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National Taiwan Sport University

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Olson R.L.,Rutgers University | Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Brush C.J.,Rutgers University | Kwok A.N.,Rutgers University | And 2 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control elicited by a modified flanker task while exercising at low and moderate intensities. A secondary aim was to examine cognitive control processes at several time points during an acute bout of exercise to determine whether cognition is selectively influenced by the duration of exercise. Twenty-seven healthy participants completed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while exercising on a cycle ergometer at 40% and 60% VO2 peak and during a no-exercise seated control across three separate days. During task performance, continuous EEG was collected to assess neurocognitive function using the N2 and P3 event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Neurocognitive performance was assessed at 5, 15, and 25 min time points during steady-state exercise. Regardless of intensity, behavioral findings revealed impaired accuracy during both exercise conditions for the flanker task trials that require greater cognitive control. However, faster reaction times were found during moderate-intensity exercise. Neuroelectric measures revealed increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during both exercise conditions relative to rest. Together, these findings suggest divergent effects of exercise on behavioral performance measures accompanied by an upregulation of cognitive control during aerobic exercise. These impairments are discussed in terms of dual-task paradigms and the transient hypofrontality theory. © 2015.


Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Tsai Y.-J.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chen T.-T.,National Taiwan Normal University | Hung T.-M.,National Taiwan Normal University
Experimental Brain Research | Year: 2013

This study examined the behavioral and neuroelectrical impacts of a coordinative exercise intervention with different exercise intensities on executive function in kindergarten children. Participants underwent the Eriksen flanker test before and after an exercise program that involved 35-min sessions twice per week for 8 weeks, with either low or moderate intensity. Our findings revealed that exercise intervention, regardless of intensity, resulted in shorter reaction times and higher response accuracy in both congruent and incongruent trials, with incongruent trials receiving a larger benefit from exercise compared with congruent trials. Additionally, neuroelectrical activation demonstrated greater P3 amplitude and shorter P3 latency following exercise in both trials. These results suggest that coordinative exercise may specifically benefit prefrontal-dependent tasks in the immature brain state of kindergarten children by increasing the allocation of attentional resources and enhancing the efficiency of neurocognitive processing. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Dai C.-T.,National Chengchi University | Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Huang C.-J.,Graduate Institute of Sport Pedagogy | Hung T.-M.,National Taiwan Normal University
Brain and Cognition | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between exercise mode and executive function and its effect on behavior and neuroelectric activity. Forty-eight older adults were classified into open-skill, closed-skill, and irregular exercise groups based on their experience of exercise participation. Executive function was measured via a task-switching paradigm, in which the behavioral indices and event-related potentials elicited by task-switching were assessed. The results revealed that the exercise groups, regardless of the exercise mode, exhibited faster reaction times in both global and local switches than the irregular exercise group, regardless of the within-task conditions. Similarly, larger P3 amplitudes were observed in both exercise groups compared to the irregular exercise group. Moreover, additional facilitation effects of open-skill exercises on global switch costs were observed, whereas no differences in local switch costs were found among the three groups. The results replicate previous studies that have reported generally improved executive function after participation in exercises; additionally, they extend the current knowledge by indicating that these cognitive improvements in specific aspects of executive function could also be obtained from open-skill exercises. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Wang D.,Shanghai University of Sport | Zhou C.,Shanghai University of Sport | Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

This study aimed to determine the effect of acute exercise in the potential context of non-pharmacological intervention for methamphetamine (MA)-related craving; we additionally determine its effect on the inhibitory control induced by standard and MA-related tasks according to behavioral and neuroelectric measurements among MA-dependent individuals. The present study employed a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. A total of 24 participants who met the DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence were recruited. The craving level, reaction time, and response accuracy, as well as the event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3, were measured following exercise and the control treatment in a counterbalanced order. The exercise session consisted of an acute stationary cycle exercise at a moderate intensity, whereas the control treatment consisted of an active reading session. The self-reported MA craving was significantly attenuated during, immediately following, and 50. min after the exercise session compared with the pre-exercise ratings, whereas the craving scores at these time points following exercise were lower than those for the reading control session. Acute exercise also facilitated inhibitory performance in both the standard and MA-related Go/Nogo tasks. A larger N2 amplitude, but not a larger P3 amplitude, was observed during both tasks in the exercise session and the Nogo condition compared with the reading control session and the Go condition. This is the first empirical study to demonstrate these beneficial effects of acute aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity on MA-related craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals. These results suggest a potential role for acute aerobic exercise in treating this specific type of substance abuse. © 2015.


Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Tsai C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Wang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Chu I.-H.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of acute resistance exercise on multiple cognitive measures in late middle-aged adults and to address the question of whether general or selective cognitive improvements occur. Design: A counterbalanced repeated-measures experimental design. Methods: Thirty adults (mean age. = 58.1. ±. 3.0 years) were administered five different Stroop test conditions before and after a single bout of resistance exercise and after a no-treatment control. The resistance exercise protocol involved two sets of seven exercises performed at 70% of a 10-repetition maximum, with 30 and 60. s between each set and each exercise, respectively. Results: The exercise treatment resulted in significantly enhanced performance across all Stroop conditions when compared with the control (p< .001). Furthermore, the effect of the exercise treatment on Stroop incongruent performance corresponded to the largest positive influence compared to the performance observed under the other four Stroop test conditions. Conclusions: These findings extend the current knowledge base by demonstrating that acute resistance exercise facilitates general cognition but has a more beneficial effect on cognition that involves executive control. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia.


Chen W.-C.,Chang Gung University | Huang W.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Chiu C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Huang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to verify the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on health promotion and enhance exercise performance in an aerobic-exercise training protocol. METHODS: In total, 40 male Institute of Cancer Research mice (4 wk old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): sedentary control with vehicle (SC) or WP supplementation (4.1 g-1kg, SC + WP), and exercise training with vehicle (ET) or WP supplementation (4.1 g-1kg, ET + WP). Animals in the ET and ET + WP groups underwent swimming endurance training for 6 wk, 5 d-1wk. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as by changes in body composition and biochemical parameters at the end of the experiment. RESULTS: ET significantly decreased final body and muscle weight and levels of albumin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol. ET significantly increased grip strength; relative weight (%) of liver, heart, and brown adipose tissue (BAT); and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and total bilirubin. WP supplementation significantly decreased final body, muscle, liver, BAT, and kidney weight and relative weight (%) of muscle, liver, and BAT as well as levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and uric acid. In addition, WP supplementation slightly increased endurance time and significantly increased grip strength and levels of albumin and total protein. CONCLUSION: WP supplementation improved exercise performance, body composition, and biochemical assessments in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in aerobic exercise training. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Mao T.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Physical Education | Fu L.-L.,National Taiwan Sport University | Wang J.-S.,Chang Gung University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Despite enhancing cardiopulmonary and muscular fitness, the effect of hypoxic exercise training (HE) on hemorheological regulation remains unclear. This study investigates how HE modulates erythrocyte rheological properties and further explores the underlying mechanisms in the hemorheological alterations. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomly divided into hypoxic (HE; n = 12) and normoxic (NE; n = 12) exercise training groups. The subjects were trained on 60% of maximum work rate under 15% (HE) or 21% (NE) O 2 condition for 30 min daily, 5 days weekly for 5 wk. The results demonstrated that HE 1) downregulated CD47 and CD147 expressions on erythrocytes, 2) decreased actin and spectrin contents in erythrocytes, 3) reduced erythrocyte deformability under shear flow, and 4) diminished erythrocyte volume changed by hypotonic stress. Treatment of erythrocytes with H 2O 2 that mimicked in vivo prooxidative status resulted in the cell shrinkage, rigidity, and phosphatidylserine exposure, whereas HE enhanced the eryptotic responses to H 2O 2. However, HE decreased the degrees of clotrimazole to blunt ionomycin-induced shrinkage, rigidity, and cytoskeleton breakdown of erythrocytes, referred to as Gardos effects. Reduced erythrocyte deformability by H 2O 2 was inversely related to the erythrocyte Gardos effect on the rheological function. Conversely, NE intervention did not significantly change resting and exercise erythrocyte rheological properties. Therefore, we conclude that HE rather than NE reduces erythrocyte deformability and volume regulation, accompanied by an increase in the eryptotic response to oxidative stress. Simultaneously, this intervention depresses Gardos channel-modulated erythrocyte rheological functions. Results of this study provide further insight into erythrocyte senescence induced by HE. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Liu S.,National Chung Cheng University | Yu H.-H.,National Chung Cheng University | Lee Y.-H.,National Chung Cheng University
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to determine the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty children with ADHD were randomly assigned into exercise or control groups. Participants in the exercise group performed a moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 30 min, whereas the control group watched a running/exercise-related video. Neuropsychological tasks, the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), were assessed before and after each treatment. The results indicated that acute exercise facilitated performance in the Stroop Test, particularly in the Stroop Color-Word condition. Additionally, children in the exercise group demonstrated improvement in specific WCST performances in Non-perseverative Errors and Categories Completed, whereas no influences were found in those performances in the control group. Tentative explanations for the exercise effect postulate that exercise allocates attention resources, influences the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and is implicated in exercise-induced dopamine release. These findings are promising and additional investigations to explore the efficacy of exercise on executive function in children with ADHD are encouraged. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Lu F.J.H.,National Taiwan Sport University | Hsu Y.,National Taiwan Sport University
Journal of Athletic Training | Year: 2013

Context: Injuries are a significant problem in the world of sports. Hope and social support are very important features in providing psychological help as people face life challenges such as sport injuries. Objective: To examine how hope and social support uniquely and jointly predict postinjury rehabilitation beliefs, rehabilitation behavior, and subjective well-being. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four sports-injury rehabilitation centers of local universities in Taiwan. Participants: A total of 224 injured Taiwanese collegiate student-athletes. Main Outcomes Measure(s): The Trait Hope Scale, the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affective and Negative Affective Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed by participants after they received their regular rehabilitation treatment. Results: We conducted hierarchical regressions and found that social support and 2 types of hope in injured athletes predicted their rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being. However, only hope agency predicted their rehabilitation behavior. Also, hope and social support had an interactive effect on the prediction of subjective well-being; for participants with low hope pathways, the perception of more social support was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, whereas social support had only a relatively low association with subjective well-being among participants with high hope pathways. Conclusions: Enhancing hope perceptions and strengthening injured athletes' social support during rehabilitation are beneficial to rehabilitation behavior and subjective well-being© 2013 by the National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc.


Pan Y.-H.,National Taiwan Sport University
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' selfefficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high schools in Taiwan. The research instruments were the Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale, and students' Learning Motivation Scale, Learning Atmosphere Scale, and Learning Satisfaction Scale, which were designed by the researchers based on theories and existing instruments. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the fit of the hypothetical model. The results revealed that the model had acceptable fit. It was concluded that physical education teachers' self-efficacy affected students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction; teachers' self-efficacy also indirectly and positively influenced learning satisfaction, mediated by learning motivation and learning atmosphere. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

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