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Lane S.C.,RMIT University | Camera D.M.,Australian Catholic University | Lassiter D.G.,Karolinska Institutet | Areta J.L.,RMIT University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

We determined the effects of "periodized nutrition" on skeletal muscle and whole body responses to a bout of prolonged exercise the following morning. Seven cyclists completed two trials receiving isoenergetic diets differing in the timing of ingestion: they consumed either 8 g/kg body mass (BM) of carbohydrate (CHO) before undertaking an evening session of high-intensity training (HIT) and slept without eating (FASTED), or consumed 4 g/kg BM of CHO before HIT, then 4 g/kg BM of CHO before sleeping (FED). The next morning subjects completed 2 h of cycling (120SS) while overnight fasted. Muscle biopsies were taken on day 1 (D1) before and 2 h after HIT and on day 2 (D2) pre-, post-, and 4 h after 120SS. Muscle [glycogen] was higher in FED at all times post-HIT (P<0.001). The cycling bouts increased PGC1α mRNA and PDK4 mRNA (P < 0.01) in both trials, with PDK4 mRNA being elevated to a greater extent in FASTED (P < 0.05). Resting phosphorylation of AMPKThr172, p38MAPKThr180/Tyr182, and p-ACCSer79 (D2) was greater in FASTED (P < 0.05). Fat oxidation during 120SS was higher in FASTED (P = 0.01), coinciding with increases in ACCSer79 and CPT1 as well as mRNA expression of CD36 and FABP3 (P < 0.05). Methylation on the gene promoter for COX4I1 and FABP3 increased 4 h after 120SS in both trials, whereas methylation of the PPARδ promoter increased only in FASTED. We provide evidence for shifts in DNA methylation that correspond with inverse changes in transcription for metabolically adaptive genes, although delaying postexercise feeding failed to augment markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source

Hebert-Losier K.,National Sports Institute of Malaysia | Hebert-Losier K.,Mid Sweden University | Zinner C.,Mid Sweden University | Zinner C.,University of Wurzburg | And 4 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8–1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15–60 min). Objective: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. Methods: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Only original research articles addressing physiology, biomechanics, anthropometry, or neuromuscular characteristics and elite sprint cross-country skiers and performance outcomes were included. All articles meeting inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data were extracted from each article using a standardized form and subsequently summarized. Results: Thirty-one articles met the criteria for inclusion, were reviewed, and scored an average of 66 ± 7 % (range 56–78 %) upon quality assessment. All articles except for two were quasi-experimental, and only one had a fully-experimental research design. In total, articles comprised 567 subjects (74 % male), with only nine articles explicitly reporting their skiers’ sprint International Skiing Federation points (weighted mean 116 ± 78). A similar number of articles addressed skating and classical techniques, with more than half of the investigations involving roller-skiing assessments under laboratory conditions. A range of physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric, and neuromuscular characteristics was reported to relate to sprint skiing performance. Both aerobic and anaerobic capacities are important qualities, with the anaerobic system suggested to contribute more to the performance during the first of repeated heats; and the aerobic system during subsequent heats. A capacity for high speed in all the following instances is important for the performance of sprint cross-country skiers: at the start of the race, at any given point when required (e.g., when being challenged by a competitor), and in the final section of each heat. Although high skiing speed is suggested to rely primarily on high cycle rates, longer cycle lengths are commonly observed in faster skiers. In addition, faster skiers rely on different technical strategies when approaching peak speeds, employ more effective techniques, and use better coordinated movements to optimize generation of propulsive force from the resultant ski and pole forces. Strong uphill technique is critical to race performance since uphill segments are the most influential on race outcomes. A certain strength level is required, although more does not necessarily translate to superior sprint skiing performance, and sufficient strength-endurance capacities are also of importance to minimize the impact and accumulation of fatigue during repeated heats. Lastly, higher lean mass does appear to benefit sprint skiers’ performance, with no clear advantage conferred via body height and mass. Limitations: Generalization of findings from one study to the next is challenging considering the array of experimental tasks, variables defining performance, fundamental differences between skiing techniques, and evolution of sprint skiing competitions. Although laboratory-based measures can effectively assess on-snow skiing performance, conclusions drawn from roller-skiing investigations might not fully apply to on-snow skiing performance. A low number of subjects were females (only 17 %), warranting further studies to better understand this population. Lastly, more training studies involving high-level elite sprint skiers and investigations pertaining to the ability of skiers to maintain high-sprint speeds at the end of races are recommended to assist in understanding and improving high-level sprint skiing performance, and resilience to fatigue. Conclusions: Successful sprint cross-country skiing involves well-developed aerobic and anaerobic capacities, high speed abilities, effective biomechanical techniques, and the ability to develop high forces rapidly. A certain level of strength is required, particularly ski-specific strength, as well as the ability to withstand fatigue across the repeated heats of sprint races. Cross-country sprint skiing is demonstrably a demanding and complex sport, where high-performance skiers need to simultaneously address physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric, and neuromuscular aspects to ensure success. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

Introduction: Participation in sport among university athletes in Malaysia has progressed right up to Olympic level. However, some of these athletes are prevented from competing due to injuries. Ankle injuries, in particular, are among the common types of injury. Even so, there is still lack of local data and research describing the incidence of ankle injuries. Objectives: To determine peroneus longus muscle activity in different taped ankles and positions among subjects with functional ankle instability (FAI). Methods: Twenty-three subjects with ankle instability (AJFAT score > 26) volunteered to take part in the study. The subjects were tested under three conditions; 1) no tape (NT), 2) Kinesio® tape (KT), and 3) rigid tape (RT). The subjects completed two postural stability tests, followed by a sudden inversion perturbation test with EMG, recording throughout the procedures. The EMG data were analyzed, filtered, full-wave rectified and normalized. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (Independent T-test and ANOVA) to evaluate differences in peak muscle activation (mV) and peroneal latency (ms). Results: Peak muscle activation of the peroneus was activated more in the RT group during both the Static and Dynamic Stability Tests. Apart from that, there were no statistically significant differences. During sudden inversion perturbation, the RT group was the one that was most activated (p=0.001). Peroneal latency was even delayed in KT and RT during the three tests, and shorter in the NT group. There were significant differences during the Dynamic Stability Test, between the NT and KT groups (p=0.001) and between the NT, RT and KT groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: RT tape may enhance the peroneus longus response by maintaining a higher level of muscle activation, especially during dynamic movements and sudden inversion of the ankle, and may selectively benefit individuals with FAI. The KT ankle did not show superior effect to the NT ankle, and demonstrated minimal benefit when used in FAI. Also, its use may be more likely to cause reinjury to the ankle. © 2016, Redprint Editora Ltda. All rights reserved. Source

Hamid M.S.A.,University of Malaya | Hamid M.S.A.,National Sports Institute of Malaysia | Mohamed Ali M.R.,University of Malaya | Yusof A.,University of Malaya | George J.,University of Malaya
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2012

Background: Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. Methods and design. A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16weeks. The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. Conclusion: This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Trial registration. Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592. © 2012 A Hamid et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lan M.F.,National Sports Institute of Malaysia | Lane A.M.,University of Wolverhampton | Roy J.,National Sports Institute of Malaysia | Hanin N.A.,National Sports Institute of Malaysia
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to investigate the factorial validity of the Brunel Mood Scale for use with Malaysian athletes. Athletes (N = 1485 athletes) competing at the Malaysian Games completed the Brunel of Mood Scale (BRUMS). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results indicated a Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) of 90 and Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.05. The CFI was below the 0.95 criterion for acceptability and the RMSEA value was within the limits for acceptability suggested by Hu and Bentler (1999). We suggest that results provide some support for validity of the BRUMS for use with Malaysian athletes. Given the large sample size used in the present study, descriptive statistics could be used as normative data for Malaysian athletes. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Source

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