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Waheed A.,Hazara University | Ahmad H.,Hazara University | Abbasi F.M.,Hazara University | Hamid F.S.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Study was conducted at Genetics department Hazara University, Pakistan for the determination of pollen sterility and fertility. Bas-385, Oryza rufipogon, Bas-385 X Oryza rufipogon were used for experiment. Pollen sterility was determined from >1000 pollen grains from parents and F1 hybrids. The spikelet was collected near anthesis in 70 % ethanol. The pollen grains were stained in 1 % I2 KI solution. Darkly stained and round pollen grains were counted as fertile while lightly stained and shrivelled were counted as sterile. Out of over 1000 pollen grains, 851 were darkly stained and were counted as fertile, whereas 149 remain unstained and were considered as sterile. Pollen sterility of Oryza rufipogon was thus 4.6 %. The average spikelet sterility of Oryza rufipogon was 44.3 %, indicating that this specie was partly sterile although it showed high pollen fertility. Source


Hamid F.S.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | Ahmad T.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Waheed A.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | Ahmad N.,Plant science Division PARC | Aslam S.,National Tea Research Institute PARC
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The effect of different levels of nitrogen on water extracted substances (WE), total polyphenols (TP), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin (EC), caffeine and amino acids in fresh tea leaves grown at higher altitude (1500 meter from sea level) and plucked in various months of the years, was studied. After plucking the tender leaves (bud+3) from tea bushes, the leaves were oven's dried at 60°C for 24 hours. The dried leaves were used for determination of water-extracted substances, total polyphenols and amino acid contents by using 751G UV-spectrophotometer and EGC, EC and caffeine contents were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The nitrogen level did not affect the WE significantly. The data show that TP content was increased up to certain level with the increase of nitrogen level (180 kg ha) but decreased with further increase of nitrogen. From treatment T4 (N=180, P=30, K=90 kg ha-1).TP increased significantly by the application of 180 kg N ha-1. The EGC, EC contents increased up to certain level with the increase of nitrogen and then declined after the application of 180 kg ha-1. The nitrogen level did not affect the caffeine contents. Source


Waheed A.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | Hamid F.S.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | Ahmad H.,Hazara University | Aslam S.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Rainfall particularly, is an agro-met factor that generally playing a significant role on all agric crops including tea. There is considerable spatial and temporal variability in rainfall & others data characteristic, which affect tea crop production and soil erosion problem. For the adoption of soil & water conservation technique, the information of rain fall with the other agro-met factors in general is very important. This paper describes all the agro-met characteristic in relation with the tea crop production nearby suburb of National Tea Research Institute Shinkiari, located at 25km north of Mansehra city on the Karakoram Highway way to China silk route, it is located at 34°28'0N, 73°16'60E at an altitude of 1019 meters (3346 feet). A detail production of tea crop during all the eleven years were also discussed for the efficient utilization of available water for the sustained productivity. It was observed that winter season comprising on 7 month while summer period shorten on 5 months only. However days length and time was countable. In all the 11 years average maximum rain fall was received 209 mm during summer (July) followed by 108mm during February in winter seasons. Minimum average rainfall of 30 & 31 mm was received in Oct & Nov respectively. Maximum average rain fall events (139 mm) were recorded during 2010 followed by 125 mm in 2005. Maximum temperature 37°C shoot up in June 2003, while minimum-1 observed in January 2011. Evapotranspiration of 0.96 mm at minimum level during December 2008 and 0.670 mm in July 2004 was recorded. 3.327 mm evapotranspiration was observed during all the eleven years of study it includes 4 years of wettest & 2001 without any data. Humidity difference during all 11 years was in minimum and maximum range of 43 - 78 % respectively. This attributes shows the climatic effect on tea crop during fermentation of black and deoxidizing of green tea. Maximum made tea in total was 12221 kg/annum during 2008 with rainfall 1092 mm, although it was less as compare to 2010, 2007, 2005, 2002 and 2001 respectively while other climatic factors were also responsible for the maximum production. Source


Waheed A.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | Hamid F.S.,National Tea Research Institute PARC | Shah A.H.,Hazara University | Ahmad H.,Hazara University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Eight clones of three cultivars i.e Rupi (Aa/NTRI-101, Aa/NTRI-108, Aa/NTRI-561), Chuye (Aa/NTRI -117, Aa/NTRI -122) Qi-men (Bb/NTRI -470, Bd/NTRI -180, Ab/NTRI -219) of Camellia sinensis were studied for drought tolerance at National Tea Research Institute (NTRI) Shinkiari Mansehra (KPK) during 2010-11. Four treatments (Control, Nursery, Room temperature and open Sun light) were applied. Data recorded on morphological characters, soil and leaves moisture contents. Significant variations were observed in all the studied parameters among cultivars. In control conditions all clones showed best results in all parameters. In nursery conditions there was no growth in any clone but maximum number of leaves, branches, buds, flowers, soil moisture contents and relative water contents of leaves were observed in clone Aa/NTRI 117, Aa /NTRI 101, Aa /NTRI 122, Bb/NTRI-470 as compare to the others. On the other hand at room temperature, there was no growth in any clone however maximum number leaves, branches, buds, flowers, soil moisture content and relative water content of leaves were observed in Bb /NTRI 470, Bd/NTRI 180, Aa/NTRI 101, Aa /NTRI 219. Sunlight conditions exerted severe drought stress but clones Aa /NTRI 101, Aa /NTRI 117, Bb /NTRI 470, Bd/NTRI 180 could survive and showed maximum response to conditions applied, reveling that these clone i.e, Aa /NTRI 101 of Rupi, Aa /NTRI 117 of Chuye and Bb /NTRI 470, Bd/NTRI 180 of Qi-men are prove to drought significantly. Source

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