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Chang Y.K.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Chang Y.K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Labban J.D.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Gapin J.I.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2012

There is a substantial body of literature related to the effects of a single session of exercise on cognitive performance. The premise underlying this research is that physiological changes in response to exercise have implications for cognitive function. This literature has been reviewed both narratively and meta-analytically and, although the research findings are mixed, researchers have generally concluded that there is a small positive effect. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated comprehensive analysis of the extant literature on acute exercise and cognitive performance and to explore the effects of moderators that have implications for mechanisms of the effects. Searches of electronic databases and examinations of reference lists from relevant studies resulted in 79 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Consistent with past findings, analyses indicated that the overall effect was positive and small (g=0.097 n=1034). Positive and small effects were also found in all three acute exercise paradigms: during exercise (g=0.101; 95% confidence interval CI]; 0.041-0.160), immediately following exercise (g=0.108; 95% CI; 0.069-0.147), and after a delay (g=0.103; 95% CI; 0.035-0.170). Examination of potential moderators indicated that exercise duration, exercise intensity, type of cognitive performance assessed, and participant fitness were significant moderators. In conclusion, the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance are generally small; however, larger effects are possible for particular cognitive outcomes and when specific exercise parameters are used. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pan Y.-H.,National Taiwan Sport University
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' selfefficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high schools in Taiwan. The research instruments were the Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale, and students' Learning Motivation Scale, Learning Atmosphere Scale, and Learning Satisfaction Scale, which were designed by the researchers based on theories and existing instruments. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the fit of the hypothetical model. The results revealed that the model had acceptable fit. It was concluded that physical education teachers' self-efficacy affected students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction; teachers' self-efficacy also indirectly and positively influenced learning satisfaction, mediated by learning motivation and learning atmosphere. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Mao T.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Physical Education | Fu L.-L.,National Taiwan Sport University | Wang J.-S.,Chang Gung University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Despite enhancing cardiopulmonary and muscular fitness, the effect of hypoxic exercise training (HE) on hemorheological regulation remains unclear. This study investigates how HE modulates erythrocyte rheological properties and further explores the underlying mechanisms in the hemorheological alterations. Twenty-four sedentary males were randomly divided into hypoxic (HE; n = 12) and normoxic (NE; n = 12) exercise training groups. The subjects were trained on 60% of maximum work rate under 15% (HE) or 21% (NE) O 2 condition for 30 min daily, 5 days weekly for 5 wk. The results demonstrated that HE 1) downregulated CD47 and CD147 expressions on erythrocytes, 2) decreased actin and spectrin contents in erythrocytes, 3) reduced erythrocyte deformability under shear flow, and 4) diminished erythrocyte volume changed by hypotonic stress. Treatment of erythrocytes with H 2O 2 that mimicked in vivo prooxidative status resulted in the cell shrinkage, rigidity, and phosphatidylserine exposure, whereas HE enhanced the eryptotic responses to H 2O 2. However, HE decreased the degrees of clotrimazole to blunt ionomycin-induced shrinkage, rigidity, and cytoskeleton breakdown of erythrocytes, referred to as Gardos effects. Reduced erythrocyte deformability by H 2O 2 was inversely related to the erythrocyte Gardos effect on the rheological function. Conversely, NE intervention did not significantly change resting and exercise erythrocyte rheological properties. Therefore, we conclude that HE rather than NE reduces erythrocyte deformability and volume regulation, accompanied by an increase in the eryptotic response to oxidative stress. Simultaneously, this intervention depresses Gardos channel-modulated erythrocyte rheological functions. Results of this study provide further insight into erythrocyte senescence induced by HE. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

Chang Y.-K.,National Taiwan Sport University | Tsai C.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Wang C.-C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Chu I.-H.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of acute resistance exercise on multiple cognitive measures in late middle-aged adults and to address the question of whether general or selective cognitive improvements occur. Design: A counterbalanced repeated-measures experimental design. Methods: Thirty adults (mean age. = 58.1. ±. 3.0 years) were administered five different Stroop test conditions before and after a single bout of resistance exercise and after a no-treatment control. The resistance exercise protocol involved two sets of seven exercises performed at 70% of a 10-repetition maximum, with 30 and 60. s between each set and each exercise, respectively. Results: The exercise treatment resulted in significantly enhanced performance across all Stroop conditions when compared with the control (p< .001). Furthermore, the effect of the exercise treatment on Stroop incongruent performance corresponded to the largest positive influence compared to the performance observed under the other four Stroop test conditions. Conclusions: These findings extend the current knowledge base by demonstrating that acute resistance exercise facilitates general cognition but has a more beneficial effect on cognition that involves executive control. © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia.

Sung H.-C.,Tzu Chi University | Li T.-L.,National Taiwan Sport University | Watson R.,University of Sheffield
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention on anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia. Methods A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 30-min music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music in a group setting in mid afternoon twice weekly for 6weeks, whereas the control group received usual care with no music intervention. The Rating of Anxiety in Dementia scale was used to assess anxiety, and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory was used to assess agitation at baseline, week4 and week6. Results Repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that older adults who received a group music intervention had a significantly lower anxiety score than those in the control group while controlling for pre-test score and cognitive level (F=8.98, p=0.004). However, the reduction of agitation between two groups was not significantly different. Conclusions Anxiety and agitation are common in older adults with dementia and have been reported by caregivers as challenging care problems. An innovative group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music as a cost-effective approach has the potential to reduce anxiety and improve psychological well-being of those with dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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