National Taiwan Museum

Taiwan, Taiwan

National Taiwan Museum

Taiwan, Taiwan

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Huang E.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang E.,Chung Chou University of Science and Technology | Yu S.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen Y.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | And 2 more authors.
Materials Letters | Year: 2010

This study presents the results of the first use of the moissanite anvil cell (MAC) for the in-situ high-temperature and pressure Raman spectroscopy measurement of diamond. It is observed that the T2g vibrational mode of diamond shifts toward low frequency with increasing temperature; on the other hand, the vibration band shifts toward high frequency with increasing pressure. In the high-temperature and pressure process, the slope (∂υ/∂T) becomes zero which indicates the thermal expansion. It resulted from the temperature effect, and the pressure caused by MAC will reach a balanced state about 1.6 GPa and 175 °C. The behavior of diamonds at high temperature and high pressure is mainly dominated by temperature effects for the temperature below 320 °C and the pressure less than 5 GPa. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Yu B.-S.,National Taipei University of Technology | Fang J.-N.,National Taiwan Museum | Huang E.-P.,Meiho University
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Archaeological malachites, represented by the malachites found on the ancient Chinese and Vietnamese copper/bronze coins, may also incorporate those on other archaeological objects. The Raman spectra with Ar laser of these malachites differ slightly from those of the natural malachites found in mines. In this study, 120 measurements of the malachites on 40 coins identified 26 bands, while only around 18 of them are frequently observed. The wavenumbers (cm-1), shifts (±)and relative intensities (in parentheses) of the 18 common bands read, respectively: 153±4 (0-vs), 179±7 (m-vs), 217±8 (m-vs), 274±7 (0-vs), 355±5 (0-m), 431±4 (0-vs), 514±3 (0-m), 533±5 (0-s), 566±3 (0-m), 599±2 (0-m), 718±6 (0-m), 754±2 (0-m), 1061±7 (0-m), 1093±10 (0-m), 1365±9 (0-m), 1491±7 (0-vs), 3321±11 (0-vs) and 3380±7 (0-vs). In comparison with those of the 105 measurements on the natural malachites in five mines, the Raman spectra of the archaeological malachites tend to show less bands, higher backgrounds and greater shifts in the wavenumber position. The weakening or loss of bands is in the order of the OH stretch (3300 cm-1) (most severe), CO3 (600-1500 cm-1) and CuO (<600 cm-1) (less severe) groups, indicating successive stages of corrosion. The malachites on the coins from three climate zones show their own characteristics. Several coins may have experienced two or more climatic or geologic episodes and show complex Raman spectra different from those of the natural malachites. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Chang Y.-C.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chang Y.-C.,Conservation and Research Center | Lin H.-C.,National Taiwan Museum | Li S.-H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chang M.-H.,Conservation and Research Center
Amphibia Reptilia | Year: 2016

The Chinese green tree viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri), one of the most common snakes in Southeast Asia, can be a good model species for evolutionary and behavioral research. However, there is no high polymorphic codominant marker that can be used for individual-based genetic analyses available for this species. Therefore, we developed 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci for T. s. stejnegeri in Taiwan by screening a microsatellite-enriched DNA library. The allele numbers of these loci ranged from 3 to 22, and the observed heterozygosity were 0.042-1.000. The probability of false parent non-exclusion was 2 ×10-5 for those loci that conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These highly polymorphic microsatellite markers are useful for both individual-based and population-level analysis. Furthermore, this is the first set of microsatellite markers developed for Trimeresurus, and could be applied to closely related species to address various research questions on evolution and animal behavior. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2016.


Huang E.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang E.,Chung Chou University of Science and Technology | Yu S.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Chen Y.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | And 2 more authors.
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals | Year: 2010

Kerogen samples were treated at temperatures and pressures up to 25-600°C and ~9 GPa, respectively. In situ micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the systematic changes in the first-order Raman spectral features during the process of temperature or pressure increment. Three Raman bands, D1, D2, and G bands, were examined to characterize the structural and chemical changes of kerogen at high temperatures and pressures. We found that the wavenumbers of D1, D2 and G bands showed a linear variation with both temperature and pressure. Therefore, a correlation between R1 and R2 and the peak temperature in regionally metamorphosed rocks cannot be applied to this work. This result implies that the G band may serve as a temperature or pressure indicator during the promotion of maturation of kerogen. Kerogen possesses reversible properties in contrast with the natural samples recovered from the field suffered from prolonged thermal history during regional metamorphism. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Shih H.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Lee J.-H.,National University of Tainan | Ho P.-H.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Liu H.-C.,Chenggong 11th St. | And 3 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

The fiddler crabs, genus Uca Leach, 1814 (Decapoda, Ocypodidae) of Taiwan, including the offshore islands of Penghu (Pescadores), Kinmen (Quemoy), Matsu (Matzu), and Dongsha (Pratas), are revised, with the recognition of five subgenera and 15 species, viz. Uca (Austruca) Bott, 1973: U. lactea (De Haan, 1835), U. perplexa (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), U. Triangularis (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873); U. (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817: U. borealis Crane, 1975, U. jocelynae Shih, Naruse & Ng, 2010, U. Tetragonon (Herbst, 1790), U. vocans (Linnaeus, 1758); U. (Paraleptuca) Bott, 1973: U. crassipes (White, 1847), U. splendida (Stimpson, 1858); U. (Tubuca) Bott, 1973: U. acuta (Stimpson 1858), U. arcuata (De Haan, 1835), U. coarctata (H. Milne Edwards, 1852), U. dussumieri (H. Milne Edwards, 1852), U. paradussumieri (Bott, 1973); and U. (Xeruca) Shih, 2015: U. formosensis Rathbun, 1921. Among them, U. acuta, U. paradussumieri, and U. vocans are confirmed to be distributed in Taiwan. Uca formosensis is endemic to Taiwan. The Uca species of the main islands of Japan are also listed. Four species (U. arcuata, U. lactea, U. crassipes and U. borealis) are known, but the recent additional records of U. perplexa and U. vocans need further confirmation. Except U. acuta, U. borealis, U. formosensis, U. lactea, and U. paradussumieri, other 10 Taiwanese species can be found from the Ryukyus too. Only one endemic species, U. boninensis, is reported from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. A key to the 18 species of Uca found in East Asia is also provided in this study. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.


Biagioni S.,University of Gottingen | Haberzettl T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wang L.-C.,National Taiwan Museum | St-Onge G.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Behling H.,University of Gottingen
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2016

The Lindu plain, located in the northern mountainous region of the Lore Lindu National Park in Sulawesi, Indonesia, provides many ecosystem services for the population inhabiting the area and harbours a unique biodiversity. Palynological, charcoal and diatom analyses of a lake sediment core from Lake Lindu (Danau Lindu) reveal that during the last 1,000 years the Lindu plain has been modified by human activities. Evidence of frequent burning and possible shifting cultivation from an earlier phase from ca. ad 1000 to 1200 might be related to the metal age population which erected the megaliths in the province of Central Sulawesi. From ca. ad 1200–1700 there followed 500 years of wetter climate conditions, corresponding to the southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. At the same time, decreases of macro-charcoal concentrations and pioneer vegetation indicators show that the use of the landscape of Lindu plain had become more permanent. Following a phase of forest recovery from ca. ad 1730 to 1910, the most recent part of the Lake Lindu record shows a trend towards deforestation that started in the late 20th century, lasting until now. The lake level started to fall at the beginning of the 20th century, as shown by the increase of sedimentation rate and supported by low pollen concentration and palaeomagnetic data. Such a change was unprecedented for the last 1,000 years covered by the record, and it has no link to the climate variability as reconstructed for the last hundred years. If deforestation increases and a larger amount of water is channelled away from the lake for irrigation purposes, the lake level will continue to fall. This suggests that there is a need for better management of the forests surrounding the plain and of the irrigation systems in the area open for cultivation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Lee J.C.-I.,National Taiwan University | Lee J.C.-I.,Institute of Forensic Medicine | Tsai L.-C.,Central University of Costa Rica | Hwa P.-Y.,Central University of Costa Rica | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Probes | Year: 2010

We report on a novel and rapid strategy for the simultaneous identification of both avian species and gender by analyzing a section of the CHD gene. The CHD gene is carried by the avian sex determining chromosomes where a female bird carries both a W and Z chromosome but a cock bird carries two copies of the Z chromosome. Two primer pairs, CHD1F/CHD1R and P2/P8, were used to amplify a part of the CHD gene from 144 samples corresponding to 58 avian species. For all species tested, two fragments were observed at least in one amplification for female samples. All tested species produced species specific size fragments allowing both sex determination and species identification using these primer pairs. However, special care is still warranted as so few samples have been characterised. This novel strategy for avian species and gender identification using the CHD gene was developed for a number of applications from ecology to forensic science. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lennard F.,University of Glasgow | Pollak N.,Art Care Associates | Lin C.,Tainan National University of the Arts | Chen W.-P.,National Taiwan Museum
Journal of the Institute of Conservation | Year: 2013

The Flag of the Formosa Republic in the collection of the National Taiwan Museum is a national icon. It is a copy of one made in 1895 to mark the formation of a new Taiwanese republic; this replica, described in a contemporary newspaper account as an exact copy, was made in Japan in 1909. The painted flag was an intriguing puzzle. Instrumental analysis and a close study of the flag itself and of surviving historic photographs and records were used to try to establish whether what looked like later additions and repairs were actually part of the original construction. An international team of conservators and scientists from Taiwan, the UK, the USA and Germany carried out the investigation and the conservation treatment. Although dye analysis was inconclusive and it has not yet been possible to ascertain the original colour, it was felt that an addition in the upper right corner and some of the repairs could well be part of the original construction and these were left in situ though other repairs were removed. The paper lining was removed, revealing that the flag was painted on both sides. The fabric was cleaned using a vacuum suction table, while the paint surface was cleaned with swabs. The flag was supported using an adhesive treatment with Lascaux acrylic resin. © 2013 Icon, The Institute of Conservation.


Meseth E.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Wang L.-C.,National Taiwan Museum | Chen S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Yu J.C.S.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Buzinny M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2015

Vitcos was occupied by the Incas of Vilcabamba in the sixteenth century, which included about 20ha of agricultural fields with crops such as maize, potato, quinoa, amaranth and beans. The current study assessed water management for agriculture on this site. Desk research included relating past climatic data to a parallel study on modern climate, evapotranspiration, crop schedules, crop water requirements and capillary rise estimates; additionally, field studies comprised soil sample collection and analysis, watercourse flow measurements and hydrological interpretation, GIS mapping of crop fields, and the reconstruction of crops with palynology techniques and radiocarbon dating. Results indicate that irrigation requirements for crops sown once a year occurred only in May, for potato (15.3mm) and quinoa (3.5mm), but rainfed irrigation was feasible if capillary rise is considered. Finally, the Inca population of Vitcos was estimated in relation to food production, considering dietary habits, crop field area, crop yields, nutrition value of crops and calorie requirements, reaching 365 people, taking into account that crops were sown once a year and meat supply represented 10% of the diet. This estimate matches with the number of people that could have been accommodated in Vitcos Inca dwellings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Biagioni S.,University of Gottingen | Haberzettl T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wang L.-C.,National Taiwan Museum | St-Onge G.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Behling H.,University of Gottingen
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2015

The Lindu plain, located in the northern mountainous region of the Lore Lindu National Park in Sulawesi, Indonesia, provides many ecosystem services for the population inhabiting the area and harbours a unique biodiversity. Palynological, charcoal and diatom analyses of a lake sediment core from Lake Lindu (Danau Lindu) reveal that during the last 1,000 years the Lindu plain has been modified by human activities. Evidence of frequent burning and possible shifting cultivation from an earlier phase from ca. ad 1000 to 1200 might be related to the metal age population which erected the megaliths in the province of Central Sulawesi. From ca. ad 1200–1700 there followed 500 years of wetter climate conditions, corresponding to the southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. At the same time, decreases of macro-charcoal concentrations and pioneer vegetation indicators show that the use of the landscape of Lindu plain had become more permanent. Following a phase of forest recovery from ca. ad 1730 to 1910, the most recent part of the Lake Lindu record shows a trend towards deforestation that started in the late 20th century, lasting until now. The lake level started to fall at the beginning of the 20th century, as shown by the increase of sedimentation rate and supported by low pollen concentration and palaeomagnetic data. Such a change was unprecedented for the last 1,000 years covered by the record, and it has no link to the climate variability as reconstructed for the last hundred years. If deforestation increases and a larger amount of water is channelled away from the lake for irrigation purposes, the lake level will continue to fall. This suggests that there is a need for better management of the forests surrounding the plain and of the irrigation systems in the area open for cultivation. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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