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Kanpur Uttar Pradesh, India

Ray A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Sanyal P.,National Sugar Institute
AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings

Distillery in India principally produces industrial alcohol/ rectified spirit. Alcohol is used not only portable purposes, but also is a renewable source of energy required primarily in IC engines, a supplier of energy through efficient fuel cell construction and power alcohol for substitute of gasoline. This can also be employed for production of a number of chemicals. Some of the chemicals manufactured in India are: ethylene based- such as ethylene-diamine,PVC, polystyrene, ethylene oxide/glycol, polyethylene and acetaldehyde based, namely butadiene, PV acetate, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, ethyl, butyl and other acetates, vinyl acetate monomer,pyridine,2-ethyl hexanol,n-butanol,monochloroacetic acid, propionic acid etc. In this paper the status of some of the above chemicals in regards to their installed capacities, demand and market potential are discussed. Ethanol is usually produced by fermentation of molasses (generally 5% on cane) with a yield, 250.7 liter per tons of molasses with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or by strains, Zymomonas mobilis. Uses of cane juice, jaggerry, mohua flower are also used in some installations. An alternative feedstock for ethanol production is ligno-cellulosic biomass;bagasse ,rice straw, cotton straw, groundnut shells, wood and forest residues, waste paper products, paper and pulp mill wastes using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium thermocellum. Cellulose enzyme produced by aerobic mesophilic fungus, Trichoderma reesei, also releases glucose from plant biomass and converts to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Acid hydrolysate of hemicelluloses extracted from bagasse and other agriculture wastes by fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has also been a potential feedstock. Starch based natural produce like wheat, rice, millets, potatoes, corn, tapioca can also be a potential and economic source of ethanol production. In this paper potential for profitable production of alcohol by various sources are reviewed. Economics of alcohol manufacture depends strongly on the economy of steam consumption as it contributes a significant fraction (40%) of the total cost. Most of the Indian distilleries produce alcohol with 1.5-2 times (of the order of 2.5 kg/kg of alcohol production) higher steam consumption than the actually required. Attempts have been made to highlight how production can be improved by various means with lower consumption of energy and the factors influencing it. The absolute alcohol is manufactured from rectified spirit, by various means such as azeotropic and extractive distillation, using dehydrant, molecular sieves or by membrane separation. The status regarding the production of power alcohol and as gasoline substitute as well as chemicals in Indian distilleries is introduced. Spent wash and spent lees, the two liquid waste streams can also be employed for manufacture of chemicals and energy, especially biogas. Performances of installations for handling distillery spent wash using downflow stationary fixed film type anaerobic filter and other designs in Indian distilleries are reviewed. Absolute alcohol is produced from fermentation of molasses in India using two distillation columns, namely analyzer and rectifier. From rectified spirit power alcohol can be manufactured through the following processes: • Dehydration by chemical reaction • Dehydration by formation of ternary azeotropes with Entrainer like Benzene or Trichloroethylene or Cyclohexane • Dehydration by countercurrent extraction, called extractive distillation, glycerine with 25 % diluted K2CO3, ethylene glycol, molten eutectic mixture of K or Na acetate, CaCl2 etc. • Use of molecular sieves • Membrane separation. Source

Sanyal P.,National Sugar Institute | Gupta S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Chattopadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Ray A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings

Sugarcane molasses and jaggery provide a unique source for large number of downstream products which include livestock and human food sources, potable alcohol and absolute alcohol, alcohol based chemicals like oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acids, acetic acid, diethyl oxalate, ethyl acetate, acetic anhydride etc., which are raw materials for manufacture of pharmaceuticals, plastics, synthetic rubber, base for yeast, lysine, protein and innumerable other products. In this present study, status and economics of Indian industries who utilize molasses to produce organic acids through both chemical and biochemical routes like lactic, citric, tartaric, aconitric and oxalic acid etc. are reviewed with particular reference to oxalic acid production and updated research findings. The oxalic acid or its derivatives have widespread industrial applications such as textiles, leather, oil refinery, metallurgy ,nuclear power plant, dyes, catalysts, explosives, straw bleaching, printing, marble polishing, metal and cloth cleaning, pharmaceuticals and antibiotics. It is also a very important chemical in petroleum, rare-earth, ink, rust, corrosion inhibitor, and dental adhesive processing. Oxalic acid can be produced from a number of sources from sugar itself, from sugarcane or sugar industry wastes, sugarcane trash, wastes from paper industry by oxidation of their main components of carbohydrates e.g. sucrose, glucose, and other sugar bearing raw materials, from dry powder of parthenium hysterophorus L., and other cellulosic wastes, wood dust, wood cellulose etc. Sugar cane or sugar beet molasses, sugarcane jaggery, deionized cane juice can be a potential source from sugar industry wastes. Both chemical as well as biochemical process may be followed to produce this important chemical. In chemical route generally catalytic oxidation of the above ingredients by nitric acid or by formed nitrogen oxides in batch or continuous stirred tank reactors produces oxalic acid, acid sachharate, and tartaric acid. Production of oxalic acid by fermentations of carbohydrates using Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens and radiation processing of carbonate solutions and molasses are reported. Production of tartaric acid and citric acid under certain conditions can also be produced. However, the majority of work involves oxidation of sugar bearing materials by nitric acid to produce oxalic acid. In this present study, an attempt has also been made to optimize the processes of producing oxalic acid from sugarcane molasses and sugar cane jaggery by oxidation with nitric acid in presence of dehydrant and catalyst with or without the presence of catalyst promoters. Parameters affecting the reaction were: air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V 2O 5, catalyst promoters and the concentrations of reactants and dehydrant. The maximum yields obtained by different processes were compared. Treatments of NOx vapour by absorbing in a suitable medium (in soda ash or sulphuric acid), to avoid air pollution (and also to produce value added by-products, glauber salt and sodium nitrate), mother liquor and catalyst recycling were attempted to enhance the economy of the plant. Source

Ray A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Nigam R.B.,National Sugar Institute | Sharma S.K.,National Sugar Institute | Sanyal P.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings

India is the largest cane sugar producing country in the World. Apart from sugar it discharges a large number of byproducts such as bagasse, molasses, press mud, cane tops, leaves and straw. Economy of Indian sugar industry is not as expected due to variety of reasons. Therefore, there are all round attempts all over the cane sugar producing countries to establish a biorefinery to make this industry profitable. One of the waste products of sugar industry is filter mud which is approximately 3.4 % ( at 77% moisture) on the basis of 100 tonne cane crushed. The quantity of filter mud varies from country to country, from mill to mill and even within the same mill and from field to field. The parameters influencing the variation include systems of clarification, extraction, cane variety, degree of mechanization etc. Filter mud is not only a source of biological fertilizer, but also helps in the disposal of distillery spent wash after recovering useful fuel in the form of Methane gas. The press mud of sulphitation sugar factories contains a very valuable chemical ,wax which is a suitable substitute of carnauba wax. A number of modified waxes e.g. mountain wax, can also be derived from it. Till today most of the sugarcane industries leave this waste to the field which makes the soil impervious to water penetration if repeated use is made. No attempt has been made to recover wax from the press mud in industrial scale.With ever increasing shortage of vegetable wax, e.g. Carnauba for its multiple uses, these fine chemicals are mostly imported. If the economy of recovering and refining wax from press mud is established in a sugar refinery, it can be a finest chemical the sugar refinery can produce comparable to the commercialized wax from petroleum refinery on one hand and solving solid waste disposal problem in the sugar industry on the other and considerable foreign exchange can be saved from this exploitation. In this present investigation ,an attempt has been made to review the potential of various bye products to produce value added chemicals in a sugar refinery with special emphasis on recovery, refining and modification of sugarcane wax. Details of extraction process in laboratory experiments as well as in pilot plant are reviewed. Further investigation is made on economic feasibility studies in order to establish a full sized plant based on data of a pilot plant study. Source

Dwivedi S.,National Sugar Institute | Bhatt S.,National Sugar Institute
International Sugar Journal

Flavonoids, the yellow coloured pigments present in sugarcane plant and juice are critical to colour generation in various sugar house products. Being much more stable than other colourants these pigments pass on through various stages of sugar manufacture and even persist into the sugar crystals. Many factories produce off-white coloured sugars which have high ICuMSa colour (>100) directly from cane juice. This colour may arise either from the flavonoid pigments or their reaction products because conditions conducive to the formation of colour from other common colour-forming reactions are not favourable. a study was carried out to isolate and identify natural flavonoid pigments from these direct consumption off-white sugars. a method is described for the isolation of solid colour andits fractionation by gel-permeation chromatography into individual flavonoids which wereidentified by the uV and nMR spectroscopic techniques. flavonoids detected are quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol. Source

Kumar V.,National Sugar Institute | Upadhyay R.,National Sugar Institute | Sanyal P.,National Sugar Institute
Sugar Tech

The aim of this study is to stabilize sugar cane juice using citric acid. Citric acid of different doses, were applied at different pH values (5.4-7.1). Reaction times were also varied and analyzed from 0 to 120 h. It is found 5 ppm dose of citric acid, sugar cane juice could be made stabilized and used as a soft drink because it becomes softer, thus degradation of sucrose is not expected, nor the negative effect on the product softness and taste. Simultaneously more emphasis given to the quality parameters like purity coefficient, titratable acidity index, and conductivity which were used in present investigation for measuring the juice deterioration and to evolve a methodology to assess the cane juice deterioration in a quicker and precise way. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion. Source

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