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Chang H.-H.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Cheng C.-L.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Huang P.-J.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Lin S.-Y.,Yuanpei University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

To explore the pathogenic mineral formation in a huge cardiolith isolated from the left heart atrium of an 80-year-old male patient, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to analyze the topographic microstructure and perform elemental mapping in a crosssection of the cardiac calcified deposit after dissection. Environmental SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) was also used to investigate the composition and spatial distribution of elements in the cross-section, and fiberoptic Raman spectroscopy was used to reidentify the chemical composition of designated positions. The results indicated that calcium hydroxyapatite and cholesterol were the main components of the cardiac calculus. The plate-like structures of calcium hydroxyapatite were unevenly spread over the cholesterol of the cardiac calculus. The calcium hydroxyapatite-rich area exhibited higher amounts of C, O, P, and Ca elements as well as trace amounts of N, Na, Mg, and Al, whereas the major concentration of C, minor concentrations of N and O, and trace amounts of P and Ca were observed in the cholesterol-rich area. Hypercholesterolemia associated with calcification of this cardiac calculus was proposed. Both FE-SEM and ESEM energy dispersive Xray microanalyses were performed directly, for the first time, to provide useful information on the microstructural characteristics and spatial distribution of elements on the surface of human cardiac calculi. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.


Hwang H.-L.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Hwang H.-L.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Hsieh P.-F.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Wang H.-H.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: Until now, caring research has focused on constructs, processes and outcomes of caring traits exhibited mainly by nurses or nursing students in hospitals. Few studies have considered the perspectives of elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Aims: The aim of this study was to elucidate the nature of caring by describing the experience of elderly residents of Taiwan LTCFs. Methods: Data collected by semi-structured interviews with 12 elderly residents of LTCFs were analysed by content analysis. Results: The caring perceived by the sample was thematically categorized as calming the body, respectful communication and enriching life. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirm the need for managers of LTCFs to address the physical and psychosocial needs of their residents. The findings can be used to develop education programmes and clinical protocols for nurses in the caring field and to develop instruments for measuring perceived caring in LTCFs. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.


Hsu J.-W.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Huang D.-W.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2012

The Impact Factor has become a well-known measure of the average citation number of articles published in a scientific journal. A journal with a high Impact Factor is assumed to have a low percentage of uncited articles. We show that the scaling relation between the Impact Factor and the uncited percentage can be understood by a simple mechanism. The empirical data can be reproduced by a random mechanism with the cumulative advantage. To further explore the robustness of such a mechanism, we investigate the relation between the average citation number and the uncited percentage from different perspectives. We apply the idea of Impact Factor to the publications of an institute in addition to its general application to the publications of a journal. We find that the same scaling relation can be obtained. We also show that a static relation can be applied to describe the time evolution of a dynamical process. These results provide further justification for the same citation mechanism behind different research fields. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hsu J.-W.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Huang D.-W.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

We study the citation dynamics of scientific publications over the years. We propose a simple cellular automaton model featuring a combination of two distinct mechanisms, i.e. the random assignment and the preferential attachment, to investigate the dynamics of journal citation. Different from most previous studies focusing on highly cited papers, we analyze the time evolution of the entire citation distribution. Empirical data can be well reproduced by numerical simulations. Within the linear regime of the Cited Half-Life, a steady accumulation of citations can be expected. Moreover, within this linear regime, the ratio between the above two mechanisms is a constant. Besides the average citation represented by the Impact Factor, such a constant ratio can also be a characteristic of the journal. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hsu J.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Huang D.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

We obtained data of statistical significance to verify the intuitive impression that collaboration leads to higher impact. We selected eight scientific journals to analyze the correlations between the number of citations and the number of coauthors. For different journals, the single-authored articles always contained the lowest citations. The citations to those articles with fewer than five coauthors are lower than the average citations of the journal. We also provided a simple measurement to the value of authorship with regards to the increase number of citations. Compared to the citation distribution, similar but smaller fluctuations appeared in the coauthor distribution. Around 70% of the citations were accumulated in 30% of the papers, while 60% of the coauthors appeared in 40% of the papers. We find that predicting the citation number from the coauthor number can be more reliable than predicting the coauthor number from the citation number. For both citation distribution and coauthor distribution, the standard deviation is larger than the average value. We caution the use of such an unrepresentative average value. The average value can be biased significantly by extreme minority, and might not reflect the majority. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Shao C.-P.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Lo H.-R.,Fooyin University | Lo H.-R.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin J.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Hor L.-I.,National Cheng Kung University
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

Cytotoxicity is an important virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus, and two cytotoxins, RTX (encoded by rtxA1) and cytolysin/hemolysin (encoded by vvhA), have been identified in this organism. We showed that the quorum-sensing regulator LuxO controlled the cytotoxicity of this organism: a ΔluxO mutant exhibited low cytotoxicity, whereas a constitutively activated luxO mutant, luxO(D47E), remained highly cytotoxic. The cytotoxicity of the ΔluxO mutant was restored when smcR, a Vibrio harveyi luxR homologue repressed by luxO, was further deleted. SmcR then was shown to repress the expression of both rtxA1 and vvhA. A DNA library of V. vulnificus was screened in Escherichia coli for clones that upregulated vvhA in the presence of SmcR, and hlyU, which has been shown to positively regulate rtxA1 and vvhA, was identified. We demonstrated that SmcR repressed the expression of hlyU and bound to a region upstream of hlyU in V. vulnificus. The deletion of hlyU resulted in the loss of cytotoxicity and reduced cytolysin/hemolysin production in the ΔsmcR mutant. The ΔsmcR ΔhlyU mutant regained cytotoxicity and cytolysin/hemolysin activity when hns, which has been shown to repress the transcription of rtxA1 and interfere with hlyU, was further removed. Collectively, our data suggest that SmcR mediates the regulation of cytotoxicity by quorum-sensing signaling in V. vulnificus by repressing hlyU, an activator of rtxA1 and vvhA. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Ting H.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Hsu Y.-W.,Chung Shan Medical University | Tsai C.-F.,Chung Shan Medical University | Lu F.-J.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The antioxidant capacity of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil was investigated with a number of established in vitro assays and in an in vivo study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in mice. The results showed that DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity all increased with increasing concentrations of seabuckthorn seed oil. Moreover, the EC50 values of seabuckthorn seed oil from the hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were 2.63, 2.16 and 0.77mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, seabuckthorn seed oil inhibited the toxicity of CCl4, as seen from the significantly increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The GSH content in the liver was also increased, whereas hepatic malondialdehyde was reduced. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that seabuckthorn seed oil has significant potential as a natural antioxidant agent. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hsu Y.-W.,Chung Shan Medical University | Tsai C.-F.,Trans World University | Chen W.-K.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chen W.-K.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Lutein and zeaxanthin were extracted from daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) flowers using supercritical fluid extraction-carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) at a temperature range of 50-95 °C and pressure range of 300-600 bar. The extracts were analysed by HPLC with a C30 column and an isocratic solvent system: methanol/methyl-tert-butyl ether = 86/14 (v/v). Moreover, the antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and a chemiluminescence assay to measure the scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. The optimal lutein and zeaxanthin extraction could be achieved at 80 °C and 600 bar, and the extraction pressure was the most important parameter for SFE-CO2. In addition, the extracts had significantly higher antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assays. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hsu Y.-W.,Chung Shan Medical University | Tsai C.-F.,TransWorld University | Chen W.-K.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Huang C.-F.,Chia Medical University | Yen C.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Green tea is believed to be beneficial to health because it possesses antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer properties. The potential toxicity of green tea when administered at high doses via concentrated extracts, however, has not been completely investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of green tea extract in ICR mice using a subacute exposure paradigm. In this study, mice were orally administered (gavage) green tea extract at doses of 0 (as normal group), 625, 1250 and 2500. mg/kg. body weight/day for 28. days. The results showed that oral administration of green tea extract did not cause adverse effects on body weight, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis or histopathology. Additionally, administering green tea extract via gavage significantly reduced triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These observed effects could be attributed to the high levels of catechins present in green tea as these compounds have been reported to have beneficial health effects. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for green tea extract derived from the results of the present study was 2500. mg/kg. body weight/day. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Hsu C.F.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Hsu C.F.,University of Auckland | Kilmartin P.A.,University of Auckland
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2012

Ethyl cellulose films containing up to 17% polyaniline (PANI EC film) were prepared from ethanolic solutions. The antioxidant capacity of the PANI EC films was examined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and the films demonstrated very efficient peroxyl free radical scavenging activity. A good correlation was also obtained between the net ORAC curve area and the size of the tested film, indicating the homogenous dispersion of active PANI powder across the film. Reduced PANI presented greater peroxyl radical scavenging activity than more oxidized as-prepared forms. The influence of the PANI EC films on the oxidation of Ropufa oil was determined after incubation at 60°C for several days. The oil stored in the presence of a PANI EC film was found to exhibit a lower peroxide value than in the absence of PANI, indicating that the conducting polymer can inhibit the oxidation of fish oil. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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