National TB Programme

Hanoi, Vietnam

National TB Programme

Hanoi, Vietnam

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PubMed | Rwanda Biomedical Center, National Institute for Medical Research, World Health Organization, University of California at Los Angeles and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2016

pSETTING: Households in Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Zambia.OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between household socio-economic level, both relative and absolute, and individual tuberculosis (TB) disease.We analysed national TB prevalence surveys from eight countries individually and in pooled multicountry models. Socio-economic level (SEL) was measured in terms of both relative household position and absolute wealth. The outcome of interest was whether or not an individual had TB disease. Logistic regression models were used to control for putative risk factors for TB disease such as age, sex and previous treatment history.Overall, a strong and consistent association between household SEL and individual TB disease was not found. Significant results were found in four individual country models, with the lowest socio-economic quintile being associated with higher TB risk in Mongolia, Myanmar, Tanzania and Viet Nam.TB prevalence surveys are designed to assess prevalence of disease and, due to the small numbers of cases usually detected, may not be the most efficient means of investigating TB risk factors. Different designs are needed, including measuring the SEL of individuals in nested case-control studies within TB prevalence surveys or among TB patients seeking treatment in health care facilities.


Falzon D.,World Health Organization | Timimi H.,World Health Organization | Kurosinski P.,European Respiratory Society | Migliori G.B.,European Respiratory Society | And 21 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2016

In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities. In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. Copyright © ERS 2016.


PubMed | The Global Fund, WHO Country Office, World Health Organization, The Arcady Group and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The European respiratory journal | Year: 2016

In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategys objectives to be realised, the next 20years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities.In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the groups approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level.


Ade S.,National TB Programme | Harries A.D.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Harries A.D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Trebucq A.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | And 5 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Background: In Benin, patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPTB) are of low priority in the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) and little is known about their profile or treatment outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes in all adults registered with SNPTB in 2009. Findings were compared with patients with new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosed in the same period. Results: Of 3140 patients with PTB, 273 (8.7%) had SNPTB, with higher rates in northern and southwestern regions. SNPTB was associated with female gender, older age and HIV-positive status (p<0.01). Patients with SNPTB had a higher proportion of unsuccessful treatment outcomes compared with smear-positive PTB owing to death and loss to follow-up (LFU) (p<0.01). The region with the capital city had the highest rate of LFU. Differences in unsuccessful outcomes between SNPTB and smear-positive PTB were more apparent in persons who were HIV-negative, and among HIV-positives not on antiretroviral treatment. Conclusion: In Benin, treatment outcomes of SNPTB patients were inferior to those with smear-positive PTB, with LFU being a major problem. The Benin NTP needs to better address the problem of patients with SNPTB in terms of monitoring and reporting, treatment management including that associated with HIV care, and reducing LFU. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.


Ade S.,National TB Programme | Harries A.D.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Harries A.D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Trebucq A.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a dearth of published literature on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Objective: To describe demographic, diagnostic and HIV-status characteristics of patients with EPTB in Bénin, their treatment outcomes, and among those who completed their treatment in the Centre National Hospitalier de Pneumo-Phtisiologie (CNHP-P), the proportion whose bodyweight increased during treatment. Material and Findings: This was a retrospective cohort study with comparisons made between EPTB and new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (NPTB) patients diagnosed in the country from January to December 2011. There were 383 EPTB patients (9% of all TB cases) with a mean age of 35 years, male/female ratio of 1.3 and important regional variation. There were significantly more females (p = 0.001), children <15years (p<0.001) and HIV-positive patients (p = 0.005) with EPTB compared with NPTB. Pleural effusion, spinal and lymph node tuberculosis accounted for 66% of all EPTB. Children <15 years represented 16% of cases, with lymph node disease being most common among them (p<0.001). Of 130 EPTB patients registered in CNHP-P, 7% had a confirmed bacteriological/histological diagnosis. There were 331 (86%) patients who successfully completed treatment. More patients with EPTB were lost-to-follow-up compared with NPTB (p<0.001) with all these patients from one region. The best treatment completion rates were in children <15 years (OR:3.5, 95%CI:1.0-14.8) while patients with pleural effusion and ascites had the worst outcomes. Of 72 HIV-coinfected patients, 88% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-positive status was associated with poor outcomes while those on ART fared better. In the CNHP-P, more than 80% who completed their treatment showed an increase in bodyweight and this was more evident in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative patients (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Patients with EPTB generally do well in Bénin, although the TB Programme would benefit through more attention to accurate diagnosis and earlier start of ART in HIV-infected patients. © 2014 Ade et al.


PubMed | Independent Consultant, New York University, Medical Research Council MRC, Institute Pasteur Of Bangui and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

In this study, we retrospectively analysed a total of 605 clinical isolates from six West or Central African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Guinea-Conakry, Niger and Senegal). Besides spoligotyping to assign isolates to ancient and modern mycobacterial lineages, we conducted phenotypic drug-susceptibility-testing for each isolate for the four first-line drugs. We showed that phylogenetically modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are more likely associated with drug resistance than ancient strains and predict that the currently ongoing replacement of the endemic ancient by a modern mycobacterial population in West/Central Africa might result in increased drug resistance in the sub-region.


PubMed | National TB Programme, International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a dearth of published literature on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).To describe demographic, diagnostic and HIV-status characteristics of patients with EPTB in Bnin, their treatment outcomes, and among those who completed their treatment in the Centre National Hospitalier de Pneumo-Phtisiologie (CNHP-P), the proportion whose bodyweight increased during treatment.This was a retrospective cohort study with comparisons made between EPTB and new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (NPTB) patients diagnosed in the country from January to December 2011. There were 383 EPTB patients (9% of all TB cases) with a mean age of 35 years, male/female ratio of 1.3 and important regional variation. There were significantly more females (p=0.001), children <15 years (p<0.001) and HIV-positive patients (p=0.005) with EPTB compared with NPTB. Pleural effusion, spinal and lymph node tuberculosis accounted for 66% of all EPTB. Children <15 years represented 16% of cases, with lymph node disease being most common among them (p<0.001). Of 130 EPTB patients registered in CNHP-P, 7% had a confirmed bacteriological/histological diagnosis. There were 331 (86%) patients who successfully completed treatment. More patients with EPTB were lost-to-follow-up compared with NPTB (p<0.001) with all these patients from one region. The best treatment completion rates were in children <15 years (OR:3.5, 95%CI:1.0-14.8) while patients with pleural effusion and ascites had the worst outcomes. Of 72 HIV-coinfected patients, 88% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-positive status was associated with poor outcomes while those on ART fared better. In the CNHP-P, more than 80% who completed their treatment showed an increase in bodyweight and this was more evident in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative patients (p=0.03).Patients with EPTB generally do well in Bnin, although the TB Programme would benefit through more attention to accurate diagnosis and earlier start of ART in HIV-infected patients.


Floyd K.,World Health Organization | Hutubessy R.,World Health Organization | Kliiman K.,University of Tartu | Centis R.,Care and Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries.


Shah S.,University of York | Fatima R.,National TB Programme | Cameron I.,Leeds City Council | Siddiqi K.,University of York
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Passive smoking is associated with tuberculosis (TB). Measures are required to protect non-smoking TB patients from second-hand smoke (SHS). SETTING: We developed a behavioural intervention to encourage TB patients to implement smoking restrictions at home in Pakistan. OBJECTIVES: To assess the likelihood of such an intervention being successful and to inform a definitive trial in future. DESIGN: This was a pilot randomised controlled trial in which non-smoking TB patients were randomised to receive either individual-based support or individual-based support combined with family reminders. We recruited patients living with at least one smoker in their homes. Our primary outcome was urinary cotinine level as a measure of SHS exposure 2 months post-randomisation. RESULTS: Of 273 patients assessed for eligibility, 150 (56%) patients were recruited and all but one were retained throughout the trial. A statistically significant absolute reduction was observed in non-smoking participants' exposure to SHS based on urinary cotinine levels in both Arm 1 (71%, 95%CI 61-79) and Arm 2 (76%, 95%CI 67-83) between baseline and follow-up at 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: The recruitment and retention rates for trial participants make it feasible to conduct a definitive trial in future. The observed effect size makes it worthwhile to conduct such a trial. © 2015 The Union.

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