Fan H.-J.,Hung Kung University |
Lu C.-S.,National Taichung Nursing College |
Lee W.-L.W.,Chung Shan Medical University |
Chiou M.-R.,Hung Kung University |
Chen C.-C.,National Taichung University of Education
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011
The Crystal Violet (CV) dye represented one of the major triphenylmethane dyes used in textile-processing and some other industrial processes. Various metals doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts have been studied intensively for the photodegradation of dye in wastewater treatment. In order to understand the mechanistic detail of the metal dosage on the activities enhancement of the TiO2 based photocatalyst, this study investigated the CV photodegradation reactions under UV light irradiation using a Pt modified TiO2 photocatalyst. The results showed that Pt-TiO2 with 5.8% (W/W) Pt dosage yielded optimum photocatalytic activity. Also the effect of pH value on the CV degradation was well assessed for their product distributions. The degradation products and intermediates were separated and characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS techniques. The results indicated that both the N-de-methylation reaction and the oxidative cleavage reaction of conjugated chromophore structure occurred, but with significantly different intermediates distribution implying that Pt doped TiO2 facilitate different degradation pathways compared to the P25-TiO2 system. © 2010.
Wu R.-J.,Providence University |
Chen C.-C.,National Taichung University of Education |
Lu C.-S.,National Taichung Nursing College |
Hsu P.-Y.,Providence University |
Chen M.-H.,Providence University
Desalination | Year: 2010
The photocatalytic degradation of phorate in aqueous suspensions was examined with the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst. About 99% of phorate was degraded after UV irradiation for 60 min. The photodegradation of phorate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and parameters such as pH of the system, TiO2 dosage, and presence of anions were found to influence the reaction rate. To obtain a better understanding of the mechanistic details of this TiO2-assisted photodegradation of phorate with UV irradiation, the intermediates of the processes were separated, identified, and characterized by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. The probable photodegradation pathways were proposed and discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the degradation pathways of phorate. The electrical energy consumption per order of magnitude for photocatalytic degradation of phorate was also calculated and showed that a moderated efficiency (EEO = 96 kWh/(m3 order)) was obtained in TiO2/UV process. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsai J.C.-H.,Cheng Ching General Hospital |
Tsai J.C.-H.,National Yang Ming University |
Liang Y.-W.,National Taichung Nursing College |
Pearson W.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association | Year: 2010
Background/Purpose: We investigated the factors associated with emergency department (ED) use among patients with non-urgent medical problems, with a focus on convenience and preference to use the ED instead of primary care clinics. Methods: A five-level triage system was adopted by research nurses to decide each patient's triage level and the maximum time to physician interview. Patients who had a maximum time to physician interview of more than 60 minutes were assumed to be non-urgent in this study. Results: More than half of ED visits were considered to be non-urgent. Non-urgent patients were more likely to be unmarried, government employees, visit the ED due to trauma, have a history of chronic illness, and present in the day time or at the weekend. ED visits were also more likely to occur in patients who took less than 15 minutes to reach the ED, chose the ED for its convenience, agreed that they could have chosen another facility for their visit, did not agree that the ED was convenient for receiving medical care. Multivariate logistic regression showed that marital status, time of presentation, time needed to get to the ED, and occupation were associated with non-urgent ED visits. Conclusion: Preference for using EDs for medical care and their convenience might contribute to non-urgent ED visits. A five-level triage system reliably stratified patients with different admission rates and utilization of medical resources, and could be helpful for reserving limited medical resources for more urgent patients. © 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier.
Chen H.Y.,National Taichung Nursing College
Rehabilitation nursing : the official journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses | Year: 2011
Enhancing self-efficacy, self-perception, and social support can be an effective way for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) to move forward. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between "moving-forward behavior" and demographic and disease characteristics, self-efficacy, self-perception, and social support among people with SCI. The study was designed as a descriptive-correlation, cross-sectional study. The participants were selected using cluster random sampling (n = 210) through the Spinal Injury Association in Taiwan. A statistically significant relationship was found between moving-forward behavior and age (t = -2.30, p < .05), self-efficacy (gamma = -0.25, p < .01), and self-perception (gamma = -0.39, p < .01). Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.964, p < .05) and self-perception (OR = 0.824, p < .05) were both significant predictors of moving-forward behavior.
Lin E.-S.,National Taichung Nursing College
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010
Effects of nutritional requirements for superoxide anion scavenging activity and reducing power by a newly screened Grifola frondosa TFRI1073 were studied in submerged cultures. The results clearly showed that the culture medium significantly affected superoxide anion scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, both superoxide anion scavenging capability and reducing power were found to be greatly affected by varying the carbon source, the nitrogen source, the growth factor, and the mineral elements. The best superoxide anion scavenging activity could be obtained when the medium compositions (carbon source, nitrogen source, growth factor, and the mineral elements) were sucrose, ammonium chloride, nicotinic acid, K3PO4, and CuSO4; while a maximal reducing power could be achieved when the medium composition setting as: xylose, arginine, ascorbic acid, K2HPO4, and MgSO4. From a series experiments, the maximal superoxide anion scavenging activity and reducing power were 98.36±0.59% and 0.947±0.06 at 100 μg/mL, respectively. This study proved that modifying the composition of the medium can dramatically enhance the superoxide anion scavenging ability and reducing power by a newly screened G. frondosa TFRI1073. © KoSFoST and Springer 2010.
Lin E.-S.,National Taichung Nursing College |
Li C.-C.,VaNung University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010
Areca is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used to treat a variety of diseases. The antioxidant capacities of areca flower extracts were evaluated by using superoxide radical scavenging activity and reducing power, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also detected. In all the tested models, the areca flower extracts showed their ability to scavenge superoxide radical and reducing power in a does-dependent manner. The distilled water (AFW) extract had higher superoxide radical scavenging activity and reducing power than of distilled water/methanol (AFM) extract. These results indicated that areca flower extracts might be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant agent. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Tsai J.C.H.,Cheng Ching General Hospital |
Tsai J.C.H.,National Yang Ming University |
Chen W.-Y.,Nan Kai University of Technology |
Liang Y.-W.,National Taichung Nursing College
Health Policy | Year: 2011
Objectives: To explore the magnitude of nonemergent emergency department visits under the Taiwan National Health Insurance program and to identify significant factors associated with these visits. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2002 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify nonemergent emergency department conditions according to the New York University algorithm. The data contained 43,384 visits, of which 83.89% could be classified. Multivariate logistic regression identified individual and contextual factors associated with nonemergent emergency department visits. Results: Nearly 15% of all emergency department visits were nonemergent; an additional 20% were emergent-preventable with primary care. Patients likely to make nonemergent emergency department visits were older, female, categorized as a Taiwan National Health Insurance Category IV beneficiary, and without major illness. Hospital accreditation level, teaching status, and location were associated with an increased likelihood of nonemergent emergency department visits. Conclusion: Understanding the factors leading to nonemergent emergency department visits can assist in evaluating the overall quality of a health care system and help reduce the use of the emergency department for nonemergent conditions. Policy makers desiring cost-effective care should assess emergency department visit rates in light of available resources for specific populations. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wu L.-F.,National Taichung Nursing College |
Lin L.-Y.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital
Journal of Nursing Research | Year: 2011
Background: Florence Nightingale emphasized the need for nurses to honor the psychological and spiritual aspects of patients to promote patients' health. Whereas Chan's (2010) study of a public hospital in Singapore presented similar findings, few studies have explored clinical nurses' perceptions of spirituality. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of specific nurse demographic characteristics in predicting perception differences with regard to spirituality and spiritual care. Methods: The Chinese version of the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale was developed using a translate and backtranslate process, achieving a content validity index of .98. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey with 350 clinical nurses as the study sample. Three hundred forty-nine valid questionnaires were returned (response rate, 99.71%). The institutional review board of the hospital approved this study. Results: Most participants were women, ranging in age from 23 to 64 years. Participants' clinical experience ranged from less than 1 year to 40 years, with a mean experience value of 13.42 years. Participants were distributed among all clinical specialties. Slightly less than half (41.83%) professed no religious belief, and most were not involved in religious activities (55.01%, n = 192). A little over half (53.58%, n = 187) had received spiritual care lessons during nurse training, and more than half (58.74%, n = 205) had received spiritual care continuous education after graduation. This survey found perception of spirituality positively related to holding a master's degree, 11 to 19 years of clinical experience, specialty in palliative nursing, and having received spiritual care lessons during nursing training or continuing education. Clinical nurseswho held a master's degree or received spiritual care lessons during continuing education had higher levels of spiritual care perception. Conclusions/Implications for Practice: This study found education to have a positive impact on participants' perception of spirituality and spiritual care. A higher education level and more spiritual care lessons or training courses were found to increase perception level. Study findings provide preliminary insights into nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care in Taiwan. Findings demonstrate an urgent need for additional education programs or training in spiritual care to improve the ability of nurses in catering to the spiritual needs of patients and guide clinical nurses when conducting spiritual care. Copyright © 2011 Taiwan Nurses Association.
Chang J.,National Taichung Nursing College |
Poynton M.R.,University of Utah |
Gassert C.A.,University of Utah |
Staggers N.,University of Utah
International Journal of Medical Informatics | Year: 2011
Purpose: In today's workplace, nurses are highly skilled professionals possessing expertise in both information technology and nursing. Nursing informatics competencies are recognized as an important capability of nurses. No established guidelines existed for nurses in Asia. This study focused on identifying the nursing informatics competencies required of nurses in Taiwan. Methods: A modified Web-based Delphi method was used for two expert groups in nursing, educators and administrators. Experts responded to 323 items on the Nursing Informatics Competencies Questionnaire, modified from the initial work of Staggers, Gassert and Curran to include 45 additional items. Three Web-based Delphi rounds were conducted. Analysis included detailed item analysis. Competencies that met 60% or greater agreement of item importance and appropriate level of nursing practice were included. Results: N= 32 experts agreed to participate in Round 1, 23 nursing educators and 9 administrators. The participation rates for Rounds 2 and 3 = 68.8%. By Round 3, 318 of 323 nursing informatics competencies achieved required consensus levels. Of the new competencies, 42 of 45 were validated. A high degree of agreement existed for specific nursing informatics competencies required for nurses in Taiwan (97.8%). Conclusions: This study provides a current master list of nursing informatics competency requirements for nurses at four levels in the U.S. and Taiwan. The results are very similar to the original work of Staggers et al. The results have international relevance because of the global importance of information technology for the nursing profession. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Li C.-C.,VaNung University |
Lin E.-S.,National Taichung Nursing College
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010
Areca catechu is a common traditional Chinese medicinal plant used to treat dyspepsia, constipation, beriberi and oedema. The antiradical capacities of different extraction method of A. catechu extracts were evaluated by scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals. Reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also detected. Based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, the 100% methanolic extract (AME of 38.77%) is the most effective followed by 50% water/methanol (AWM) and 100% water (AWE) extracts (22.92 and 21.47%, respectively). In addition, the extracts of AME (78.04%), AWM (75.77%) and AWE (68.42%) were effective in superoxide radical scavenging activity in comparison with the control (ascorbic acid and gallic acid). The reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the AME extract was found to be superior to other extracts. The results indicated that different extraction method of A. catechu extracts were related to their antiradical activities and reducing power. The present study suggests that A. catechu extracts are useful nutritional antioxidants for the nutraceutical industry. © 2010 Academic Journals.