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Agbaje G.-I.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA | John O.-N.,African Regional Center for Space Science and Technology Education in English E
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

At the beginning of space age, images of planet Earth were only seen either as mere beautiful and fascinating icons or things that could support military operations. Today, the story has changed; these images are now powerful scientific tools that enable man to better understand, manage and protect the Earth, its environment and resources. Earth observation information provides substantial benefit supporting economic development and support informed policy and decision making of all countries of the world - developing or developed. It is used for agriculture, forestry, risk management, disaster monitoring, maritime, defence and security and natural resources management. The numerous benefits from these space assets have driven countries within the continent of Africa to either acquire or develop capability in space systems devoted to improving the quality of life in these countries. While space systems are expensive, there is need for continuity and sustainability. This paper focuses on the role AfriGEOSS is meant to play in Earth Observation (EO) mission cooperation on the continent of Africa. It discusses the importance of earth observation programs for developing countries, and the benefits of international cooperative efforts. It discusses briefly some collaborative projects on Earth Observation in Africa and their associated problems. It then situates AfriGEOSS in the context of African Space Agenda (ASA) and ends with recommendations especially to the Africa Union Commission for the realization of ASA set goals.

Ojumu T.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Oladejo S.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Aderoju O.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

Malaria is an endemic vector borne disease with a high casualty rate. It has been recorded to be more severe in the southwestern part of Nigeria. This study was carried out to determine the spatial extent of malaria risk in Oshogbo metropolis. Multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and weighted overlay of the selected risk factors were carried out after a pairwise matrix of the factors was done, this resulted in a hazard map. The Land Use Land Cover map of the study area was created alongside an accessibility index map showing distance from health facility, a multiplication of these outputs; Hazard map, Accessibility index map and Land Use Land cover map using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) extension and raster calculator in ARCGIS 10.2 to produce final malaria risk map. The result shows the risk extent of malaria with estimates of 9.26%, 35.18%, 18.51%, 20.37% and 16.6% of the area subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria risk areas respectively. Objectives: the study was guided by Land Use Land Cover map of the study area which was created alongside an accessibility index map showing distance from health facilities, a multiplication of these outputs; Hazard map, Accessibility index map using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) extension and raster calculator in ARCGIS 10.2 to produce final malaria risk map. Methodology: A principal component analysis of the satellite image was carried out in order to determine the correlation and covariance of the bands. This was done in the build up to selecting the bands for colour compositing. After this, the image was geo-corrected, filtered and enhanced in order to obtain useful input for image classification. The Malaria risk analysis of the study area was done using the following general risk equation: Risk = (Elements at risk)∗(Hazard)∗(Vulnerability) Results: Based on the results of this study, Oshogbo can be considered as a highly epidemic prone area. This stems from the fact that all the environmental and climatic factors of Oshogbo considered in this study meets all the criteria for high malaria risk (temperature lies within thriving degree for malaria, average rainfall is high, slopes are gentle, presence of dense vegetation etc. and water body flowing through the area) Conclusion: Malaria risk is high across Osogbo. This agrees with the malaria report of the WHO that classifies the south western part of Nigeria as a high risk zone for malaria infection.

Fagbemiro O.A.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper highlights an outreach initiative to bring space awareness to primary schools in rural communities in Nigeria. The Space Club is an ongoing activity of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education (ARCSSTE). ARCSSTE (affliated to the United Nations) was established in 1998 with a mandate to train postgraduate candidates from English-speaking African countries in the space sciences. The space club was conceived as one of the catch-them-young initiatives geared towards sensitizing and educating school children at all levels. Over the course of 3 years, the centre has inaugurated about 300 space clubs in primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. In 2007, a space club was launched at Shepherd Nursery and Primary School located in a rural community known as Owoeye in Ile-Ife. This community lacks basic infrastructure such as water, electricity and good roads. Shepherd Nursery and Primary School is a modest elementary school with about 121 pupils and 14 teachers situated in the heart of this rural community. In spite of the abject poverty of the environment, the school has a vibrant space club of about 50 members. Filled with enthusiasm and eagerness, these students have greatly impacted the community by creating awareness about space science and technology. Members of the space club educate the community through novel means such as poems, playlets and rhymes. The space club also has a museum showcasing locally fabricated models of rockets, satellites and astronauts. This study illustrates how the children utilize their limited facilities and gifts to enlighten a remote community who would otherwise not have had the opportunity to learn about space science and technology.

Olusoji N.J.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

One basic principle of public international law applicable to space activities is that cooperation of states plays an exceedingly important role in the exploration and utilization of Outer space. The Outer Space Treaty in it preamble refers to the wish of the state to promote broad international cooperation in the field of study and the use of outer space to peaceful purposes such as state assisting and encouraging international cooperation in scientific research; the development of international cooperation and mutual understanding; and signatory state being guided by the principle of cooperation and mutual assistance. An active role in the development of international cooperation in space research and space law is played by the United Nations, its specialized agencies, a number of institutions and inter-governmental agencies. Agreement on the international Space station is an example of the on-going developments and progress in the context of international intergovernmental cooperation in space activities and space law. This work discusses the meaning, origin and development of international space law, and the legal foundation of the International Space Station, which is built on three levels of international cooperation agreements: the International Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement, which establishes 'a long term international cooperation frame-work on the basis of genuine partnership; four Memoranda of Understandings (MOUs); and various bilateral Implementing Arrangements between the space agencies that have been established to implement the Memoranda of Understandings. It further talks about the obligations and rights, which are established by the Agreement. The work finds that the Agreement is a welcome development in the area of cooperation in space activities and international space law. It, however, discovers some shortcomings and makes some recommendations.

Nelson I.O.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA | Ademola A.Y.,University Of Ilorin
International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation | Year: 2013

This paper presents the design and simulation of a patch antenna array as feed for a parabolic reflector antenna in C-Band. This configuration is to serve as an alternative to conventional feed horns for in-orbit satellites to solve the size and weight problems they constitute. A 4×1 C-Band circular patch antenna array configuration with a broadside radiation pattern is designed as feed for a dish antenna with aperture illumination of 140°. The result of analysis and simulations of the model using MATLAB and CST MWS-2012 software package suggests that the patch antenna array feed radiation characteristics are very competitive when compared to that achieved with conventional feeds for dish antennas of the same aperture illumination. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Fagbemiro O.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

This study focused on the activities of the Nigerian Chapter of the Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) in collaboration with the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in taking Astronomy to elementary school kids across Nigeria. Nigeria with a population of over 173 million people, has 43.9% of this population aged 0-14 years. There are approximately 76 million kids under 14 years across the Nation, majority of who studies have shown are alien to the subject of Astronomy. A team of young Scientists under the aegis of Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) in collaboration with the Nigerian Space Agency started out to reach out to the Nigerian kids, teaching them about astronomy and creating awareness about space science and technology in general. A number of activities have been embarked upon by this group in taking Astronomy to these school children. Some of these activities are targeted towards stimulating the interest of elementary school kids in Astronomy. There have been workshop sessions where school kids are brought together and taught Astronomy. Also, teachers too have been carried along in the program tagged 'Train-the-Trainers' teachers' workshops. The aim is to train science teachers in schools so they could in turn teach their pupils about Astronomy. Schools are encouraged to source for locally available materials to fabricate some resources to complement the limited resources that are being used in teaching the kids. Thousands of elementary school kids have so far been reached since inception, both in the rural and urban parts of Nigeria. Both the print and electronic media have been used to propagate the activities of AWB in Nigeria. The responses from kids across Nigeria have been encouraging, as the National Coordinator of AWB in Nigeria, I have been an integral part of the various activities embarked upon by the team and the impact assessment of Astronomy education on kids' school performances especially in the sciences have been very amazing. There is increased awareness about Astronomy among the school kids in Nigeria, teachers have been encouraged to emphasize on existing Astronomy topics in their teaching, while efforts are on going to engage the policy makers in charge of curriculum development to introduce Astronomy in the schools' curricula.

Sule S.D.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA | Damilola O.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

This paper will recommend a model and architecture for an integrated maritime surveillance solution in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It will detail the combination of terrestrial and space based technologies required to tackle current maritime security challenges. The paper will also outline the regional and international collaboration with governments and industry necessary to facilitate this strategy. Various products and services from global industry will be analyzed and recommended for application in this model, which is also expected to outline a mechanism for achieving best results and sustainability in projects implementation.

Sule S.D.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2015

This paper seeks to make a contribution to the history of astronautics and in particular, human spaceflight: That the earliest expression of the idea or imagination of humans travelling to space was first recorded in the Bible. While the Russian Yuri Gagarin is formally recognised as the first man in space and various authors have expressed the idea of humans in space prior to this event, the Bible records that Elijah the Tishbite who lived in the 9th century B.C. (Before Christ) as having ascended to heaven (space) without a return. Additionally, this paper propounds that the classic account of this event as recorded in the Bible, which originated in Israel, actually draws similar and scientific parallels with modern human spaceflight science and systems. A hypothetical yet systematic and comparative analysis will be made between the ancient account and current developments in order to provide useful information and develop valid basis for further research on the ancient origins of human spaceflight emanating from Israel.

Fadahunsi-Banjo M.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2015

At inception of Mankind's activity in Space, the essentiality of maintaining peaceful demeanor in all activities to avoid extending war zones from earth to space was a major concern. This led to the creation of the Committee on peaceful uses of Outer Space, International Space Law Treaties, principles, and codes of conduct. It is important that space activities be conducted in accordance with International Law, International Space Law and the principle of peaceful purpose. The paper espouses the frontier of the concept of who is your neighbor in space, obligations of states to each other as neighbors hinged on ownership of objects launched into Outer space, and brings to fore consequences of non-conformity to such obligations. This paper further seeks to discuss the International law Principle of good neighborliness, how it has affected activities of States on earth positively, and how such can be extended to outer space putting into consideration its res communis nature and non-appropriation principle as contained in the Outer Space Treaty. Whether such application of good neighborliness principle can proffer solutions on issues regarding space debris, militarization in space, to foster continuous cooperation in Outer Space. In conclusion the paper emphasizes a peaceful outer space as not only an obligation to all states but a necessity to ensure a sustainable space environment.

Awasak J.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA | Kadir A.R.,National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2015

After several decades of space science, Earth observation, space exploration and technology, many have come to agree that beyond the challenges of venturing into space: huge investments as well as the risks involved in the space sector, there are also the benefits and success of such investments and research. This is because the study of outer pace has made it possible for nations to moderate the effects of weather climatic conditions, pursue issues relating to sustainable development, security, self-defence, trade, commerce, science and technology, humanitarian assistance and knowledge transfer; among other benefits. New States have joined the space sector and are focusing on how to gain further understanding of their environment, prepare for the effects of climate change as well as formulate better policies for sustainable development. In view of the fact that the space programmes of these new entrants are relatively in their formative stages and do not possess complete technical requirements or financial resources, these countries need to make efforts at sensitizing their populace on the benefits of space so they can create awareness, arouse interest and get support from their people; leading to further development in the sector. Besides looking at the different fora (children, students, women as well as law and policy makers in developing countries) for channelling space education and outreach, this paper seeks to also examine the ways through which these groups can be sensitized to ensure support and greater participation. Copyright © 2015 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved.

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