Sung H.-C.,Tzu Chi University |
Li T.-L.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Watson R.,University of Sheffield
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2012
Objective This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention on anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia. Methods A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 30-min music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music in a group setting in mid afternoon twice weekly for 6weeks, whereas the control group received usual care with no music intervention. The Rating of Anxiety in Dementia scale was used to assess anxiety, and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory was used to assess agitation at baseline, week4 and week6. Results Repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that older adults who received a group music intervention had a significantly lower anxiety score than those in the control group while controlling for pre-test score and cognitive level (F=8.98, p=0.004). However, the reduction of agitation between two groups was not significantly different. Conclusions Anxiety and agitation are common in older adults with dementia and have been reported by caregivers as challenging care problems. An innovative group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music as a cost-effective approach has the potential to reduce anxiety and improve psychological well-being of those with dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Tsai C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University |
Huang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Wang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Chu I.-H.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2014
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of acute resistance exercise on multiple cognitive measures in late middle-aged adults and to address the question of whether general or selective cognitive improvements occur. Design: A counterbalanced repeated-measures experimental design. Methods: Thirty adults (mean age. = 58.1. ±. 3.0 years) were administered five different Stroop test conditions before and after a single bout of resistance exercise and after a no-treatment control. The resistance exercise protocol involved two sets of seven exercises performed at 70% of a 10-repetition maximum, with 30 and 60. s between each set and each exercise, respectively. Results: The exercise treatment resulted in significantly enhanced performance across all Stroop conditions when compared with the control (p< .001). Furthermore, the effect of the exercise treatment on Stroop incongruent performance corresponded to the largest positive influence compared to the performance observed under the other four Stroop test conditions. Conclusions: These findings extend the current knowledge base by demonstrating that acute resistance exercise facilitates general cognition but has a more beneficial effect on cognition that involves executive control. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia.
Chen W.-C.,Chang Gung University |
Huang W.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Chiu C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Huang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to verify the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on health promotion and enhance exercise performance in an aerobic-exercise training protocol. METHODS: In total, 40 male Institute of Cancer Research mice (4 wk old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): sedentary control with vehicle (SC) or WP supplementation (4.1 g-1kg, SC + WP), and exercise training with vehicle (ET) or WP supplementation (4.1 g-1kg, ET + WP). Animals in the ET and ET + WP groups underwent swimming endurance training for 6 wk, 5 d-1wk. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as by changes in body composition and biochemical parameters at the end of the experiment. RESULTS: ET significantly decreased final body and muscle weight and levels of albumin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol. ET significantly increased grip strength; relative weight (%) of liver, heart, and brown adipose tissue (BAT); and levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and total bilirubin. WP supplementation significantly decreased final body, muscle, liver, BAT, and kidney weight and relative weight (%) of muscle, liver, and BAT as well as levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and uric acid. In addition, WP supplementation slightly increased endurance time and significantly increased grip strength and levels of albumin and total protein. CONCLUSION: WP supplementation improved exercise performance, body composition, and biochemical assessments in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in aerobic exercise training. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.
Mao T.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Physical Education |
Fu L.-L.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Wang J.-S.,Chang Gung University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011
Despite enhancing cardiopulmonary and muscular fitness, the effect of hypoxic exercise training (HE) on hemorheological regulation remains unclear. This study investigates how HE modulates erythrocyte rheological properties and further explores the underlying mechanisms in the hemorheological alterations. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomly divided into hypoxic (HE; n = 12) and normoxic (NE; n = 12) exercise training groups. The subjects were trained on 60% of maximum work rate under 15% (HE) or 21% (NE) O 2 condition for 30 min daily, 5 days weekly for 5 wk. The results demonstrated that HE 1) downregulated CD47 and CD147 expressions on erythrocytes, 2) decreased actin and spectrin contents in erythrocytes, 3) reduced erythrocyte deformability under shear flow, and 4) diminished erythrocyte volume changed by hypotonic stress. Treatment of erythrocytes with H 2O 2 that mimicked in vivo prooxidative status resulted in the cell shrinkage, rigidity, and phosphatidylserine exposure, whereas HE enhanced the eryptotic responses to H 2O 2. However, HE decreased the degrees of clotrimazole to blunt ionomycin-induced shrinkage, rigidity, and cytoskeleton breakdown of erythrocytes, referred to as Gardos effects. Reduced erythrocyte deformability by H 2O 2 was inversely related to the erythrocyte Gardos effect on the rheological function. Conversely, NE intervention did not significantly change resting and exercise erythrocyte rheological properties. Therefore, we conclude that HE rather than NE reduces erythrocyte deformability and volume regulation, accompanied by an increase in the eryptotic response to oxidative stress. Simultaneously, this intervention depresses Gardos channel-modulated erythrocyte rheological functions. Results of this study provide further insight into erythrocyte senescence induced by HE. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.
Chang Y.K.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro |
Chang Y.K.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Labban J.D.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro |
Gapin J.I.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro |
And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2012
There is a substantial body of literature related to the effects of a single session of exercise on cognitive performance. The premise underlying this research is that physiological changes in response to exercise have implications for cognitive function. This literature has been reviewed both narratively and meta-analytically and, although the research findings are mixed, researchers have generally concluded that there is a small positive effect. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated comprehensive analysis of the extant literature on acute exercise and cognitive performance and to explore the effects of moderators that have implications for mechanisms of the effects. Searches of electronic databases and examinations of reference lists from relevant studies resulted in 79 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Consistent with past findings, analyses indicated that the overall effect was positive and small (g=0.097 n=1034). Positive and small effects were also found in all three acute exercise paradigms: during exercise (g=0.101; 95% confidence interval CI]; 0.041-0.160), immediately following exercise (g=0.108; 95% CI; 0.069-0.147), and after a delay (g=0.103; 95% CI; 0.035-0.170). Examination of potential moderators indicated that exercise duration, exercise intensity, type of cognitive performance assessed, and participant fitness were significant moderators. In conclusion, the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance are generally small; however, larger effects are possible for particular cognitive outcomes and when specific exercise parameters are used. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin J.-H.,National Dong Hwa University |
Lu F.J.-H.,National Taiwan Sport University
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE). We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible) under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control) in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio) reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible), and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control) based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Liu S.,National Chung Cheng University |
Yu H.-H.,National Chung Cheng University |
Lee Y.-H.,National Chung Cheng University
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Year: 2012
This study was conducted to determine the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty children with ADHD were randomly assigned into exercise or control groups. Participants in the exercise group performed a moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 30 min, whereas the control group watched a running/exercise-related video. Neuropsychological tasks, the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), were assessed before and after each treatment. The results indicated that acute exercise facilitated performance in the Stroop Test, particularly in the Stroop Color-Word condition. Additionally, children in the exercise group demonstrated improvement in specific WCST performances in Non-perseverative Errors and Categories Completed, whereas no influences were found in those performances in the control group. Tentative explanations for the exercise effect postulate that exercise allocates attention resources, influences the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and is implicated in exercise-induced dopamine release. These findings are promising and additional investigations to explore the efficacy of exercise on executive function in children with ADHD are encouraged. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Lu F.J.H.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Hsu Y.,National Taiwan Sport University
Journal of Athletic Training | Year: 2013
Context: Injuries are a significant problem in the world of sports. Hope and social support are very important features in providing psychological help as people face life challenges such as sport injuries. Objective: To examine how hope and social support uniquely and jointly predict postinjury rehabilitation beliefs, rehabilitation behavior, and subjective well-being. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four sports-injury rehabilitation centers of local universities in Taiwan. Participants: A total of 224 injured Taiwanese collegiate student-athletes. Main Outcomes Measure(s): The Trait Hope Scale, the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affective and Negative Affective Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were completed by participants after they received their regular rehabilitation treatment. Results: We conducted hierarchical regressions and found that social support and 2 types of hope in injured athletes predicted their rehabilitation beliefs and subjective well-being. However, only hope agency predicted their rehabilitation behavior. Also, hope and social support had an interactive effect on the prediction of subjective well-being; for participants with low hope pathways, the perception of more social support was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, whereas social support had only a relatively low association with subjective well-being among participants with high hope pathways. Conclusions: Enhancing hope perceptions and strengthening injured athletes' social support during rehabilitation are beneficial to rehabilitation behavior and subjective well-being© 2013 by the National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc.
Pan Y.-H.,National Taiwan Sport University
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2013
The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' selfefficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high schools in Taiwan. The research instruments were the Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale, and students' Learning Motivation Scale, Learning Atmosphere Scale, and Learning Satisfaction Scale, which were designed by the researchers based on theories and existing instruments. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the fit of the hypothetical model. The results revealed that the model had acceptable fit. It was concluded that physical education teachers' self-efficacy affected students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction; teachers' self-efficacy also indirectly and positively influenced learning satisfaction, mediated by learning motivation and learning atmosphere. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Hsu Y.-W.,National Taiwan Sport University |
Lu F.J.-H.,National Taiwan Sport University
Educational Gerontology | Year: 2013
Physical self-concept plays a central role in older adults' physical health, mental health and psychological well-being; however, little attention has been paid to the underlying dimensions of physical self-concept in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new measurement for older adults. First, a qualitative study (Study 1) was conducted that included semistructured interviews and a focus group discussion. The second study established an initial instrument. Through item pool generation, content validation assessment, factor analysis, and item analysis (n = 187), the Physical Self-Concept Scale for Older Adults (PSCS-O) was produced containing 18 items and six dimensions. Finally, in the third study (n = 233), the PSCS-O showed adequate factorial stability and the initial certerion validity. The PSCS-O were able to explain 49.2% of the variance in older adults' well-being. In addition, Ability to Live Independently, which was introduced as a new factor by the PSCS-O, was the strongest predictor of the older adults' overall subjective well-being. In conclusion, the preliminary results from this study demonstrated that this new instrument, the PSCS-O, has sound psychometric properties. The PSCS-O may be a suitable and useful instrument in the study of physical self-concept in older adults in the future. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.