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News Article | November 15, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

NSR and NJSA’s supreme showcase event is coming soon to Duncan during the annual Fall Classic. The National Swine Registry (NSR) and National Junior Swine Association (NJSA) host 19 shows annually across the United States, but the Fall Classic is their largest open show and sale. In the last year, members have marketed $3 million worth of seedstock at NSR shows and events. The National Swine Registry formed in 1994 as a result of the consolidation of the American Yorkshire Club, the Hampshire Swine Registry and the United Duroc Swine Registry. In January 1998, the American Landrace Association joined the NSR. This consolidation effort allowed for increased efficiency in the services offered to purebred breeders through the elimination of duplicated resource allocation, and established a unified approach to the future development of programs and services for each of the four breeds. The NSR's services include litter registrations, performance pedigrees, breed promotion and marketing assistance. As well, the NSR has created various educational materials, including a swine-judging video. The NSR is capable of meeting all genetic needs, including free genetic consultation, across-herd genetic evaluations, and a National Four-Breed Sire Summary. This National Sire Summary is published every six months and includes all trait leaders in each breed. The four breeds comprising the NSR are making significant contributions to the overall profitability of the swine industry as Hampshires, Landrace, Durocs and Yorkshires represent 87 percent of the total purebred hog population in the United States. Each of the respective breed associations that comprise the National Swine Registry have a long and rich history that goes back to the 1800's. During the time when each association operated as a separate entity, the general oversight and development of each breed was governed individually. In the earlier stages of the purebred seedstock industry in the U.S., breeders typically raised and sold one breed of hogs. Over time, these breeders began to take part in more than one organization, as the average seedstock supplier maintained several breeds on their farm to meet the demands of the U.S. commercial producer. As this trend increased throughout the 1970's and 1980's, an increase in the level of sophistication of commercial clients was also taking place. As the commercial clients of purebred seedstock suppliers began to utilize more specific crossbreeding programs, this ultimately placed increased pressure on the seedstock supplier, and ultimately, the needed services offered by breed organizations. The Fall Classic will have the best of the best of each of the breeds on display for show and for sale. The NSR Fall Classic's schedule is Wednesday, Nov. 16, 8 a.m.: Earliest entries may arrive for registration and check in. Thursday, Nov. 17, 9 a.m.: All entries must be in the barn and at 5 p.m. is the Weanling Pig Sift. Friday, Nov. 18 in the South Arena at 7:30 a.m. is the Yorkshire show followed by Hampshire, Landrace, Duroc, Crossbred Boar and in the Main Arena (Ring B) at 8 a.m is the Berkshire show followed by Poland, Chester White, Spot with 5:30 p.m. bringing the Selection of the Champion. Weanling Pig Prospects (Ring A) and Fabulous Female Sale to follow (All gilts selected will be sold in this sale.) At 6:45 p.m. is the Male Weanling Pig Sale (Ring B). On Saturday, Nov. 19,the Main Arena (Ring A) will have a 9 a.m.: Yorkshire sale followed by Hampshire, Landrace, Duroc, Crossbred Boar and in the Main Arena (Ring B) at 9:30 a.m. is a Berkshire sale followed by Poland, Chester White, Spot. For further show and sale information, contact National Swine Registry representative Brian Arnold at 765-427-1186 or for visitor information, contact the Duncan Convention and Visitors Bureau at http://www.visitduncan.org.

Badke Y.M.,Michigan State University | Bates R.O.,Michigan State University | Ernst C.W.,Michigan State University | Schwab C.,The Maschhoffs | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Genotype imputation is a cost efficient alternative to use of high density genotypes for implementing genomic selection. The objective of this study was to investigate variables affecting imputation accuracy from low density tagSNP (average distance between tagSNP from 100kb to 1Mb) sets in swine, selected using LD information, physical location, or accuracy for genotype imputation. We compared results of imputation accuracy based on several sets of low density tagSNP of varying densities and selected using three different methods. In addition, we assessed the effect of varying size and composition of the reference panel of haplotypes used for imputation.Results: TagSNP density of at least 1 tagSNP per 340kb (~7000 tagSNP) selected using pairwise LD information was necessary to achieve average imputation accuracy higher than 0.95. A commercial low density (9K) tagSNP set for swine was developed concurrent to this study and an average accuracy of imputation of 0.951 based on these tagSNP was estimated. Construction of a haplotype reference panel was most efficient when these haplotypes were obtained from randomly sampled individuals. Increasing the size of the original reference haplotype panel (128 haplotypes sampled from 32 sire/dam/offspring trios phased in a previous study) led to an overall increase in imputation accuracy (IA = 0.97 with 512 haplotypes), but was especially useful in increasing imputation accuracy of SNP with MAF below 0.1 and for SNP located in the chromosomal extremes (within 5% of chromosome end).Conclusion: The new commercially available 9K tagSNP set can be used to obtain imputed genotypes with high accuracy, even when imputation is based on a comparably small panel of reference haplotypes (128 haplotypes). Average imputation accuracy can be further increased by adding haplotypes to the reference panel. In addition, our results show that randomly sampling individuals to genotype for the construction of a reference haplotype panel is more cost efficient than specifically sampling older animals or trios with no observed loss in imputation accuracy. We expect that the use of imputed genotypes in swine breeding will yield highly accurate predictions of GEBV, based on the observed accuracy and reported results in dairy cattle, where genomic evaluation of some individuals is based on genotypes imputed with the same accuracy as our Yorkshire population. © 2013 Steibel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Welsh C.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Stewart T.S.,Purdue University | Schwab C.,National Swine Registry | Blackburn H.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Globally, genetic diversity of livestock populations is contracting. Knowing the true extent of the contraction is needed to develop effective conservation strategies. Although contractions of genetic diversity have been documented at the breed level, little within breed documentation has occurred. This situation is no different for US swine breeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish an inbreeding baseline for 5 pig breeds via pedigree records extracted from purebred registrations to each breed association for Berkshire (n = 116,758), Duroc (n = 878,480), Hampshire (n = 744,270), Landrace (n = 126,566), and Yorkshire (n = 727,268). For all breeds the number of registrations peaked after 1990 and declined since that time. The breeder structure was analyzed for Berkshire and Duroc; the average breeder registered pigs for 4.0 yr for both breeds. Breeders were grouped by longevity and herd size, and the inbreeding levels for the current population (pigs born 2006 and later) were evaluated. Presently, more than 99% of all pigs are inbred with the majority having inbreeding less than 10%. The range for percentage of animals that are more than 25% inbred ranged from 1.16% for Yorkshire to 6.09% for Berkshire. The greatest inbreeding for all animals within a breed ranged from 51% for Landrace and 65% for Yorkshire. Sires were grouped into 10 percentiles based on number of great-grandprogeny (GGP) produced; for all breeds, the top 10 percentile accounted for more than 75% of all GGP. Sixty percent of all sires produced less than 1% of all GGP, indicating few males are contributing to future generations. Generations ranged from 17 to 19 per breed with a generation interval ranging from 1.65 yr for Berkshire to 2.21 yr for Yorkshire. Mean inbreeding (%) at generation 17 (the most generations computed across breeds), rate of inbreeding per generation, and effective population size were 12.3, 0.0065, and 77 for Berkshire; 11.8, 0.0044, and 113 for Duroc; 6.8, 0.0046, and 109 for Hampshire; 17.9, 0.0067, and 74 for Landrace; and 8.0, 0.0044, and 113 for Yorkshire, respectively. The 2 breeds with fewest registrations, Berkshire and Landrace, had greater inbreeding rates and smaller effective population sizes, suggesting a need for more immediate conservation efforts. This analysis provides a basis for future monitoring of the genetic diversity of pig breeds and serves as a basis for planning conservation activities. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Yoder C.L.,Iowa State University | Schwab C.R.,The Maschhoffs | Fix J.S.,National Swine Registry | Duttlinger V.M.,Tempel Genetics | Baas T.J.,Iowa State University
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

Daily feed intake during lactation was recorded on purebred Yorkshire (n=1587), Landrace (n=2197), and F1 Yorkshire x Landrace (n=6932) litters from day 1 to 22 of lactation. Lactation feed intake (LFI) curves were predicted using a mixed model which included fixed effects of breed, season, parity group (PG), day of lactation, interactions of day with breed and PG, and a covariate for litter size after cross-fostering. Random effects included litter, contemporary group (herd-year-month), dam, and sire nested within breed. Least squares means for each day were used to express LFI curves by breed through day 22 of lactation. Yorkshire and Landrace LFI curves were not different (P=0.09), though both differed from the LFI curve (P<0.05) of F1 sows. Due to a limited number of observations in late lactation, LFI data from days 19 to 22 were not included. Evaluation of the difference in feed intake between 2 consecutive days (DC) of lactation resulted in the following classifications: 3 periods for purebreds, day 1 to 6 (PB1), day 7 to 10 (PB2), and day 11 to 18 (PB3); 2 periods for F1 sows, day 1-5 (C1) and day 6-18 (C2). Average rate of change in intake (ARC), average daily intake (ADI), and variation from predicted LFI values (VAR) metrics were estimated for each period in purebred and F1 sows. Parity group 1 in both purebred and F1 sows had the lowest ARC and ADI metrics, but highest VAR (P<0.05) in each period of lactation. Similar differences were observed for seasonal effects (P<0.05) as LFI curves during summer months represented lower ARC and ADI and higher VAR values compared to all other seasons. For all breeds, increased ARC and ADI metrics resulted in higher 21-day litter weaning weights (P<0.05), while decreasing VAR metrics late in lactation (PB3 and C2) resulted in higher 21-day litter weaning weights and shorter wean-to-first service intervals (P<0.05). Average rate of change increased more quickly in early periods (PB1, PB2, C1) and was lower in late lactation (PB3, C2). An increase in average rate of change in intake, average daily intake, and decreased variation from predicted LFI values during a period of lactation resulted in improved measures of maternal performance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yoder C.L.,Iowa State University | Schwab C.R.,The Maschhoffs | Fix J.S.,National Swine Registry | Stalder K.J.,Iowa State University | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to quantify significant negative deviations (DEV) from predicted daily lactation feed intake values and to estimate their effect on reproductive performance and subsequent intake in purebred and F1 sows. Daily lactation feed intake (LFI) records from day 1 to 22 of lactation from purebred Yorkshire (n=1587 parity records), purebred Landrace (n=2197 parity records), and reciprocal cross F1 (n=6932 parity records) females were used to predict daily LFI values. The mixed model included fixed effects of breed, season, parity group (1, 2, 3 and ≥4), day of lactation, and interactions of day with breed and parity group, and a covariate of litter size after cross-fostering. Random effects included litter, contemporary group (herd-year-month), dam, and sire nested within breed. Deviations from predicted LFI values were quantified using an internally studentized residual (SR). A SR≤-1.71, equivalent to observed LFI at least 1.9. kg less than predicted, was considered a DEV. Zero DEV occurred in 60% of lactation records, while 18% of lactation records had 1 DEV, and 22% of lactation records had ≥2 DEV. Thirty-four percent of negative deviations occurred during the summer months (June, July, August) which was more frequent when compared to the spring (26%), fall (23%), and winter (17%) months. Adjusted 21-day litter weaning weight (LW21) decreased as the number of DEV increased within a single lactation period, and wean-to-first service interval (WTSI) increased when at least 3 DEV occurred within a single lactation. An increase in DEV during early lactation did not affect LW21 or WTSI (P>0.05), though an increase in number of DEV after day 5 of lactation was associated with lower LW21 and longer WTSI. Odds of a negative deviation from predicted LFI occurring on any given day of lactation were estimated as odds ratios. If a DEV occurred the prior day, a DEV was 8.7 and 39.5 times more likely to occur than if a DEV had not occurred for purebred and F1 sows, respectively. In F1 sows, a DEV was 3.1 (P<0.01) times more likely to occur after day 5 of lactation when a DEV occurred on day 1 to 5 of lactation. Negative deviations from predicted LFI values decreased reproductive performance and had a larger effect on performance when they occurred during late lactation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Cutshaw R.L.,Purdue University | Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Schultz M.M.,Purdue University | Fix J.,National Swine Registry | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships of litter weaning weight (LWW), number weaned (NW), mean pig weaning weight (PWT), litter birth weight (LBW), and survival percentage (%S) with number after transfer (NAT) and number born alive (NBA) on purebred and crossbred litters. Data consisted of purebred Duroc (29,297), Landrace (34,177), and Yorkshire litters (40,301) as well as Yorkshire×Landrace (8061) and Landrace×Yorkshire (4028) crossbred litters. The data were distributed into 4 time periods of 1980 through 1997, 1998 through 2002, 2003 through 2008, and 2009 through 2011. All variables were initially modeled with the fixed effects of litter breed, period, NAT, farm, parity-age class (P-AC) groupings and interactions, and random effects of sow and contemporary group. Non-significant variables and interactions (. P>0.05) were removed from final models. Periods 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4 were combined based on non-significant main effects and interactions. The effect of NAT on LWW differed by time period (. P<0.01) such that heavier litters were achieved at larger litter sizes (NAT>11) in Landrace and Yorkshire litters (. P<0.05) in period 2. Mean PWT decreased as NAT increased with less effect on PWT during the second time period. Also %S decreased in a linear fashion from 6 to 12 NAT then decreased at an increasing rate for NAT>12, with a slight increase in %S over time for all breeds. Number weaned increased in a linear fashion up to NAT equal to 11 then increased at a decreasing rate to a maximum value depending on breed; above that value of NAT, NW decreased. There were no significant (. P>0.05) NBA by parity interactions for traits that were measured after processing and transfer. In every statistical analysis, farm was a significant and major source of variation. Also %S, and NW were greatly affected by NAT, and LBW was greatly affected by total number of pigs born (TNB). As litter size increases, greater emphasis should be placed on preweaning survival. The data indicate the effects of NAT on LWW, and PWT should be revaluated periodically. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Einstein M.E.,Purdue University | Stewart T.S.,Purdue University | Schwab C.,National Swine Registry | Olynkf N.J.,Purdue University
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2010

A stochastic model was developed to evaluate the effects of total number of pigs born and dam parity on pig compositional growth and postweaning profitability. The survival of pigs was modeled as a function of parity and of birth weight. Two management strategies were simulated, either with or without cross-fostering. Without cross-fostering, litter sizes of 6 to 14 total pigs born were simulated. Litter sizes of 6 to 20 total pigs born were simulated to be cross-fostered to obtain a constant of 11 pigs nursed. Pigs from parity 1 dams were predicted to be slower growing and have reduced survival compared with pigs from dams of other parities. Increasing total pigs born from 6 to 14 without cross-fostering reduced 150-d BW by 8.0 kg and carcass weight at marketing from 5.8 to 6.2 kg. Differences in carcass value from 6 to 14 total pigs born ranged from $9.50 to $11.10 per pig and profitability of pigs ($/weaned pig) ranged from $6.17 (parity 6) to $7.37 (parity 1). Without cross-fostering, weaning pigs from parity 1 dams were $5.82 to $7.68 less valuable than pigs from dams of other parities at the same total number born. Pigs born and reared in cross-fostered litters by parity 1 dams had $9.72 and $10.09 less carcass value and were $6.70 and $7.06 less profitable than weaning pigs of parity 2 and parity > 3 dams. Pigs born in larger litters, with or without cross-fostering, were less profitable postweaning than pigs from smaller litters. © 2010 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.

Cutshaw R.L.,Purdue University | Schinckel A.P.,Purdue University | Schultz M.M.,Purdue University | Fix J.S.,National Swine Registry | And 2 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent how performance traits in purebred pigs, including days to 113.4 kg (D113), ultrasound backfat depth (BF), and loin muscle area (LMA), are affected by variation in birth weight (BTW) and weaning weight (WW). Data consisted of BTW and WW records (Duroc, n = 26,260; Landrace, n = 31,209; Yorkshire, n = 53,037), and off-test records (Duroc, n = 10,103; Landrace, n = 9,478; Yorkshire, n = 18,647). Mean piglet BTW and WW decreased as total born and number weaned increased (P < 0.05). Models included significant effects of parity, sex, farm, and random effects of contemporary group and sow. Covariates of BTW, BTW2, WW, and WW2 were included to evaluate their effects. Mean D113 for pigs from parity 1 dams were 2 to 3 d greater than pigs from parity 2 and 3 dams (P < 0.05). However, when BTW and WW were included as covariates to the model, D113 was not different for pigs from parity 1 dams versus older sows. Birth weight (linear and quadratic) and WW (linear and quadratic) accounted for approximately 20% of the residual variance in D113 within each breed. Backfat depth and LMA were affected (P < 0.05) by BTW and WW. However, inclusion of BF and LMA as covariates in the models produced only small reductions in residual variances. Pigs with lighter BTW and WW, are more common in parity 1 litters and large litters and had poorer postweaning growth, BF, and LMA than heavier pigs at birth and weaning. © 2014 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.

Badke Y.M.,Michigan State University | Bates R.O.,Michigan State University | Ernst C.W.,Michigan State University | Schwab C.,National Swine Registry | Steibel J.P.,Michigan State University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: The success of marker assisted selection depends on the amount of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. To implement marker assisted selection in the swine breeding industry, information about extent and degree of LD is essential. The objective of this study is to estimate LD in four US breeds of pigs (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire) and subsequently calculate persistence of phase among them using a 60 k SNP panel. In addition, we report LD when using only a fraction of the available markers, to estimate persistence of LD over distance.Results: Average r 2between adjacent SNP across all chromosomes was 0.36 for Landrace, 0.39 for Yorkshire, 0.44 for Hampshire and 0.46 for Duroc. For markers 1 Mb apart, r 2ranged from 0.15 for Landrace to 0.20 for Hampshire. Reducing the marker panel to 10% of its original density, average r 2ranged between 0.20 for Landrace to 0.25 for Duroc. We also estimated persistence of phase as a measure of prediction reliability of markers in one breed by those in another and found that markers less than 10 kb apart could be predicted with a maximal accuracy of 0.92 for Landrace with Yorkshire.Conclusions: Our estimates of LD, although in good agreement with previous reports, are more comprehensive and based on a larger panel of markers. Our estimates also confirmed earlier findings reporting higher LD in pigs than in American Holstein cattle, especially at increasing marker distances (> 1 Mb). High average LD (r 2> 0.4) between adjacent SNP found in this study is an important precursor for the implementation of marker assisted selection within a livestock species.Results of this study are relevant to the US purebred pig industry and critical for the design of programs of whole genome marker assisted evaluation and selection. In addition, results indicate that a more cost efficient implementation of marker assisted selection using low density panels with genotype imputation, would be feasible for these breeds. © 2012 Badke et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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