National Taiwan Ocean University

www.ntou.edu.tw
Keelung, Taiwan

National Taiwan Ocean University is a national university in Zhongzheng District, Keelung, Taiwan. Wikipedia.


Time filter

Source Type

News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

A non-toxic mixture of chitin-rich crab shell powder and nanosized silver particles could be an environmentally friendly way of curbing the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes, and malaria in particular. This is according to a series of experiments led by Jiang-Shiou Hwang of the National Taiwan Ocean University. The findings are published in Springer’s journal Hydrobiologia. Mosquitoes carry diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, the Zika virus and encephalitis. Despite more than 100 years of research on the subject, malaria remains a global health problem, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In 2013, the number of malaria cases was estimated at 198 million, and the number of malaria-related deaths at 548,000. According to the World Health Organization, one child dies every minute from malaria in Africa. Products such as organophosphates, insect growth regulators, microbial control agents and organic solutions are used in efforts to control mosquito populations and the spread of the disease. Hwang’s team turned their attention to chitosan or chitin, a non-toxic natural substance that has been used in wound healing, as drug carriers and in manufacturing membrane water filters and biodegradable food package coating. Chitin is found in animal tissues, such as the exoskeletons of arthropods, bird beaks and insect eggs. It can easily be chemically changed, is quite strong and, because of its abundance in nature, is cost-effective to use. The research team first crushed and oven-dried the exoskeletons of a number of hydrothermal vent crabs (Xenograpsus testudinatus) before extracting the chitin and other minerals. The subsequent creamy-white filtrate was then mixed with silver nitrate (AgNO3) to obtain a brown–yellow solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNP). The solution was sprayed over six water reservoirs at the National Institute of Communicable Disease Centre in Coimbatore in India. Even in small concentrates it killed mosquito larvae and pupa quite effectively. It had the greatest effect during the early stages of the mosquito larvae’s development. The solution was also tested in conjunction with freshwater goldfish (Carassiu auratus) that fed on mosquito larvae. The nanoparticle solution did not have any effect on the fish, indicating that it is an environmentally friendly and non-toxic product. It also inhibited the growth of disease-causing bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. “This research highlighted that chitosan–fabricated silver nanoparticles are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to strongly reduce populations of the malaria vector, the Anopheles sundaicus mosquito, without detrimental effects on the predation of natural mosquito enemies, such as goldfishes,” says Hwang. “It also effectively inhibits important bacterial pathogens.” Hwang hypothesizes that the nanosized particles pass through the insect cuticles and into individual cells to then interfere with various physiological processes that are part of a mosquito’s life cycle.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A non-toxic mixture of chitin-rich crab shell powder and nanosized silver particles could be an environmentally friendly way of curbing the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes, and malaria in particular. This is according to a series of experiments led by Jiang-Shiou Hwang of the National Taiwan Ocean University. The findings are published in Springer's journal Hydrobiologia. Mosquitoes carry diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, the Zika virus and encephalitis. Despite more than 100 years of research on the subject, malaria remains a global health problem, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In 2013, the number of malaria cases was estimated at 198 million, and the number of malaria-related deaths at 548 000. According to the World Health Organization, one child dies every minute from malaria in Africa. Products such as organophosphates, insect growth regulators, microbial control agents and organic solutions are used in efforts to control mosquito populations and the spread of the disease. Hwang's team turned their attention to chitosan or chitin, a non-toxic natural substance that has been used in wound healing, as drug carriers and in manufacturing membrane water filters and biodegradable food package coating. Chitin is found in animal tissues, such as the exoskeletons of arthropods, bird beaks and insect eggs. It can easily be chemically changed, is quite strong and, because of its abundance in nature, is cost-effective to use. The research team first crushed and oven-dried the exoskeletons of a number of hydrothermal vent crabs (Xenograpsus testudinatus) before extracting the chitin and other minerals. The subsequent creamy-white filtrate was then mixed with silver nitrate (AgNO3) to obtain a brown-yellow solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNP). The solution was sprayed over six water reservoirs at the National Institute of Communicable Disease Centre in Coimbatore in India. Even in small concentrates it killed mosquito larvae and pupa quite effectively. It had the greatest effect during the early stages of the mosquito larvae's development. The solution was also tested in conjunction with freshwater goldfish (Carassiu auratus) that fed on mosquito larvae. The nanoparticle solution did not have any effect on the fish, indicating that it is an environmentally friendly and non-toxic product. It also inhibited the growth of disease-causing bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. "This research highlighted that chitosan-fabricated silver nanoparticles are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to strongly reduce populations of the malaria vector, the Anopheles sundaicus mosquito, without detrimental effects on the predation of natural mosquito enemies, such as goldfishes," says Hwang. "It also effectively inhibits important bacterial pathogens." Hwang hypothesizes that the nanosized particles pass through the insect cuticles and into individual cells to then interfere with various physiological processes that are part of a mosquito's life cycle. Reference: Hwang, K.S. (et al). Chitosan-fabricated Ag nanoparticles and larvivorous fishes: a novel route to control the coastal malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus? Hydrobiologia DOI: 10.1007/s10750-017-3196-1


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

Ah, chitin … the cheap and plentiful substance, which occurs naturally in crustacean shells, has already been suggested for use in things like wound dressings, cheaper pharmaceuticals, and even proton-conducting transistors. Now, researchers from the National Taiwan Ocean University have found that when combined with silver, it could also be used to kill malaria-spreading mosquitoes. More specifically, the mixture has been proven effective at killing mosquito larvae, while they're still in the water. Led by Prof. Jiang-Shiou Hwang, the research team started by oven-drying and then crushing the shells of hydrothermal vent crabs, and then extracting chitin and other minerals from them. These were subsequently mixed with silver nitrate, resulting in a solution of chitin-enriched silver nanoparticles. That solution was later sprayed over six water reservoirs at India's National Institute of Communicable Disease Centre. It was found that even in low concentrations, the nanoparticles killed mosquito larvae and pupa very effectively. Hwang believes that this is due to the particles passing through the insects' outer cuticle and into individual cells. There, they "interfere with various physiological processes that are part of a mosquito's life cycle." As a side benefit, the solution was also found to inhibit the growth of dangerous bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. When tested on goldfish, however – which feed on mosquito larvae – it was found to have no harmful effect. A paper on the research was recently published in the journal Hydrobiologia.


Patent
Taipei Medical University and National Taiwan Ocean University | Date: 2015-12-14

The invention uses a highly porous MTAM to immobilize yeast cells for bioethanol fermentation, a first in bioethanol production. The invention also optimizes the conditions to prepare MTAM-immobilized cells and evaluates their potential for batch bioethanol fermentation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.4-3 | Award Amount: 6.53M | Year: 2014

Coastal floods are one of the most dangerous and harmful natural hazards affecting urban areas adjacent to shorelines. Rapid urbanisation combined with climate change and poor governance means a significant increase in the risk of local surface flooding coinciding with high water levels in rivers and high tide or storm surges from the sea, posing a greater risk of devastation to coastal communities. The threats posed need to be addressed not just in terms of flood prediction and control, but taking into account governance and socio-economic issues. PEARL brings together world leading expertise in both the domain of hydro-engineering and risk reduction and management services to pool knowledge and practical experience in order to develop more sustainable risk management solutions for coastal communities focusing on present and projected extreme hydro-meteorological events. The project will examine 7 case studies from across the EU to develop a holistic risk reduction framework that can identify multi-stressor risk assessment, risk cascading processes and strengthen risk governance by enabling an active role for key actors. The research programme links risk and root cause assessment through enhanced FORIN methodology, event prediction, forecast and warning, development of adaptive structural and non-structural strategies and active stakeholder participation. The project aims to develop novel technologies and methods that can improve the early warning process and its components; it builds a pan-European knowledge base gathering real case studies and demonstrations of best practice across the EU to support capacity development for the delivery of cost-effective risk-reduction plans. Additionally, the project provides an interface to relevant ongoing tsunami work: it plugs into global databases, early warning systems and processes at WMO, and contributes to community building, development of guidelines and communication avenues at the global level through IWA.


Lee D.H.,National Taiwan Ocean University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO 2 reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
National Taiwan Ocean University | Date: 2015-03-11

A vale unit includes a valve frame and two valve plates. The valve frame defines a valve opening. The valve plates are formed with protrusions. Each of the valve plates has a connecting end that is formed with a notch. The connecting ends are connected to each other. The protrusions protrude from peripheries of the notches. Each of the protrusions has a contact end. The contact ends cooperatively define a gap therebetween. The valve plates are co-rotatable about an axis between a closed position, in which the valve plates substantially close the valve opening, and an opening position, in which the valve plates open the valve opening. The gap has a width varying in response to co-rotation of the valve plates between the opening position and the closed position.


Patent
Academia Sinica, China and National Taiwan Ocean University | Date: 2016-04-14

The preset invention relates to a new method or composition for treating a gastric ulcer, preventing or treating an infection of H. pylori, particularly multidrug resistant H. pylori, using an antimicrobial peptide, a functional derivate, fragment or variant thereof, wherein the antimicrobial peptide is selected from the group consisting of Epi-1, TPs and combination thereof.


Patent
National Taiwan Ocean University | Date: 2015-05-27

An ocean current power generating apparatus using a dual-duct is provided. The ocean current power generating apparatus with dual-duct includes at least one power generating unit. The power generating unit includes a turbine (110, 710), an inner duct (120, 420, 720) and an outer duct (130, 430). The turbine has a shaft box (112, 412, 712). The turbine is located inside the inner duct. An outer diameter (D3) of an inflow side of the inner duct is less than an outer diameter (D4) of an outflow side of the inner duct. The outflow side of the inner duct is located inside the outer duct. An outer diameter (D1) of an inflow side of the outer duct is less than an outer diameter (D2) of an outflow side of the outer duct.


A non-destructive and optical measurement automation system for web thickness of microdrills and method thereof can obtain the measuring data corresponding to a certain section to be measured of a microdrill by means of automated optical measurement. Specifically speaking, the said system and method measure the section to be measured via an optical measuring plane formed by a measuring light beam, and the included angle between the optical measuring plane and the central axis of the microdrill is practically consistent with the helix angle of the microdrill. The said system and method then analyze the measuring data via a computer device to obtain the outer diameter and the depths of helical flutes corresponding to the section to be measured. Finally, the said system and method calculate the web thickness of the said section to be measured according to the outer diameter and the depths of helical flutes.

Loading National Taiwan Ocean University collaborators
Loading National Taiwan Ocean University collaborators