients is also presented. Both conditions are given by integral inequalities, which are difficult to be verified. In order to avoid solving these integral inequalities, we adopt the semi-discrete difference method to turn the PDSs into an equivalent spatial space state system, then the sufficient condition of the H∞ synchronization for N-coupled PDSs is given by an LMI, which is easier to be verified. Further, the relationship between the sufficient conditions for the H∞ synchronization, obtained by the Lyapunov-Krasovskii method and semi-discrete difference method respectively, is investigated. Finally, two examples of coupled PDSs are given to illustrate the correctness of our results obtained in this paper. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Zhang W.,Shandong University of Science and Technology | Chen B.-S.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

This paper introduces an H-representation method to express an n 2×1 vector X as X =H ∼X. Based on the introduced H-representation approach, several topics are extensively discussed, including the generalized Lyapunov equations (GLEs) arising from stochastic control, stochastic observability, generalized D-stability and D-stabilization, weak stability, and stabilization. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of the symmetric and skew-symmetric solutions of GLEs is presented, respectively. Moreover, the solution structure of GLEs is also clarified. Through the H-representation method, several necessary and sufficient conditions are also obtained for stochastic observability, generalized D-stability and D-stabilization, weak stability, and stabilization. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

Liu J.,National Tsing Hua University
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2012

Isolating faulty variables to provide additional information about a process fault is a crucial step in the diagnosis of a process fault. There are two types of data-driven approaches for isolating faulty variables. One is the supervised method, which requires the datasets of known faults to define a fault subspace or an abnormal operating region for each faulty mode. This type of approach is not practical for an industrial process, since the known event lists might not exist for some industrial processes. The counterpart is to isolate faulty variables without a priori knowledge, using, for example, a contribution plot, which is a popular tool in the unsupervised category. However, it is well known that this approach suffers from the smearing effect, which may mislead the faulty variables of the detected faults. In the presented work, a contribution plot without the smearing effect on non-faulty variables was derived based on missing data analysis. Two benchmark examples, the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process, were provided to compare the fault isolation performances of the alternatives using the missing data approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chen B.-S.,National Tsing Hua University | Chen W.-H.,Hsiuping University of Science and Technology | Zhang W.,Shandong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2012

This study addresses a robust H ∞ filter design problem for nonlinear stochastic partial differential systems (NSPDSs) with random external disturbance and measurement noise in the spatiotemporal domain. For NSPDSs, a robust H ∞ filter design through a set of sensor measurements needs to solve a complex second-order Hamilton Jacobi integral inequality (HJII). In order to simplify the design procedure, a fuzzy stochastic partial differential system based on a fuzzy interpolation approach is proposed to approximate the NSPDS. Then, a fuzzy stochastic spatial state space model is developed to represent the fuzzy stochastic partial differential system via the semidiscretization finite difference scheme and the Kronecker product. Based on this model, a robust H ∞ filter design is proposed to achieve the robust state estimation via solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) instead of a second-order HJII. The proposed robust fuzzy H ∞ filter efficiently attenuates the effect of spatiotemporal external disturbances and measurement noise on the state estimation of NSPDSs from the area energy point of view. Finally, a robust H ∞ state estimation example of heat transfer system is given to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the H ∞ filtering performance of the proposed robust filter design method. © 1993-2012 IEEE. Source

Chiu W.-Y.,Princeton University | Chen B.-S.,National Tsing Hua University | Yang C.-Y.,University for Information Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

In this paper, the relative location estimation problem, a prominent issue faced by several applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), is considered. Sensors are classified into two categories: location-aware and location-unaware sensors. To estimate the positions of location-unaware sensors, exact positions are often assumed for location-aware sensors. However, in practice, such precise data may not be available. Therefore, determining the positions of location-unaware sensors in the presence of inexact positions of location-aware sensors is the primary focus of this study. A robust min-max optimization method is proposed for the relative location estimation problem by minimizing the worst-case estimation error. The corresponding optimization problem is originally nonconvex, but after it is transformed into a convex semidefinite program (SDP), it can be solved by existing numerical techniques. In the presence of inexact positions of location-aware sensors, the robustness of the proposed approach is validated by simulations under different WSN topologies. Modified maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation and second-order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation methods have been used for localization in comparison with the proposed approach. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Hsu P.-F.,National Tsing Hua University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2013

We investigate the complementary effect between ERP and e-business technologies, and the impact of such effect on business value creation. Previous studies have examined the effects of ERP and e-business technologies independently, and show positive effects on business value from their use. However, both the resource based view and microeconomic theory as well as practitioner experience suggest that the impacts from their joint and complementary use should be much greater, but this proposition has not yet been examined empirically. We use two different approaches (product term and direct measure approaches) to measure the complimentary effect. Comparing results using firm performance accounting data with self-reported survey data of 150 U.S. manufacturing firms, we provide confirming empirical evidence that the complementary effect between ERP and e-business technologies in creating business value is stronger than the main effects of ERP or e-business technologies alone. We further find that the complementary use of these IT resources to build system and business integration capabilities can extract the most complementarity value for firms. These findings provide empirical support for the theory of competitive advantage that the resource based view (RBV) proposes. Furthermore, these findings provide practical guidance to firms on how to utilize and deploy ERP and e-business technologies in a mutually reinforcing manner. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hagiwara K.,High Energy Accelerator Research Organization | Lee J.S.,National Tsing Hua University | Nakamura J.,High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

Tantalizing hints of the Higgs boson of mass around 125GeV have been reported at the LHC. We explore the MSSM parameter space in which the 125GeV state is identified as the heavier of the CP even Higgs bosons, and study two scenarios where the two photon production rate can be significantly larger than the standard model (SM). In one scenario, Γ (H → γ γ) is enhanced by a light stau contribution, while the WWz.ast; (ZZz.ast;) rate stays around the SM rate. In the other scenario, Γ (H → b′b) is suppressed and not only the γ γ but also the WWz.ast; (ZZz.ast;) rates should be enhanced. The φ′ φ rate can be significantly larger or smaller than the SM rate in both scenarios. Other common features of the scenarios include top quark decays into charged Higgs boson, single and pair production of all Higgs bosons in e+e? collisions at √s ≲. 300GeV.© 2012 SISSA. Source

Hong Y.-W.P.,National Tsing Hua University | Lan P.-C.,University of Southern California | Kuo C.-C.J.,University of Southern California
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2013

This article provides an overview of the signal processing techniques used to enhance secrecy in the physical layer of multiantenna wireless communication systems. Motivated by results in information theory, signal processing techniques in both the data transmission and the channel estimation phases have been explored in the literature to enlarge the signal quality difference at the destination and the eavesdropper. In the data transmission phase, secrecy beamforming and precoding schemes are used to enhance signal quality at the destination while limiting the signal strength at the eavesdropper. Artificial noise (AN) is also used on top of beamformed or precoded signals to further reduce the reception quality at the eavesdropper. In the channel estimation phase, training procedures are developed to enable better channel estimation performance at the destination than at the eavesdropper. As a result, the effective signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at the two terminals will be different and a more favorable secrecy channel will be made available for use in the data transmission phase. Finally, future research directions are discussed. © 1991-2012 IEEE. Source

Chen J.C.,National Tsing Hua University | Cheng C.-H.,Chung Yuan Christian University | Huang P.B.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

This study applies lean production and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of supply chain management. In this study, a three-tier spare parts supply chain with inefficient transportation, storage and retrieval operations is investigated. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is used to draw current state mapping and future state mapping (with lean production and RFID) with material, information, and time flows. Preliminary experiments showed that the total operation time can be saved by 81% from current stage to future stage with the integration of RFID and lean. Moreover, the saving in total operation time can be enhanced to 89% with cross docking. In addition, utilizing RFID technology, the cost of labors can be significantly reduced while maintaining current service capacity at the members in the studied supply chain. Return-on-investment (ROI) analysis shows that the proposed method is both effective and feasible. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lin W.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2013

How might the agency of the subaltern be conceptualized within the intersection of multiple worlds? Actor-network theory's (ANT) translation framework for understanding agency portraying this as entrepreneur and talking of a world in the making is arguably "imperialist," "managerial," and "monolithic." Draws from the enactment turn of ANT and insights into the politics of representation, this article elaborates an alternative framework which focuses on displacement. By examining the case of dialysis patients, the article explores the displacing practices that follow the disruption of routines in dialysis. Patients have to go through a process of problematization, distribution, hybridization, and restabilization, in order to sustain the coexistence of their alternative practices with dialysis. Unlike entrepreneurs in the translation model who transform the world by interesting others, enduring trials, and becoming spokespersons for all, those patients who manage to displace and sustain the coexistence of multiple worlds avoid interesting, still less confronting, the hegemonic actors and claiming representation for themselves. This article suggests the displacement of agency as a generic alternative. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Chou C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2016

The quantum–classical transition for wave packet interference is investigated using a hydrodynamic description. A nonlinear quantum–classical transition equation is obtained by introducing a degree of quantumness ranging from zero to one into the classical time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This equation provides a continuous description for the transition process of physical systems from purely quantum to purely classical regimes. In this study, the transition trajectory formalism is developed to provide a hydrodynamic description for the quantum–classical transition. The flow momentum of transition trajectories is defined by the gradient of the action function in the transition wave function and these trajectories follow the main features of the evolving probability density. Then, the transition trajectory formalism is employed to analyze the quantum–classical transition of wave packet interference. For the collision-like wave packet interference where the propagation velocity is faster than the spreading speed of the wave packet, the interference process remains collision-like for all the degree of quantumness. However, the interference features demonstrated by transition trajectories gradually disappear when the degree of quantumness approaches zero. For the diffraction-like wave packet interference, the interference process changes continuously from a diffraction-like to collision-like case when the degree of quantumness gradually decreases. This study provides an insightful trajectory interpretation for the quantum–classical transition of wave packet interference. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sahoo P.K.,Chang Gung University | Sheu J.-P.,National Tsing Hua University | Hsieh K.-Y.,National Central University
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an integral part of Internet of Things (IoT), in which sensors can be used to keep track with interesting targets under surveillance. Target tracking is one of the important research issues, where sensors are deployed in many applications such as campus security, surveillance, habitat and battle field monitoring. Information can be forwarded in an ad hoc multi-hop fashion via internet to monitor a specific region and can form a ubiquitous network for several internet services. In this paper, Sequential Boundary Node Selection (SBNS) and Distributed Boundary Node Selection (DBNS) algorithms are proposed to find out the boundary nodes of the wireless sensor network. Besides, a target tracking protocol is proposed to detect the entry and exit of the targets using those boundary nodes. Simulation results show that the selection of boundary nodes in our protocol is almost close to the optimal one and the time of selecting boundary nodes would not increase rapidly, with increase in the size of the deployed nodes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Wang Y.-J.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Chen C.-D.,Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan | Sung C.-K.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2013

This paper proposes the system design of a weightedpendulum- type electromagnetic generator for harvesting energy from a rotating wheel. Different from the traditional energyharvesting device, the natural frequency of the suitable weighted pendulum, which oscillates due to periodic change of the tangential component of gravitational force, can match up with the rotational frequency of the wheel at any speed. In addition, the pendulum oscillates at a large angle and angular velocity so as to generate a large amount of power. The physical model of the pendulum was first constructed and the equation of motion was then derived via the Lagrange method. Then, the models of power generation were derived by using Faraday's law of induction and the Lorentz force law. The nonlinear dynamic behaviors were discussed considering the characteristic length, variable electromagnetic damping, and wheel rotation speed. Finally, an experimental rig was constructed to verify the correctness of numerical results. The suitable weighted pendulum combined with coils and magnets has demonstrated the power generation of several hundred micro-Watts in the experiment. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Chou C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2015

A simple and easy-to-implement method is presented for the study of time-dependent reaction dynamics by propagating an ensemble of transmitted quantum trajectories. During the trajectory evolution, reflected trajectories are gradually removed and all the remaining trajectories represent the transmitted subensemble. The removal process of reflected trajectories avoids numerical instabilities arising from node formation in the reactant region, and allows stable long-time propagation of transmitted trajectories. This method is applied to a two-dimensional model chemical reaction. Excellent computational results are obtained for the time-dependent reaction probabilities evaluated by the time integration of the probability flux. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University | Ni W.-T.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2010

Spin is fundamental in physics. Gravitation is universal. Searches for the role of spin in gravitation dated before the firm establishment of the electron spin in 1925. Since mass and spin or helicity in the case of zero mass are the only invariants of the Poincaré group and mass participates in universal gravitation, these searches are natural steps to pursue. Here we review both the theoretical and experimental efforts in searching for the role of spin/polarization in gravitation. We discuss torsion, Poincaré gauge theories, teleparallel theories, metric-affine connection theories and pseudoscalar (axion) theories. We discuss laboratory searches for electron and nucleus spin couplings - the weak equivalence principle experiments for polarized bodies, the finite-range spin-coupling experiments, the spin-spin coupling experiments and the cosmic-spin coupling experiments. The role played by angular momentum and rotation is explicitly discussed. We discuss astrophysical and cosmological searches for photon-polarization coupling. An investigation on the implications and interrelations of equivalence principles led to a possible pseudoscalar or vector interaction, and led to the proposal of weak equivalence principle II (WEP II) which includes rotation in the universal free-fall motion. Evidence for WEP II is discussed and compiled. Cosmological searches for photon-polarization coupling test the possibility of violation of Einstein's equivalence principle and the existence of cosmic pseudoscalar/vector interaction and may reveal a potential influence to our presently observed universe from a larger arena. In relativistic gravity, there is a Lense-Thirring frame dragging on a rotating body with angular momentum. Analogous to gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism, one can define gyrogravitational ratio. A profound search for the role of spin in gravitation is to measure the gyrogravitational ratio of particles. This could lead us to probe and understand the microscopic origins of gravity. We discuss the strategies to perform such experiments. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2014

We study the propagation of the Hehl-Obukhov-Rubilar skewon field in weak gravity field/dilute matter or with weak violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP), and further classify it into Type I and Type II skewons. From the dispersion relation we show that no dissipation/no amplification condition implies that the additional skewon field must be of Type II. For Type I skewon field, the dissipation/amplification is proportional to the frequency and the CMB spectrum would deviate from Planck spectrum. From the high precision agreement of the CMB spectrum with 2.755 K Planck spectrum, we constrain the Type I cosmic skewon field |χijkl(SkI)| to ≤ a few ×10 -35. The skewon part of constitutive tensor constructed from asymmetric metric is of Type II, hence it is allowed. This study may also be applied to macroscopic electrodynamics in the case of laser pumped medium or dissipative medium. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ni W.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2014

We study the electromagnetic wave propagation in the joint dilaton field and axion field. Dilaton field induces amplification/attenuation in the propagation while axion field induces polarization rotation. The amplification/attenuation induced by dilaton is independent of the frequency (energy) and the polarization of electromagnetic waves (photons). From observations, the agreement with and the precise calibration of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to blackbody radiation constrains the fractional change of dilaton |Δψ|/ψ to less than about 8 × 10-4 since the time of the last scattering surface of the CMB. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chen L.-J.,National Tsing Hua University
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2016

Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode. © 2016 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International Source

Lu T.-N.,National Tsing Hua University | Kong A.K.H.,Golden Jade Fellow of Kenda Foundation
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2011

We present results of deep radio continuum observations of two galactic globular clusters 47 Tucanae (47Tuc) and ω Centauri (ω Cen) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. No statistically significant evidence for radio emission was found from the central region for the two clusters. However, both clusters show a 2.5σ detection near the center that may be confirmed by future deeper radio observations. The 3σ upper limits of the radio observations are 20 and 40 μJy beam-1 for ω Cen and 47Tuc, respectively. By using the fundamental plane of accreting black holes, which describes the relationship between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass, we constrain the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in the globualar clusters. We also compare our results with other globular clusters and discuss the existence of IMBHs in globular clusters. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kang L.-W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin C.-W.,National Tsing Hua University | Fu Y.-H.,MStar Semiconductor Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2012

Rain removal from a video is a challenging problem and has been recently investigated extensively. Nevertheless, the problem of rain removal from a single image was rarely studied in the literature, where no temporal information among successive images can be exploited, making the problem very challenging. In this paper, we propose a single-image-based rain removal framework via properly formulating rain removal as an image decomposition problem based on morphological component analysis. Instead of directly applying a conventional image decomposition technique, the proposed method first decomposes an image into the low- and high-frequency (HF) parts using a bilateral filter. The HF part is then decomposed into a rain component and a nonrain component by performing dictionary learning and sparse coding. As a result, the rain component can be successfully removed from the image while preserving most original image details. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Lee C.P.,National Tsing Hua University
The Analyst | Year: 2013

The change of contact angle is one of the major subjects in the studies of electrowetting on dielectrics. A larger change in contact angle with a less applied electric potential has been pursued by the researchers on digital microfluidics. From previous research it is concluded that the effect of free charges in electrolytes on contact angles can almost be neglected. In this article, obvious influences of free charges on contact angles are presented and discussed. To verify the influence of free charges, both weak electrolyte (boric acid) and strong electrolyte (sodium chloride) are used as sources of free charges in our experiment. It was found that the increase of ion concentration enhances the contact angle variation due to the attraction between the bound surface charges in the dielectric layer and the free counter-ions in the solution. The saturated contact angle occurs with a lower electric potential compared with de-ionized water due to the shielding of the electric field by the free counter-ions. When a strong electrolyte is used, the contact angle varies at a much higher rate than with de-ionized water, and the huge amount of accumulated free ions shields the driving field, causing the contact angle to saturate at a much lower electric potential. The saturated contact angle in strong electrolyte solution is markedly larger than those in weak electrolyte solutions and de-ionized water. Source

Chang S.,National Tsing Hua University
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

The human body is a hierarchical organism containing many levels of mutually interacting oscillatory systems. From the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine, health is a state of harmony emergent from the interactions of these systems and disease is a state of discord. Hence, human diseases are considered as disturbed functions rather than changed structures. Indeed, the change from normal to abnormal structure may be beneficent rather than maleficent. For example, when one kidney becomes twice the normal size following the destruction of the other kidney, it is good and not bad for us because we might be dead otherwise. Therefore, in Part 3 of this three-part series, emphasis is mainly laid on the acupuncture mechanisms of treating disturbed physiological functions rather than disordered structures. At first, the basic tenets of conventional neuroscience and cardiology are reevaluated so that clear understanding of how nervous and cardiovascular systems work together can be obtained. Then, the general principles of diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine from the integrative perspective of complex dynamic systems are proposed. Finally, mechanisms of acupuncture therapies for treating 14 different categories of disorders will be elucidated via the magneto-electric inductive effects of the meridian system. © 2013, Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Source

Liu M.-C.,Tamkang University | Chen S.-H.,National Tsing Hua University
Research Policy | Year: 2012

China has become a hot spot of R&D internationalization and a growing number of Taiwan-based firms have indeed set up R&D units in China. Taking into account China's substantial regional variations in economic development, innovation capacity, and knowledge productivity, such notions as regional innovation system (RIS) and local innovative milieu may become more relevant to the study on relationships between China and its inward R&D internationalization. Therefore, the key issue for this paper is what locational advantages of an RIS within a host country affect the network linkages and networking strategy of multinational corporations' (MNCs') offshore R&D units. The paper aims to enrich the current understanding of R&D internationalization in several ways. First, the paper attempts to examine the R&D networking underlying R&D internationalization by Taiwan-based firms in China, with particular reference to the sub-national level inside China. Second, the paper tries to establish a link between the literature of R&D internationalization and that of RIS, with a modified version of Dunning's eclectic paradigm. Efforts are made to map the relationship between foreign subsidiaries' local R&D networks and their host RISs inside China. Third, the paper takes advantage of a government databank to adopt a quantitative approach, the Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit Regression model, with foreign subsidiaries as the unit of analysis, to highlight the role played by some aspects of the RIS in determining the local R&D networking of Taiwanese subsidiaries in China. Our evident shows that MNCs' offshore R&D units that purse home-based technology exploitation strategy, the mainstream strategy regarding the developing host country, tend to be located in a host region with a strong knowledge application and exploitation subsystem, while an RIS with a strong knowledge generation and diffusion subsystem, within such a developing country as China, may induce MNCs' local R&D units to pursue home-base technology augmenting strategy. On balance, not only the location choice but also the local R&D linkages of MNCs' offshore subsidiaries are related to appropriate fits between the RIS and the subsidiaries' innovation network inside the host country. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

The study described herein uses US Patent and Trademark Office data to assess variations in technological innovation capabilities, and their influence on market performance, among leading TFT-LCD producers in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The empirical results suggest that TFT-LCD producers in Korea and Taiwan built innovation capabilities by creating complementary knowledge for Japanese firms, whose technologies lead the way in the industry. The results also show that latecomers sought to expand production by selecting certain technological fields, but that they exploited these fields in different ways. Specifically, Korean conglomerates increased their scale of technology in order to improve their technological positions, while Taiwanese producers pursued innovations that strengthened their technological efficiency. While Japanese firms led the way in terms of both technology and market share during the 1990s, they then evolved to become merely technological leaders from 2000 onwards. However, Japanese firms have since renewed their business strategies to counter the aggressive market expansion of their competitors by strengthening the protection of their intellectual property rights through inter-keiretsu collaborations in technological niches, and by securing leadership in the market in high value-added key components in order to retain more of the profits from their own innovations. Four policy imperatives for both technology leading and latecomer countries regarding the development of sustainable industries associated with the industrial cycle and market dynamics are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Hsu C.-C.,Chaoyang University of Technology | Su C.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology | Year: 2011

In order to ensure power quality and keep supplying power in a thermal power plant, early detection of equipment malfunctions is a critical issue. This study attempts to develop an adaptive forecast-based chart so as to enhance the fault detectability in a thermal power plant. In the proposed monitoring statistic, the exponentially weighted moving average is adopted to preserve the information of past observations. Simultaneously, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to extract non-Gaussian information. The advantages of the proposed statistic include the fact that it is capable of monitoring non-Gaussian processes, the detection of small process shifts is improved, and the traditional ICA chart is a special case of the proposed one. The efficiency of the proposed method is verified by a simulated process and a real case of thermal power plant of Taiwan Power Company. Results demonstrated that the proposed method outperforms conventional monitoring methods, especially for detecting small process changes. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Hou C.-C.,Chung Hua University | Cheng P.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents a dynamic model of the active front-end (AFE) converter in the synchronous reference frame under balance input voltage condition. Transfer functions of the closed-loop control based on this dynamic model are verified experimentally in the frequency domain. Bode plots of these transfer functions are given to validate this synchronous frame-based dynamic model. Based on these results, this paper presents the control designs of the AFE converter to enhance the disturbance rejection capability and robustness. The control designs are then verified experimentally in the frequency domain. The frequency response of the AFE converter system is measured by an Agilent 35670A dynamic signal analyzer to validate the performance of the AFE converter system. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Huang C.-Y.,National Tsing Hua University | Lyu M.R.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
IEEE Transactions on Reliability | Year: 2011

Software typically undergoes debugging during both a testing phase before product release, and an operational phase after product release. But it is noted that the fault detection and removal processes during software development and operation are different. For example, the fault removal during operation occurs generally at a slower pace than development. In this paper, we derive a powerful, easily deployable technique for software reliability prediction and assessment in the testing and operational phases. We first review how several existing software reliability growth models (SRGM) based on non- homogeneous Poisson processes (NHPP) can be readily derived from a unified theory. With the unified theory, we further incorporate the concept of multiple change-points, i.e. points in time when the software environment changes, into software reliability modeling. Several models are proposed and discussed under both ideal and imperfect debugging conditions. We estimate the parameters of the proposed models by employing real software failure data, and give a fair comparison with some existing SRGM. Numerical results show that the proposed models can provide good software reliability prediction in the various stages of software development and operation. Our approach is flexible; we can model various environments ranging from exponential-type to S-shaped NHPP models. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Hou C.-C.,Chung Hua University | Cheng P.-T.,National Tsing Hua University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

The auxiliary converter (AXC) has been presented as a cost-effective solution to retrofit the conventional diode rectifier into a unity power factor and regeneration-enabled front end. The transistor-based AXC operates as an active filter when the load system consumes power. When the load system regenerates, the AXC can transfer the energy back to the ac grid. However, the pulse width modulation (PWM) switching of the AXC often causes circulating current between the AXC and the diode rectifier. The zero vectors of each PWM cycle induce zero sequence current, which results in increased operational losses and electrical noise. This study analyzes the circulating current and investigates the use of multicarrier PWM for its suppression. This multicarrier PWM can synthesize the desired output voltage without using zero vectors for the active filtering and regeneration operations of the AXC, and thus significantly suppress the circulating current and common mode voltage. Test results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed multicarrier PWM in the AXC circuit system. © 2011 IEEE. Source

A method for classifying defect images is provided. Defect images are processed through an automatic optical detection. The present invention integrates image analysis and data mining. Defects are found on the images without using human eye. The defects are classified for reducing product defect rate. Thus, the present invention effectively enhances performance on finding and classifying defects with increased consistency, correctness and reliability.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-12-26

A method, a server and an apparatus for lecture feedback are provided. In the method, an adding request is received to establish a lecture. A login for the lecture from each of at least one audience apparatus is received to provide a presentation data to each of the at least one audience apparatus. The presentation data includes several pages. A usage behavior of each audience apparatus executing on each of the pages of the presentation data is monitored, and the usage behaviors of all of the at least one audience apparatus are analyzed to provide a feedback of the lecture.

Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan, Chung Yuan Christian University and National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-09-06

A voltage-controllable power-mode-aware (PMA) clock tree in an integrated circuit (IC) and a synthesis method and an operation method thereof are provided. The PMA clock tree includes at least two sub clock trees, at least two PMA buffers and a power mode control circuit. The at least two PMA buffers respectively delay a system clock and provide the delayed system clock to the sub clock trees as delayed clocks. The power mode control circuit respectively provides at least two first power information to at least two function modules to respectively determine the power modes of the function modules. The power mode control circuit respectively provides at least two second power information to the at least two PMA buffers to respectively determine the delay time of the PMA buffers.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-04-03

A Schottky barrier diode includes a substrate, a buffer layer formed on the substrate, an upper layer formed on the buffer layer, a first electrode layer formed on the upper layer as an anode of the Schottky barrier diode, a second electrode layer formed on the upper layer as a cathode of the Schottky barrier diode, and a first n-type doping region formed in the upper layer and under the first electrode layer, and contacting the first electrode layer. An edge of the first n-type doping region and an edge of the first electrode layer are separated by a first predetermined distance at a first direction at which the first electrode layer faces the second electrode layer.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-07-09

A buck-type DC-to-DC converter and a method of operating the same are provided. The converter includes: an active switch electrically connected to an input power source having an input voltage; a diode having two terminals electrically connected to the active switch and the input power source, respectively; a resonant circuit connected in parallel with the diode and including a capacitor and a resonant inductor connected in series with the capacitor; and an output inductor electrically connected to the resonant circuit and connected in series with a load electrically connected to the resonant circuit. The active switch and the diode are switched in an on-state or an off-state according to different working modes. The active switch is switched from the off-state to the on-state by a switching voltage less than the input voltage. The diode is switched from the on-state to the off-state by a switching current equal to zero.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-07-29

A method for manufacturing a film electrode is disclosed, which comprises the following steps: (A) providing a polymer substrate, and forming a micro-structure array comprising a plurality of micro holes on the polymer substrate; and (B) depositing sequentially an electron-conductive layer, a catalyst layer, and a proton exchange membrane on the array comprising a plurality of micro holes to form a film electrode; wherein the aspect ratio of the plurality of micro holes is ranging from 2:1 to 5:1.

A set of nano/micro structured objects capable of interlocking with each other comprises a first part and a second part. A plurality of protrusions arranged in a matrix are disposed on a surface of a base plate of the first part. A plurality of microcavities arranged in a matrix are formed on a corresponding surface of the second part. The cross-sectional areas of a portion of each of the protrusions and microcavities decrease toward the base plate. A plurality of nano-scaled needle-shaped objects are formed on an outer sidewall of each of the protrusions or on an inner sidewall of each of the microcavities. When the two parts are combined, each of the protrusions is inserted into one of the microcavities, and the needle object of the protrusion bunts an inner sidewall of the microcavity, or the needle object of the microcavities bunts an outer sidewall of the protrusion.

A preparation method of carboxylic acids or ketones using ozone, singlet state oxygen atom O(

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-01-10

The present invention provides an analog to digital converter by using an exponential-logarithmic model. The exponential-logarithmic analog-to-digital converter includes an exponential circuit which acquires an analog input voltage and generates an analog output voltage that is an exponential function of the input voltage. A positive feedback circuit that succeeds the exponential circuit exhibits a natural logarithmic characteristic. A comparator is connected to the positive feedback circuit to compare an output voltage of the positive feedback circuit with a reference voltage. Via the exponential-logarithmic conversion technique, the time interval or pulse produced by the positive feedback circuit is a linear function of the magnitude of the input voltage. Based on the comparator output, a counter is employed to translate the analog input signal to its digital representation.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-01-21

The invention provides a liquid crystal based optoelectronic device, including an upper substrate and a lower substrate, a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between the upper substrate and the lower substrate, and a pair of indium tin oxide nano-whisker layers formed on the inner surfaces of the upper substrate and the lower substrate, wherein the indium tin oxide nano-whisker layer is used as an alignment layer for aligning liquid crystal molecules in the liquid crystal layer.

A method for real-time conversations and comment with each other in a mobile device comprises the following steps. In the step (a), it activates a communication module of real-time conversations and comment with each other of a first mobile device. In the step (b), it performs a matching process for a user of the first mobile by a server. In the step (c), it provides a topic of chat for the user of the first mobile device for conversations by using the communication module of real-time conversations and comment with each other or by using the server. In the step (d), the user of the first mobile device transmits a first message to the successfully matched user of a second mobile device and makes comments for a second message from the user of the second mobile device.

A semiconductor is fabricated on a silicon (Si) substrate. The semiconductor is III-nitride based. The Si substrate is partially isolated. Etching is directly processed from top on a chip for solving wire-width problem. The Si substrate does not need to be made thin. The chip can be large scaled and be prevented from bowing. Thus, the present invention simplifies producing procedure and reduces production cost. Besides, for a large-scaled chip, the breakdown voltage is enhanced; and, without making the Si substrate thin, the on-state current is remained the same and the heat problem is weakened.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-08-08

In a hybrid transportation apparatus, a gas supply provides high-pressure hydrogen, which drives a turbine to generate first mechanical power and becomes medium-pressure hydrogen, which drives an air engine to generate second mechanical power and becomes low-pressure hydrogen. A fuel cell generates first electric power according to the low-pressure hydrogen. A heat recycling module recycles heat, which is generated by the fuel cell, to warm up the high-pressure hydrogen or the medium-pressure hydrogen. A generator receives the first mechanical power and generates second electric power. A motor generates third mechanical power according to the first and second electric power. A power output device causes movement of the transportation apparatus according to the second and third mechanical power. Thus, potential energy and chemical energy of the high-pressure hydrogen can be effectively utilized to generate the mechanical power and the electric power to move the transportation apparatus.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-12-20

A bidirectional converter circuit includes a voltage source which provides an input voltage, an energy storage set connected to the voltage source and receives the input voltage, a switch set connected to the energy storage set, wherein the switch set includes a first switch and a second switch; an operating switch set connected to the switch set, wherein the operating switch set includes a first operating switch, a second operating switch, a third operating switch and a fourth operating switch. The bidirectional converter further includes a blocking capacitor set and a (input/output) capacitor set. Wherein, the blocking capacitor set is connected to the switch set and the operating switch set. The first operating switch and the second operating switch are driven complementarily with the first switch, and the third operating switch and the fourth operating switch are driven complementarily with the second switch.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-07-19

Provided herein is a method for detecting the presence of lethal system in a patient using the expression of nuclear factor A (NFA) in marker cell. In another aspect, provided herein is a method for predicting if a patient has metastatic potential and is at risk of developing metastasis and for determining a prognosis for the patient.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-12-31

A layer-ID detector for multilayer 3D-IC, including a random generator to generate a random signal, a layer-ID designation mechanism circuit coupled to the random generator to generate a layer-ID designating signal, and a counter coupled to the layer-ID designating signal to output a layer-ID signal.

A viscosity measurement system, which is for measuring the viscosity of a fluid, comprises a transistor-type viscosity sensor, an electrical measurement unit, and a processing unit. The transistor-type viscosity sensor includes a semiconductor structure, a source terminal, and a drain terminal. The semiconductor structure includes a GaN layer and an AlGaN layer disposed on the GaN layer. The portion of the semiconductor structure that is between the source terminal and the drain terminal has a gate region, which has an exposed surface for being in contact with the fluid. The electrical measurement unit is in electrical connection with the source terminal and the drain terminal and for measuring an electronic signal of the semiconductor structure. The processing unit is coupled to the electrical measurement unit and for determining the viscosity of the fluid according to the electronic signal measured.

A method of preparing carbon nanotube/polymer composite having electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is disclosed, which includes: dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in an organic solvent such as N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc); dissolving monomers such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) and an initiator such as 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) in the MWCNT dispersion; and polymerizing the monomers in the resulting mixture at an elevated temperature such as 120 C. to form a MWCNT/PMMA composite. The composite is coated onto a PET film, and the coated PET film alone or a stack of multiple coated PET films can be applied as an EMI shielding material.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-07-14

A tunable optical filter with an optical axis is provided. An input light field moves forward from an upstream end to a downstream end, and passes through the tunable optical filter to form an output light field. The input light field has a main frequency range and a sub-frequency range, and the output light field has the main frequency range. The tunable optical filter includes an optical filtering element and a temperature controlling assembly. The optical filtering element has a lens body, a first and second coating films. A resonant cavity with a cavity length is formed inside the lens body. The temperature controlling assembly is thermally connected with the optical filtering element. The temperature controlling assembly controls the temperature of the optical filtering element to adjust the cavity length, so as to select the main frequency range. A tunable optical filter module having the tunable optical filter is provided.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-12-05

A colorimetric immunoassay of the present invention uses nanostructured material with high absorption and high scattering ability as a label material for biosensors. Subject matters to be measured may be characterized or quantified by determining the changes in optical properties of the nanostructured material. The biosensor of the present invention may be operated in broad light wavelength range and detected by direct observation with naked eye. The biosensor of the present invention may be also provided with advantages such as higher sensitivity and lower cost.

National Tsing Hua University and Novatek | Date: 2013-08-02

A method for correcting a rolling shutter effect is provided. The method includes: obtaining feature point pairs in images, wherein each of the feature point pairs corresponds to a motion vector; obtaining sampling points between two consecutive images in time; setting a moving velocity and an angular velocity of an image capturing unit at each of the sampling points as variables; obtaining estimating motion vectors according to the variables, a focal length of the image capturing unit, and row locations where the feature point pairs are located; executing an optimization algorithm according to a difference between the motion vectors and the estimating motion vectors, to calculate the moving velocity and the angular velocity corresponding to the variables; varying locations of pixels in an image according to the moving velocity and the angular velocity, to generate a first corrected image. Thereby, the rolling shutter effect in an image is removed.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-01-24

A hybrid optoelectronic device having Group III-V and Si composition on a low-cost substrate is disclosed. A photonic integrated circuit implemented by the hybrid optoelectronic device is much inexpensive and superior to those implemented by the conventional Group III-V optoelectronic device. In the hybrid optoelectronic device, a physical vapor deposition method is used to form a RMG structure with a smooth surface, and further produce a RE structure on the RMG structure. It relates a monolithic process. The wavelength and the material which attract interest can be adjusted. Thereby, the optoelectronic device can be manufactured with large yield and productivity. High optical coupling efficiency that can be offered comes from the Group III-V active device to the Si passive device (optical access). This would be beneficial to the application to the photonic integrated circuit and suitable for future development of high-performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

The present invention provides a method of manufacturing biomedical molecular detection platform, comprising providing a plurality of reagent droplets on a first surface of a substrate; forming a plurality of hydrophilic regions and a water-repellant region on a second surface of a test paper, and the plurality of hydrophilic regions separated individually by the water-repellant region; and contacting the first surface of the substrate with the second surface of the test paper for transferring each reagent droplet on the substrate to each hydrophilic region of the test paper. The present invention also provides a biomedical molecular detection platform manufactured therefrom. The method of present invention can rapidly manufacture large quantity of biomedical molecular detection platforms, and the biomedical molecular detection platform can be used to any test that use pigmentation to determine results.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-12-22

A condenser microphone comprises a substrate, a vibratile diaphragm and a back plate. The substrate has an opening. The diaphragm is disposed corresponding to the substrate and covers the opening, and has a plurality of protrusions. The back plate is coupled to the diaphragm and has a plurality of through holes, at least some of which are corresponding to the protrusions respectively. An interval is formed between the diaphragm and the back plate, and when the diaphragm vibrates, the protrusions move into or further near the through holes.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-06-12

An apparatus for quantifying residual stress of a birefringent material comprises a light source generating light; a vertical polarizer converting a beam of light into a beam with vertical polarization; a standard material being mounted in front of the vertical polarizer; a horizontal polarizer converting a beam of light into a beam with horizontal polarization; an applied force unit applying different forces to the standard material; a spectrometer being mounted in front of the horizontal polarizer and recording intensity of light passing through the horizontal polarizer and transmittance of the standard material and a processing module being connected to the spectrometer, deriving a stress formula from the applied forces and transmittances of the standard material and obtaining a stress distribution of the birefringent material. A method for quantifying residual stress of a birefringent material is also disclosed.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-07-23

An imaging contrast agent is provided for hydrogen magnetic resonance imaging (H MRI). The agent uses replacement and chemical exchange of hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) on obtaining MRI images for comparison. An isotonic physiologic saline solution with deuterium oxide (D

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-04-26

A novel sperm quality assessment device includes a main frame and a test pad. The test pad is encircled by the main frame and includes an exposed introductory portion. The test pad has greater hydrophilicity than the main frame, and includes an MTT reagent. Therefore, the activity pattern of the colored motile sperms can be used to estimate sperm quality, such as motility. The present device has the particular advantage of using paper to reduce manufacturing cost, and is also easy to use.

The present invention discloses a five-axis flank milling system for machining a curved surface and a tool-path planning method. The method generates a tool path comprising a series of cutter locations by optimization with minimizing machining errors. The tool path planning method includes a reciprocating tool path planning method and a multi-pass tool path planning method. The reciprocating tool path planning method eliminates the forward only limitation. The tool is allowed to move backward in certain regions, producing smaller machining errors compared with forward only cutter movement. Furthermore, the multi-pass tool path planning method computes various tool paths applied to finish milling multiple times. Each path can be chosen to be generated by minimizing undercut error, overcut error, or the total machining error. The machining errors are reduced in a progressive manner, resulting in better machining quality than single pass tool path.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-08-08

A computer-implemented method of creating a two dimensional code comprises providing a two dimensional code comprising a cell, providing a picture comprising a patch corresponding to the cell of the two dimensional code, providing a plurality of cell patterns different from each other, wherein each cell pattern comprises a plurality of sub-cells, and determining one of the plurality of cell patterns for the cell of the two dimensional code according to the patch of the picture.

A system for measuring a phase-matching spectral phase curve by nonlinear spectral interferometry includes a broadband light source, a first beam splitter, a first nonlinear crystal, a second nonlinear crystal and a spectrometer. The first beam splitter splits the broadband light source into a first light and a second light. The first nonlinear crystal is used for converting the first light into a third light, wherein the third light has a reference phase spectrum. The second nonlinear crystal is used for converting the second light into a fourth light which encoded a phase-matching spectral phase of the second nonlinear to crystal. The spectrometer is used for providing an interferogram from an interference between the third light and the fourth light. Thus, by analyzing the interferogram, the phase-matching spectral phase curve of the second nonlinear crystal can be measured without knowing the spectral phase of the broadband light source.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-10-23

A carbon dioxide capture system comprises a carbon dioxide absorption unit, an ammonia absorption unit, a carbon dioxide stripper unit, an ammonia stripper unit, a heating unit, and a condensing unit. The carbon dioxide absorption unit interconnects with the ammonia absorption unit; the carbon dioxide stripper unit interconnects with the ammonia stripper unit, whereby a first regeneration agent of the carbon dioxide stripper unit and a recirculated ammonia-rich liquid of the ammonia absorption unit directly flow into the carbon dioxide absorption unit to assist a first absorbent to absorb carbon dioxide, and whereby the heat energy generated by the heating unit is more efficiently used by the carbon dioxide absorption unit, the ammonia absorption unit, the carbon dioxide stripper unit, and the ammonia stripper unit. Compared with the conventional carbon dioxide capture system, the present invention has advantages of low power consumption and low equipment cost.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-08-27

The present invention relates to a nanoporous thin film and a method for fabricating the same. The nanoporous thin film fabricating method for fabricating a nanoporous thin film with a composite photocatalyst structure for a photodegradation and a water purification includes providing a porous substrate with a plurality of through-nanopores therein, each of which through-nanopores have an inner tube wall; forming an oxide-based photocatalyst layer over the porous substrate and the inner tube wall by using a first chemical-based deposition process; and forming a metal-based photocatalyst layer on a part of the oxide-based photocatalyst layer by using a second chemical-based deposition process.

An N-type organic thin film transistor, an ambipolar field-effect transistor, and methods of fabricating the same are disclosed. The N-type organic thin film transistor of the present invention comprises: a substrate; a gate electrode locating on the substrate; a gate-insulating layer covering the gate electrode, and the gate-insulating layer is made of silk protein; a buffering layer locating on the gate-insulating layer, and the buffering layer is made of pentacene; an N-type organic semiconductor layer locating on the buffering layer; and a source and a drain electrode, wherein the N-type organic semiconductor layer, the buffering layer, the source and the drain electrode are disposed over the gate dielectric layer.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-11-16

A photoelectric conversion material is disclosed in the present invention and comprises at least a cone material. The cone material is composed of an isomer and comprises a plurality of grains. The sizes of the grains are arranged from smaller ones to larger ones along a direction. In the meantime, a method for fabricating the above photoelectric conversion material is also disclosed here. The method comprises the following steps. First, a precursor is provided. The precursor comprises at least a cone material and the cone material is a multilayer structured material, such as sodium titanate and potassium titanate, formed by stacking first materials and second materials. And then, the precursor is annealed to let the second materials leave from the cone material, and the cone material becomes the above photoelectric conversion material with a plurality of grains.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-12-10

A high-efficiency bandwidth product germanium photodetector includes a silicon substrate having an opening-down three-sided groove formed by etching; a metallic reflective mirror layer formed by plating along an internal periphery of the opening-down three-sided groove of the silicon substrate; a light absorbent layer between the metallic reflective mirror layer and a dielectric reflective mirror layer. The light absorbent layer can be p-i-n type or other types. By the use of the critical coupling of resonant cavity, all the incident lights can be completely obstructed in the cavity between the metallic reflective mirror layer and the dielectric reflective mirror layer to reach a critical coupling which means 100% absorption efficiency can be achieved without light leakage. Thus on the basis of the critical coupling, the trade-off between bandwidth and efficiency can be broken through to reach high responsivity and high bandwidth up to 50 GHz by decreasing the germanium layer thickness without sacrificing the light-switch-to-electro absorption efficiency.

National Tsing Hua University and National Applied Research Laboratories | Date: 2013-07-12

This patent disclosure is based on a silicon, instead of LiNbO

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-06-17

The present invention discloses a fitness function analysis system and an analysis method thereof. Wherein, an initializing module initiates a plurality of reference solutions. Based on fitness functions of reference solutions, a searching module searches a fitness function adjacent to the fitness functions. While an adjacent fitness function close to the fitness function is greater than the fitness function, the searching module replaces the fitness function by the adjacent fitness function. A calculating module calculates the proportion of any fitness function to the summation of the fitness functions. While the searching module counts the number of times that the searching module has searched an adjacent function close to the fitness function, the number of times exceeds a threshold value, and there is no adjacent fitness function greater than the fitness function, a processing module will generate another fitness function corresponding to the fitness function and compare the two fitness functions.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-03-30

The present invention discloses a relative variable selection system and a selection method thereof. In the present invention, the receiving module receives a plurality of variables. Based on a correlation coefficient of variables, a first selection module sequentially selects variables with a correlation coefficient greater than a first threshold value. Based on the variables selected by the first selection module, a first calculating module selects a regression value and a weighted value corresponding to the foregoing variables. Based on the weighted values, a second selection module sequentially selects variables with a weighted value smaller than a second threshold value. Based on the variables selected by the second selection module, a second calculating module calculates analyzed values of the foregoing variables. Based on the analyzed values of the variables, a third selection module selects analyzed values which are greater than the target value.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-09-13

The current disclosure discloses a power aware simulation system comprising an embedded multi-core simulation module, a power abstract interpretation module and a C power estimation (CPE) power profiling module. The embedded multi-core simulation module comprises a plurality of digital signal processors (DSP), an external memory and a direct memory access. Each of the plurality of DSPs comprises a DSP core, an instruction cache and a local memory. The power abstract interpretation module is coupled to the plurality of DSPs, the external memory, the DMA and the CPE profiling module, respectively.

A multi-channel mode converter operating with a series of TE or TM mode electromagnetic wave includes a plurality of coaxial waveguides arranged in overlay configuration. By controlling radius ratio and the number of coupling aperture of each coaxial waveguide, high power and high purity of operating mode of electromagnetic wave can be obtained and the major parasitic mode of electromagnetic wave can be suppressed, so as to avoid crosstalk between coaxial waveguides. A rotary joint including the above-mentioned mode converter with multi-channel is also disclosed.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-12-15

A head-up display device operated in a vehicle comprises: a first image source and a second image source, a beam-splitter located in between. In an embodiment, two virtual images located at different positions simultaneously while both of the first and the second image sources have linear polarization but mutual orthogonal or both have an opposite-hand circular polarization associated with a corresponding polarization type beam splitter. In the second embodiment, the polarizing beam splitter is replaced by a transparent/mirror element so that one virtual image could be seen by the driver depending on the mode been selected. In the third embodiment, the beam-splitter is replaced by a mechanical movable shielding element. While the mechanical movable shielding element is disposed in the optical plane to block out the first image light, the second virtual image is chosen. While the mechanical movable shielding element is disposed off the optical plane, nothing blocks out the first image light and the second image light, no second image light is reflected by the windshield. As a result, the first virtual image is chosen to be seen by the driver.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-03-15

A wideband high frequency bandpass filter is disclosed, which includes an open-circuit resonator structure and a short-circuit resonator structure. The open-circuit resonator has a signal transmission strip line and a T-shaped strip line. Both ends of the signal transmission strip line are bent toward to opposite ends of the T-shaped strip line respectively, so as to form gaps in the open-circuit resonator. The open-circuit resonator structure and the short-circuit resonator structure are coupled under the resonant mode, thereby achieving a bandpass filtering at 60 GHz.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-03-15

The present invention discloses a data error-detection system and the method thereof. The system includes an initializing module, an encoding module, a decoding module and a restoring module. The initializing module arranges the transmitting data in a 3D matrix to produce information data. The encoding module encodes the information data to produce checking data, and outputs encoding data which includes information data and checking data. The decoding module receives encoding data and detects information data according to the checking data to correct the information data and then produces 3D matrix receiving data. The restoring module produces receiving data according to the 3D matrix receiving data. Herewith, the effect of error-detection and correction of the data can be achieved.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-01-24

The present invention relates to a method of conversion of carbon dioxide into organic products using plasma technology comprising the steps of (a) providing a reaction chamber; (b) introducing a counterpart molecule and carbon dioxide into the reaction chamber; (c) initiating a plasma in the reaction chamber; and (d) converting the carbon dioxide into organic products, wherein the organic products do not contain formic acid and formaldehyde, and wherein the counterpart molecule consists of water molecule.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-11-21

The invention discloses a preparation method of nano-scale platinum (Pt) using an open-loop reduction system. The preparation method comprises the steps of: utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a catalyst support; mixing platinum salt with a reducing agent and deionized water to form a precursor solution in a flask; heating the precursor solution in the flask at a predetermined temperature range to reduce nano-scale platinum nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes by the process of water evaporation; allowing the water vapor to flow through a connection tube to a condenser; filling a cooling substance into the condenser via the first opening and draining the cooling substance from the condenser via the second opening to lower the temperature of the water vapor in the inner tube by the cooling substance and condense the water vapor into liquid water, which is collected with a beaker placed under the condenser.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-09-05

Photothermal antibacterial material RMG is provided in the present invention, where R represents aldehyde, di-aldehyde or multi-aldehyde, M is magnetic material, and G is reduced graphene oxide. A method of synthesizing the abovementioned antibacterial material comprises of three steps. At first graphene oxide was synthesized, followed by simultaneous reduction and functionlization with MNPs and eventually an aldehyde is modified on magnetic material to yield magnetic G functionalized glutaraldehyde (RMG). We utilize the photothermal feature of graphene for antibacterial activity, in addition graphene was functionalized with aldehyde for capturing bacteria and with magnetic material to enhance a focusing of light irradiation. Moreover, the magnetic properties of material could help for reusability of antibacterial material.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-06-07

The present invention is a carpool arranger and a method of operating the carpool arranger. The carpool arranger comprises at least one passenger internet device, at least one vehicle internet device and a central processing module. The method of operating the carpool arranger comprises steps of transmitting information from each passenger internet device and each vehicle internet device to a central processing module; planning an optimal route for a passenger internet device that transmits a carpool request; choosing appropriate vehicles; planning carpool routes for the chosen vehicles; and transmitting information from the central processing module to each passenger internet device and each vehicle internet device.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-12-23

The present invention relates to a focus-adjustable device and a system thereof, wherein the focus-adjustable device is fabricated by forming a single closed flow channel in the internal of a transparent substrate, so as to make the substrate and the single closed flow channel together form a specific lens structure similar to the Fresnel lens. In the present invention, when a light illuminates on one side of the substrate, the light would be concentrated at a specific focus point distancing from the other side of the substrate after being deflected by the specific lens structure. Moreover, a fluid having a specific refractive index can be filled into the single closed flow channel by a flow channel opening, so as to carry out the purpose of adjusting the focus of the specific lens structure; or to make the light parallelly pass through the specific lens structure without any deflection.

A composition for forming an electroactive coating is described, including an acid as a polymerization catalyst, at least one functional component, and at least one compound of formula (1) as a monomer: wherein X is selected from S, O, Se, Te, PR

The present invention is directed to a system and method for on-line real-time measuring the surface topography and out-of-plane deformation by using phase-shifting shadow moir method. Digital Phase-Shifting Shadow Moir Method is applied to a system, which receives the reflected images from the surface of transparent or non-transparent plate projected under a light beam passing through a grating. Next, by image correction program, the skewed interference fringe pattern is recovered to the image as if the image acquisition equipment is placed normal to the surface. Furthermore, the received images are processed with Phase-Shifting to show the surface topography of the plate.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-07-07

A network-wide service controller comprises a monitoring device, an intelligent device, and a management device. The monitoring device is configured to monitor a state of at least one network. The intelligent device is configured to determine a path within the at least one network according to the state of the at least one network. The intelligent device is further configured to receive an instruction from a user and convert the instruction into a lower-level instruction. The management device is configured to analyze the lower-level instruction from the intelligent device and control forwarding of packets according to a result of analysis of the lower-level instruction and the path determined by the intelligent device.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-08-28

The present invention relates to a write-once and read-many-times memory device and the fabricating method thereof. The structure of the memory device comprises: a substrate, a first electrode, a double helix biopolymer layer and a second electrode, and a plurality of metal nanoparticles are distributed in the double helix biopolymer layer. The first electrode is disposed on the substrate, the double helix biopolymer layer is disposed on the first electrode and the substrate, and the second electrode is disposed on the double helix biopolymer layer. When illuminating, the memory device will produce a low-conductivity state and high-conductivity state for writing data. Later, when a voltage is applied to the first electrode and the second electrode, the data will be read.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-02-13

A method of inducing autophagy in a cell is achieved by contacting the cell with graphene oxide (GO) in an amount effective to induce autophagy in the cell, wherein the cell expresses at least one of TLR-4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and TLR-9 (Toll-like receptor 9). Differences between autophagy triggered by GO and other conventional agonists such as rapamycin have been observed. GO may activate autophagy in some cells that may not be triggered by rapamycin. The cell reveals no apparent apoptosis after treatment of the graphene oxide. A method of method of potentiating an antitumor immune response is also herein provided.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-06-10

A 6H-indeno[2,1-b]quinoline derivative has a structure of formula (I). Each of Ar

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-03-21

A solid solution photocatalyst composition and its preparation method are provided in the present invention. The solid solution photocatalyst can utilize its solid solution structure to regulate the conduction band position, valence band position, conduction band range and valence band range of the different response properties of the photocatalyst, so that oxidoreductive reaction is performed to remove the foul-smelling substances.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-06-20

A piezoelectric device includes a nanoimprinted film which is made from a ferroelectric polymer having a first conformation state and coated on a substrate. The ferroelectric polymer is heated at a temperature between a Curie point (Tc) and a melting point (Tm) of the ferroelectric polymer to cause a change in conformation of the ferroelectric polymer from the first conformation state to a second conformation state, and is then subjected to a nanoimprinting process at an imprinting temperature lower than Tc to cause a change in conformation of the ferroelectric polymer from the second conformation state to a third conformation state that is different from the first conformation state, thereby obtaining the nanoimprinted film.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-02-14

This invention provides a biological selective breeding technique in preparation of a transparent zebrafish, Citrine. The appearance of Citrine is transparent and yellowish, with uniformly pigmented black eyes and its inner organs are observable by eyes. The invention also provides a method for in vivo observation of progression and expansion of various disease stages or physiological processes.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-09-13

The present invention relates to a hollow sphere with a mesoporous structure, and a method for manufacturing the same. The hollow sphere with a mesoporous structure comprises: a shell with plural mesopores penetrating the shell, wherein the shell comprises: a mesoporous silicon oxide material, and mesopores of the mesoporous silicon oxide material are arranged in Ia3d cubic symmetry. In addition, according to the method of the present invention, the aforementioned hollow sphere with the mesoporous structure can be easily obtained by use of mixed surfactants of a cationic surfactant and a non-ionic surfactant.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-04-06

The present invention relates to a pulsating current ripple cancelling circuit and a power converting system using the same cancelling circuit. The pulsating current ripple cancelling circuit includes a first transformer having a primary winding side and a secondary winding side; a second transformer having a primary winding side and a secondary winding side, wherein the primary winding side of the second transformer is electrically coupled with the primary winding side of the first transformer; a first diode electrically coupled with the secondary winding side of the first transformer; a first equivalent capacitor combination electrically coupled with the primary winding side of the first transformer; and a second equivalent capacitor combination electrically coupled with the secondary winding side of the second transformer.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-03-02

A color LED display device without color separation comprises a substrate, a plurality of display units, a power supply unit, and a control unit. Each display unit comprises a driving chip, at least one red-light LED chip, at least one green-light LED chip, at least one blue-light LED chip, and a micro optical device assembly. The micro optical device assembly is disposed above the red-light, green-light and blue-light LED chips. When the control unit controls the display unit to emit light, the red-light, green-light and blue-light LED chips emit red, green and blue lights respectively and simultaneously. The red, green and blue lights pass through the micro optical device assembly, such that the light paths of the red, green and blue lights are changed and the three lights are combined on a two-dimensional plane. Therefore, the color separation phenomenon of the conventional color LED display device is solved.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-05-16

Nanoporous polystyrene matrix can be fabricated from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by the hydrolysis of PLLA blocks. Metal is deposited in nanopores of the PS matrix using the nanoporous PS as a template via electroless plating. After subsequent UV degradation of the PS matrix, metal in the nanopores remains, yielding a metal nanostructure. The metal nanostructure may be a gyroid nanostructure, helical nanostructure or columnar nanastructure.

The present invention provides a phosphorescent tris-chelated transition metal complex having one carbon-nitrogen (CN) or nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) chromophoric ligand forming a coordination sphere thereof with a transition metal, and two identical carbon-phosphorus (CP) chelates being incorporated into the coordination sphere, wherein the metal is iridium, platinum, osmium or ruthenium, and the chromophoric ligands possess a relatively lower energy gap in comparison with that of the non-chromophoric chelate, the latter afforded an effective barrier for inhibiting the ligand-to-ligand charge transfer process, so that bright phosphorescence can be observed. The architecture and energy gap of the present molecular designs are suitable for generation of high efficiency blue, green and even red emissions.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-09-20

The invention proposes a three dimensional flywheel vehicle, comprising multiple spherical shells, including outer spherical shell, middle spherical shell and inner spherical shell, wherein each of spherical shell is 3D flywheel. At least one casting/frame is connected to the three spherical shells. The plurality of actuators comprises first actuator, second actuator and third actuator for actuating the outer shell, the middle shell and the inner shell, respectively. The first actuator, the second actuator and the third actuator are connected to one of the at least one casting/frame or one of the three spherical shells.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-06-28

The present invention is to provide a bistable photonic crystal. The photonic crystal has a plurality of voids. Each surface of void has a hydrophobic film. When the photonic crystal is immersed in a predetermined liquid, the photonic crystal has a first stable state and a second stable state. Wherein, the first stable state is to fill the plurality of voids with the predetermined liquid, and the second stable state is to exclude the predetermined liquid from the plurality of voids. Owing to the energy barrier between the first and second stable states, the photonic crystal can remain at either of the two states without external power consumption.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-11-29

A working fluid in cooperation with a solar thermal system comprises a heat conduction medium and a plurality of metal nano-particles mixed in the heat conduction medium. Each of the metal nano-particles includes a metal particle and a protection layer, and the protection layer is an oxide and covers the metal particle. A manufacturing method of metal nano-particles is also disclosed.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-04-29

A flexible transparent film heater includes an electrically conductive polymer matrix and a conductive filler dispersed uniformly in the electrically conductive polymer matrix and containing a plurality of metal-deposited carbon nano-particles, each of which contains a carbon nano-particle and a metal deposit that is deposited on and that is bonded to the carbon nano-particle through ionic bonding.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-12-01

The pharmaceutical composition includes a drug layer comprising an active ingredient, a surfactant, an acidic component and an effervescent ingredient. The active ingredient comprises a nucleic acid, a peptide or a protein. The acidic component and effervescent ingredient of the drug layer are dissolved in the water to react for generating carbon dioxide and bubbles thereof. The surfactants surround the carbon dioxide gas core and form a double-layer structure having an inner layer and outer layer. The active ingredient is embedded in a gap formed between the inner layer and the outer layer of the double-layer structure.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-11-10

The present invention provides a nano/micro bubble system for drug delivery comprising a gas core, a plurality of surfactants and an active ingredient. The surfactants surround the gas core and form a double-layer structure having an inner layer and outer layer. The active ingredient is embedded in a gap formed between the inner layer and the outer layer of the double-layer structure and comprises a nucleic acid, a peptide or a protein.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-12-03

A node-based sequential implicit enumeration method is provided, including: setting a multistate flow network, building an integer programming model of the multistate flow network, and finding a solution set of level number 1 and a number of elements in the solution set from the integer programming model according to the flow conservation law, then using one of the elements to sequentially find a solution set of a next level number and a number of elements in the solution set until the level number being N1 to complete a new complete solution set, afterward, sequentially returning to the preceding level numbers to determine whether there are other elements in the solution set, and if so, repeating above steps to produce another new complete solution set until the solution sets of all level numbers have been checked, and determining the final complete solution set as a set of the minimal path satisfying the required flow, so as to find all d-MP in the integer programming model of the multistate flow network efficiently.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-02-02

A method of enhancing 3D image information density, comprising providing a confocal fluorescent microscope and a rotational stage. 3D image samples at different angles are collected. A deconvolution process of the 3D image samples by a processing unit is performed. A registration process of the deconvoluted 3D image samples by the processing unit is performed. An interpolation process of the registered 3D image samples by the processing unit is performed to output a 3D image in high resolution.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-12-16

A method for recording and reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) sound field, wherein a microphone array is established in a 3D sound field to track and locate sound sources in the 3D sound field and retrieve corresponding sound source signals. A plurality of control points is established inside an area where the 3D sound field is to be reconstructed. The control points are used to establish relational expressions of the sound source signals, the 3D sound field, a reconstructed sound field, and reconstructed sound source signals. The reconstructed sound source signals are obtained via solving the relational expressions and input into a speaker array arranged outside the area to establish the reconstructed sound field in the area. The present invention truly records the 3D sound field without using any extra transformation process and replays the reconstructed sound field with a larger sweet spot in higher fidelity.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-01-24

The present invention discloses a high-parallelism synchronization method for multi-core instruction-set simulation. The proposed method utilizes a new distributed scheduling mechanism for a parallel compiled MCISS. The proposed method can enhance the parallelism of the MCISS so that the computing power of a multi-core host machine can be effectively utilized. The distributed scheduling with the present inventions prediction method significantly shortens the waiting time which an ISS spends on synchronization

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-09-18

The invention discloses a substrate with high fracture strength. The substrate according to the present invention includes a plurality of nanostructures. The substrate has a first surface, where the nanostructures protrude from the first surface. Through the formation of the nanostructures, the fracture strength of the substrate is enhanced.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-08-31

A recombinant baculovirus is provided for preparing picornavirus virus-like particles (VLP), wherein Chitinase A (ChiA) and Cathepsin V (v-cath) genes of the recombinant baculovirus are functionally disrupted and the recombinant baculovirus includes a picornavirus capsid protein gene under control of a strong promoter, and includes a protease gene configured for encoding a protease for hydrolyzing the capsid protein under control of a weak promoter. The recombinant baculovirus of the present invention may adopt High Five or Sf-9 cells for manufacturing enterovirus virus-like particles with improved stability and higher yields in comparison with the conventional arts. A method for preparing virus like particles is also herein provided.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-07-18

A method of scheduling a plurality of instructions for a processor comprises the steps of: establishing a functional unit resource table comprising a plurality of columns, each of which corresponds to one of a plurality of operation cycles of the processor and comprises a plurality of fields, each of which indicates a functional unit of the processor; establishing a ping-pong resource table comprising a plurality of columns, each of which corresponds to one of the plurality of operation cycles of the processor and comprises a plurality of fields, each of which indicates a read port or a write port of a register bank of the processor; and allotting the plurality of instructions to the plurality of operation cycles of the processor and registering the functional units and the ports of the register banks corresponding to the allotted instructions on the functional unit resource table and the ping-pong resource table.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-03-07

A photoelectric conversion material is disclosed in the present invention and comprises at least a cone material. The cone material is composed of an isomer and comprises a plurality of grains. The sizes of the grains are arranged from smaller ones to larger ones along a direction. In the meantime, a method for fabricating the above photoelectric conversion material is also disclosed here. The method comprises the following steps. First, a precursor is provided. The precursor comprises at least a cone material and the cone material is a multilayer structured material, such as sodium titanate and potassium titanate, formed by stacking first materials and second materials. And then, the precursor is annealed to let the second materials leave from the cone material, and the cone material becomes the above photoelectric conversion material with a plurality of grains.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-03-14

An air engine includes a cylinder, a piston, a gas supply and an intake-exhaust mechanism. The gas supply supplies a compressed gas to move the piston reciprocating in the cylinder. The intake-exhaust mechanism connected to the cylinder and the gas supply includes a body and an intake-exhaust assembly. The body has a chamber, and an intake channel, an exhaust channel, an inlet port and an outlet port, which communicate with the chamber. The intake-exhaust assembly, rotatable within the chamber, controls the inlet port to be connected to the intake channel, and further controls the outlet port to be connected to the exhaust channel, so that the compressed gas enters the cylinder via the inlet port and the intake channel to drive the piston. After driving the piston, the compressed gas becomes an exhaust gas, which is exhausted from the cylinder via the exhaust channel and the outlet port.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2011-07-18

The present invention relates to a melatonin suppression extent measuring device, comprising: a light receiving unit, a first processing unit, a first memory unit, a second processing unit, a second memory unit, a display unit, and a power management unit, wherein the light receiving unit is able to receive a light signal and transmit the light signal to the first processing unit; The first processing unit can process the light signal to a spectral data, and furthermore, the second processing unit can process the spectral data to a percent value of melatonin suppression and show the percent value of melatonin suppression in the display unit, so that human can exactly know how many melatonin suppression extent are caused by the light environment which is exposing himself body.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-03-06

Uni-wheel personal mobility vehicle with self-balancing function is disclosed. This transportation device can be pedaled by a driving force provided by the drivers manpower and/or the in-wheel motors electric power. The uni-wheel personal mobility vehicle with self-balancing function is equipped with an inertial sensing and control driving module, an in-wheel motor, and a steering mechanism consisting of a transmission pulley set, an idle pulley set, a transmission cable, and a spring set, therefore the personal mobility vehicle can simultaneously maintain its self balance when being propelled by drivers pedaling force or the in-wheel motors electrical torque; moreover, the driver can also make the personal mobility electric vehicle change its direction by rotating a handlebar similar to steering a bicycle, wherein the rotation of the handlebar would simultaneously pull one side of the transmission cable via the transmission pulley set to steer the vehicle and maintain its lateral balance.

National Tsing Hua University and Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co. | Date: 2011-07-27

The present disclosure coats an amorphous silicon (Si) layer on a doped Si substrate of a solar cell. Or, a silicon dioxide (SiO

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-09-05

This invention provides a transition metal carbene complexes and the electroluminescent application thereof. Through employing different NN heteroleptic ligand, the transition metal carbene complex can display wide-range color tuning ability from deep blue to red. The mentioned transition metal carbene complex can be applied in luminescent device, and the luminescent device can display wide-range color tuning ability with high luminescent efficiency while employing different NN heteroleptic ligand in the transition metal carbene complex.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-10-11

An asymmetric gate tunneling transistor includes a substrate, a first-polarity portion, a second-polarity portion, a channel portion, a gate structure and an insulation body. The first-polarity portion and the second-polarity portion are disposed on the substrate. The channel portion is connected with the first-polarity portion and the second-polarity portion, and includes a first section and a second section. The gate structure includes an enveloping portion surrounding the first section, and a flat portion covering one side of the second section away from the substrate. The insulation body includes a first insulation portion disposed between the first section and the enveloping portion, and a second insulation portion disposed between the second section and the flat portion. Through the asymmetric design of the gate structure, the tunneling transistor is offered with features of a high ON current and a low OFF current.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-12-02

A detection kit applied for detecting a body fluid sample of an organism includes a sampling device and a detecting device. The sampling device includes a sampling unit and a filtering unit detachably covering the sampling unit. The sampling unit collects the body fluid sample that is filtered by the filtering unit. The detecting device includes at least one reaction zone including a fiber substrate and a detecting reagent immobilized to the fiber substrate. The reaction zone is disposed as the fiber substrate contacts the body fluid sample collected by the sampling unit. The fiber substrate absorbs the body fluid sample collected by the sampling unit, so that the body fluid sample reacts with the detecting reagent for the detection. A detection method for detecting a body fluid sample is also disclosed. This invention is advantageous for simplified pretreatment, less amount of the reagent and rapid analysis.

National Applied Research Laboratory and National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-05-16

The present invention discloses a method for finding shortest pathways between neurons in a neural network, including: establishing a three dimensional or higher dimensional neural space database (which may be neuron image database) by a processing device in a storage space, wherein the three dimensional or higher dimensional neural space database includes a plurality of neurons distributed therein. Then, it is determined whether there is a connection between each of the plurality of neurons in the three dimensional or higher dimensional neural space database and the others of the plurality of neurons in the three dimensional or higher dimensional neural space database by the processing device, and subsequently a shortest pathway table of all of a plurality of connected neurons is calculated via an All-pairs Shortest Paths algorithm and is stored in the storage space.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-05-06

A biomedical testing sheet comprises: a substrate with calligraphy paper material, wherein the substrate comprises a wax pattern layer, which is a part of a surface of the substrate coated by a waxy material, and penetrated and diffused by the waxy material, and the wax pattern layer comprises one or more carrying units for carrying one or more droplets of liquids to be measured. The lotus effect substantially prevents diffusion of the liquids and reagents on the carrying units, and reduces the required amount of liquids to be measured and the amount of agent.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2012-12-12

The present invention is related to an imaging metamaterial, comprising at least one resonant unit with a controllable split structure that comprises at least one gap and at least one segment, wherein the segment is connected by a node or separated by the gap. The present invention also provides a method for preparing an imaging metamaterial. The present invention further provides an imaging apparatus.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-11-12

The present invention relates to a substrate with a crystallized silicon film and manufacturing method thereof, wherein the substrate with the crystallized silicon film comprises: a substrate, which is a polymer substrate; and a crystallized silicon film, which is formed on at least one surface of the substrate, wherein the crystallized silicon film comprises a plurality of silicon crystals with column structures, and the crystallinity of the crystallized silicon film is higher than 90%.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-12-01

A method of using an imaging contrast agent is provided for hydrogen magnetic resonance imaging (H MRI). The agent uses replacement and chemical exchange of hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) on obtaining MRI images for comparison. An isotonic physiologic saline solution with deuterium oxide (D

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-07-14

A display screen includes a substrate and a fluorescent material. The substrate includes a plurality of pixel regions arranged in an array, wherein each pixel region includes a fluorescent region and a transparent region, and the area of the transparent region is larger than the area of the fluorescent region. The fluorescent material is arranged in the fluorescent region and excited by an excitation light to emit a visible light to form an image. The above-mentioned display screen allows a viewer to see the images formed by the fluorescent region and the environmental image at the other side of display screen. A display system including the above-mentioned display screen is also disclosed.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-05-01

The present invention provides a hybrid nanomaterial electrode, comprising a pair of spaced-apart electrodes, at least three pairs of metallic nanowires disposed between the electrodes and respectively connected with the electrodes, and at least a detecting material connecting with the metallic nanowires. The detecting material is formed as a semiconductor nanostructure or a conductor nanostructure. The hybrid nanomaterial electrode of the present invention can be used in a gas detector for detecting volatile organic compounds, and has the advantage of providing high sensitivity, low detection limit, and the ability to operate at room temperature.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-10-12

The present invention provides a novel light-emitting material, which is a blue fluorescent material performs a high quantum yield of 86%, and can be doped into a host light-emitting layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) for being a guest light-emitting material, so as to increase the external quantum efficiency, the power efficiency and the current efficiency of the OLED. Most importantly, a variety of experiment results have proved that the OLED having the novel light-emitting material can emit a deep blue light with CIE coordinates of (0.156, 0.055). Moreover, the experiment results also proved that the novel light-emitting material can be applied in fabricating OLED through dry process and/or wet process; so that, the novel light-emitting material is helpful to the low-cost mass production of OLEDs.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-11-04

A thiolation method for modifying carbon nanotubes includes steps as follows. A carboxylation step is provided, wherein the carbon nanotubes are reacted with an oxidant for generating carboxyl groups on surfaces of the carbon nanotubes so as to form carboxylated carbon nanotubes. A hydroxylation step is provided, wherein the carboxyl groups are transformed into hydroxyl groups so as to transform the carboxylated carbon nanotubes into hydroxylated carbon nanotubes. A thiolation step is provided, wherein the hydroxylated carbon nanotubes, a sulfur source and a first acidic substance are mixed and then stirred so as to form a first mixture, the first mixture is added portion-wisely into an alkaline solution so as to form a second mixture, and the second mixture is acidified so as to form an acidified solution having a pH value ranging from 2 to 3, thus the hydroxylated carbon nanotubes are transformed into thiolated carbon nanotubes.

The multi-dimensional data registration integrated circuit for driving array-arrangement devices, comprising: a plurality of the i-th hierarchy sets, each of the i-th hierarchy sets is divided into a plurality of the (i+1)-th hierarchy sets; a i-th hierarchy address selection circuit, comprising a signal generation unit and a multiplexing unit, wherein the former generates an enable signal, the latter is connected to the signal generating unit and shifts the input data based on the enable signal and a second timing signal to further generate n bits of address signals, the i-th hierarchy address selection circuit is used to scan the plurality of the i-th hierarchy sets and select at least one of the i-th hierarchy sets to function; and a data supply circuit to follow a scan sequence of a j-th hierarchy address selection circuit and write a plurality of data into the selected j-th hierarchy sets.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-04-26

A head-up display device operated in a vehicle comprises: a first image source disposed under the windshield of the vehicle, which emits a first polarized image light having a first polarization; a light path combining component in front of the first image source, which is for that the first polarized image light firstly goes to the light path combining component and only lets the first polarized image light be through and then the image light goes to the windshield, part of the image light is reflected by the windshield to a drivers eyes; and a second image source inside the vehicle, which emits a second polarized image light having a second polarization and then the image light directly goes to or reflects at least one time to the combining component, continuously to the windshield, and the second polarized image light is partially reflected by the windshield to the eyes.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2015-01-07

A method for online measurement of local permeability in resin transfer molding adopts a detection module, which includes a pressure transducer unit, at least one image capture device and a processing unit electrically connected with the pressure transducer unit and the image capture device, to measure the local permeability of the flowing resin on line.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-07-11

A method for testing a TSV comprises charging a through-silicon-via under test to a first predetermined voltage level charging a capacitance device to a second predetermined voltage level; performing charge-sharing between the through-silicon-via and the capacitance device; and determining that the through-silicon-via under test is not faulty if the voltage level of the through-silicon-via after the charge-sharing step is within a predetermined range.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-10-24

The present invention demonstrates a newly designed and synthesized carbazole scaffold based electro-fluorescent emitter, 9-butyl-2,7-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethynyl)-9H-carbazole (Cz(APhOMe)

A resistive sensor for an analyte comprises a substrate, a conductive polymer layer and an oxidase layer. Hydrogen peroxide is produced via the reaction between analyte and oxidase when a liquid sample is applied to the sensor of the present invention. The produced hydrogen peroxide can oxidize peroxidase, which can be reduced by oxidizing the conductive polymer, thus resulting in decreased conductivity of the conductive polymer for determining the analyte concentration in the liquid sample. The present invention may be used for developing miniaturized and disposable electronic microsensors with high sensitivity and fast response, which can detect analyte level in typical physiological environment for routine monitoring.

A MEMS resonator active temperature compensation method is provided. The MEMS resonator active temperature compensation method includes: a MEMS resonator is provided, wherein a structural resistance of the MEMS resonator is varied with an environmental temperature; a structural resistance shift value is formed by a variation of the environmental temperature; an electrical circuit is provided, wherein the electrical circuit is electrically connected with the MEMS resonator for providing an adjustment mechanism to the MEMS resonator; and a compensation value is provided from the adjustment mechanism for controlling the structural resistance shift value.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-10-14

The present invention relates to a light quality evaluating device, comprising a light receiving unit, first processing unit, a memory unit, a second processing unit, a display unit, and a power management unit, and being used for evaluating the light quality light based on physiological perception of human. In evaluating operation, it transfers a power spectrum of the light emitted from a light source to a luminance spectrum of light through a luminosity function. Next, the method compares the luminance spectrum of light with a corresponding luminance spectrum of blackbody radiation thereof. Therefore, an index of spectral resemblance with respect to the black body radiation (SR

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-01-02

Disclosure is a method of dispatching semiconductor batch production, including: measuring an actual line width to calculate an estimated value of line width bias reference level, an estimated value of product bias, an estimated value of chamber bias and a standard error of chamber bias, and storing in a historical data module; inputting a product category, a line width measurement before manufacturing and a target line width after manufacturing in a batch production module; calculating a similarity index of each chambers by a computing engine of a matching module according to the data stored in the historical data module; transforming the similarity index into a priority of machine allocation by a dispatching module and dispatching a production machine; updating the historical data module by measuring a line width after manufacturing. The line width bias generated by various variations will be eliminated during the manufacturing process.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-11-06

A combined round-multipole magnetic lens comprises a coil bracket, a first pole piece and a second pole piece. At least a first pole shoe of the first pole piece on the coil support and at least a second pole shoe of the second pole piece under the coil support respectively extend towards the central axis. The first pole shoe and the second pole shoe are symmetric according to the central axis, or the first pole shoes and the second pole shoes are respectively symmetrically arranged, and the angle difference between the first pole shoe and the adjacent second pole shoes is 360/2N degrees. A magnetic circuit gap is formed between the first pole shoe and the adjacent second pole shoe, for generating a magnetic field distribution of multi-poles and reducing the volume and the number of power supplies.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2014-11-03

A wide range tunable magnetic lens for the desktop electron microscope is provided. The wired range tunable magnetic lens comprises a coil support, an inner pole piece, a permanent-magnet, a first outer pole piece and a second outer pole piece. The inner pole piece covers the coil support and forms a first magnetic-circuit gap. The permanent-magnet forms a ring structure according to the central axis and is disposed at the outer side of the inner pole piece away from the central axis. The first outer pole piece is adjacently disposed at the upper-side of the permanent-magnet and extends to the central hole of the coil support. The second outer pole piece is adjacently disposed at the under-side of the permanent-magnet and extends to the central hole of the coil support, wherein the first outer pole piece and the second outer pole piece forms a second magnetic-circuit gap.

National Tsing Hua University | Date: 2013-11-08