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Mamounas E.P.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Anderson S.J.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Anderson S.J.,University of Pittsburgh | Dignam J.J.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: The limited information on predictors of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) has resulted in controversy about the optimal use of adjuvant radiotherapy and the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients and Methods: We examined patterns and predictors of LRR as first event in combined analysis of two National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) neoadjuvant trials. NC was either doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide (AC) alone or AC followed by neoadjuvant/adjuvant docetaxel. Lumpectomy patients received breast radiotherapy alone; mastectomy patients received no radiotherapy. Pathologic complete response was defined as the absence of invasive tumor in the breast. Multivariate analyses were used to identify independent predictors of LRR. The primary end point was time to LRR as first event. Results: In 3,088 patients, 335 LRR events had occurred after 10 years of follow-up. The 10-year cumulative incidence of LRR was 12.3% for mastectomy patients (8.9% local; 3.4% regional) and 10.3% for lumpectomy plus breast radiotherapy patients (8.1% local; 2.2% regional). Independent predictors of LRR in lumpectomy patients were age, clinical nodal status (before NC), and pathologic nodal status/breast tumor response; in mastectomy patients, they were clinical tumor size (before NC), clinical nodal status (before NC), and pathologic nodal status/breast tumor response. By using these independent predictors, groups at low, intermediate, and high risk of LRR could be identified. Nomograms that incorporate these independent predictors were created. Conclusion: In patients treated with NC, age, clinical tumor characteristics before NC, and pathologic nodal status/breast tumor response after NC can be used to predict risk for LRR and to optimize the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Yothers G.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Yothers G.,University of Pittsburgh | O'Connell M.J.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Lee M.,Genomic Health | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose Accurate assessments of recurrence risk and absolute treatment benefit are needed to inform colon cancer adjuvant therapy. The 12-gene Recurrence Score assay has been validated in patients with stage II colon cancer from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9581 and Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) trials. We conducted an independent, prospectively designed clinical validation study of Recurrence Score, with prespecified end points and analysis plan, in archival specimens from patients with stage II and III colon cancer randomly assigned to fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus oxaliplatin in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project C-07. Methods Recurrence Score was assessed in 892 fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens (randomly selected 50% of patients with tissue). Data were analyzed by Cox regression adjusting for stage and treatment. Results Continuous Recurrence Score predicted recurrence (hazard ratio for a 25-unit increase in score, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.55; P < .001), as well as disease-free and overall survival (both P < .001). Recurrence Score predicted recurrence risk (P < .001) after adjustment for stage, mismatch repair, nodes examined, grade, and treatment. Recurrence Score did not have significant interaction with stage (P = .90) or age (P = .76). Relative benefit of oxaliplatin was similar across the range of Recurrence Score (interaction P = .48); accordingly, absolute benefit of oxaliplatin increased with higher scores, most notably in patients with stage II and IIIA/B disease. Conclusion The 12-gene Recurrence Score predicts recurrence risk in stage II and stage III colon cancer and provides additional information beyond conventional clinical and pathologic factors. Incorporating Recurrence Score into the clinical context may better inform adjuvant therapy decisions in stage III as well as stage II colon cancer. © 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Kidwell K.M.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Kidwell K.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Yothers G.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Yothers G.,University of Pittsburgh | And 11 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Neurotoxicity from adjuvant treatment with oxaliplatin has been studied in patients with colorectal carcinoma in short-term studies, but, to the authors' knowledge, the current article is the first long-term assessment which reports the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) investigation of whether excess neurotoxicity persists beyond 4 years. Methods: As part of a colorectal cancer long-term survivor study (LTS-01), long-term neurotoxicity was assessed in 353 patients on NSABP Protocol C-07 (cross-sectional sample). Ninety-two of these patients from LTS-01 also had longitudinal data and were reassessed 5 to 8 years (median, 7 years) after random assignment (longitudinal sample). Contingency tables compared cohorts, a mixed model compared neurotoxicity between treatments over time, and a Wilcoxon rank-sum test compared neurotoxicity between treatments (cross-sectional sample). Results: In the cross-sectional sample, the increase in mean total neurotoxicity scores of 1.8 with oxaliplatin was statistically significant (P =.005), but not clinically significant (a minimally important difference of 4 was reported at the long-term assessment). Patients who received oxaliplatin had increased odds of numbness and tingling in hands (odds ratio, 2.00; P =.015) and feet (odds ratio, 2.78; P <.001) versus patients who did not receive oxaliplatin. The magnitude of the oxaliplatin effect varied with time (P <.001) in the longitudinal sample, such that the oxaliplatin-treated group did not have significantly greater total neurotoxicity scores by 7 years. Conclusions: At the long-term endpoint, there was no clinically significant increase in total neurotoxicity scores for patients who received oxaliplatin, but the specific neurotoxicities of numbness and tingling of the hands and feet remained significantly elevated for oxaliplatin-treated patients. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source


Tang G.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Tang G.,University of Pittsburgh | Cuzick J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Costantino J.P.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose: The 21-gene breast cancer assay recurrence score (RS) is widely used for assessing recurrence risk and predicting chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen receptor (ER) -positive breast cancer. Pathologic and clinical factors such as tumor size, grade, and patient age also provide independent prognostic utility. We developed a formal integration of these measures and evaluated its prognostic and predictive value. Patients and Methods: From the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel (NSABP) B-14 and translational research cohort of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination (TransATAC) studies, we included patients who received hormonal monotherapy, had ER-positive tumors, and RS and traditional clinicopathologic factors assessed (647 and 1,088, respectively). Individual patient risk assessments from separate Cox models were combined using meta-analysis to form an RS-pathology-clinical (RSPC) assessment of distant recurrence risk. Risk assessments by RS and RSPC were compared in node-negative (N0) patients. RSPC was compared with RS for predicting chemotherapy benefit in NSABP B-20. Results: RSPC had significantly more prognostic value for distant recurrence than did RS (P<.001) and showed better separation of risk in the study population. RSPC classified fewer patients as intermediate risk (17.8% v 26.7%, P < .001) and more patients as lower risk (63.8% v 54.2%, P < .001) than did RS among 1,444 N0 ER-positive patients. In B-20, the interaction of RSPC with chemotherapy was not statistically significant (P = .10), in contrast to the previously reported significant interaction of RS with chemotherapy (P = .037). Conclusion: RSPC refines the assessment of distant recurrence risk and reduces the number of patients classified as intermediate risk. Adding clinicopathologic measures did not seem to enhance the value of RS alone nor the individual biology RS identifies in predicting chemotherapy benefit. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Tang G.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Tang G.,University of Pittsburgh | Shak S.,Genomic Health | Paik S.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations and Biostatistical Centers | And 11 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

The Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score® (RS) is a validated genomic predictor of outcome and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive breast cancer. Adjuvant! was developed using SEER registry data and results from the Early Breast Cancer Clinical Trialists' overview analyses to estimate outcome and benefit from adjuvant hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. In this report we compare the prognostic and predictive utility of these two tools in node-negative, ER-positive breast cancer. RS and Adjuvant! results were available from 668 tamoxifen-treated NSABP B-14 patients, 227 tamoxifen-treated NSABP B-20 patients, and 424 chemotherapy plus tamoxifen-treated B-20 patients. Adjuvant! results were also available from 1952 B-20 patients. The primary endpoint was distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI). Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the prognostic and predictive utility of RS and Adjuvant!. Both RS (P < 0.001) and Adjuvant! (P = 0.002) provided strong independent prognostic information in tamoxifen-treated patients. Combining RS and individual clinicopathologic characteristics provided greater prognostic discrimination than combining RS and the composite Adjuvant!. In the B-20 cohort with RS results (n = 651), RS was significantly predictive of chemotherapy benefit (interaction P = 0.031 for DRFI, P = 0.011 for overall survival [OS], P = 0.082 for disease-free survival [DFS]), but Adjuvant! was not (interaction P = 0.99, P = 0.311, and P = 0.357, respectively). However, in the larger B-20 sub-cohort (n = 1952), Adjuvant! was significantly predictive of chemotherapy benefit for OS (interaction P = 0.009) but not for DRFI (P = 0.219) or DFS (P = 0.099). Prognostic estimates can be optimized by combining RS and clinicopathologic information instead of simply combining RS and Adjuvant!. RS should be used for estimating relative chemotherapy benefit. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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