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Parsons M.S.,University of Melbourne | Madhavi V.,University of Melbourne | Ana-Sosa-Batiz F.,University of Melbourne | Center R.J.,University of Melbourne | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2016

Recent evidence from HIV vaccine trials in humans and non-human primates suggests that nonneutralizing antibody functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), are an important component of vaccine-mediated protection. Whether anti-HIV ADCC antibodies are present in seminal fluid, however, is not known. We assessed whether anti-HIV antibodies within seminal plasma mediate ADCC and activate natural killer (NK) cells. Using matched blood and seminal plasma samples, we detected anti-HIV IgG within samples from all 11 HIV-infected donors. Furthermore, anti-HIV antibodies within the seminal plasma triggered detectable ADCC in 9 of 11 donors and activated NK cells in 6 of 11 donors. The ability of seminal plasma-derived IgG to activate NK cells in an anti-HIV antibody-dependent manner was enhanced when IgG were enriched and other seminal plasma components were removed. These observations have relevance for understanding natural immunity to HIV infection and provide assistance with HIV vaccine design. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dimech W.,National Serology Reference Laboratory
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2016

The lack of standardization of rubella IgG testing continues to be a problem 20 years since the standard was introduced. The situation is complex and poorly understood. As demonstrated by an article in this issue (E. Bouthry, M. Furione, D. Huzly, A. Ogee-Nwankwo, L. Hao, A. Adebayo, J. Icenogle, A. Sarasini, M. Grazia Revello, L. Grangeot-Keros, and C. Vauloup-Fellous, J Clin Microbiol 54:1720-1725, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00383-16), the problem remains. The situation is far from being resolved, but at least the process for change has started.

Pedrana A.E.,Burnet Institute | Pedrana A.E.,Monash University | Hellard M.E.,Burnet Institute | Hellard M.E.,Monash University | And 5 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

In Australia, HIV prevalence estimates among gay men have been mainly based on self-reported HIV status collected in annual behavioural surveys. We measured biological HIV prevalence among gay men in Melbourne, Australia, using a facility based sampling method. We calculated HIV prevalence and used logistic regression to assess correlates of a positive HIV test. A total of 639 gay men were recruited completed a survey and provided oral fluid for HIV testing from seven venues in 2008. The median age of the participants was 35 years (range 18-75 years). Overall biological HIV prevalence was 9.5% (95% CI 7.5-12.0%) compared with 6.3% (95% CI 4.5-8.4%) for self-reported HIV positive status. We found a significant discrepancy between test detected biological and self-report HIV status in our study, with 19 men (31.1%) unaware of their HIV infection. These results highlight the importance of repeatable biological estimates to inform and evaluate HIV prevention strategies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Pedrana A.E.,Burnet Institute | Pedrana A.E.,Monash University | Hellard M.E.,Burnet Institute | Hellard M.E.,Monash University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Undiagnosed HIV infections contribute disproportionately to the HIV epidemic. We recruited 639 gay men attending social venues, who completed a cross-sectional survey with oral fluid collection for HIV testing in 2008. We calculated HIV and undiagnosed HIV prevalence and used χ 2 tests and logistic regression to examine associations between participant characteristics and HIV status. Among 639 men, 61 (9.5%, 95% confidence interval: 7.4% to 12.1%) tested HIV positive, of which 19 (31.1%, 95%confidence interval: 19.9% to 44.3%) were classified as undiagnosed HIV positive. Almost a third of HIV-positive men were unaware of their HIV status, and of these men, a large proportion engaged in high-risk behaviors.

Pierce A.B.,Infectious Diseases Unit | Armishaw J.,Infectious Diseases Unit | Price B.,Infectious Diseases Unit | Wright E.J.,Infectious Diseases Unit | And 7 more authors.
HIV Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: A Swiss nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) source-tracing study successfully reduced unnecessary NPEP prescriptions by recruiting and testing source partners of unknown HIV serostatus. The Victorian NPEP Service in Australia attempted to replicate this study with the addition of HIV rapid testing and a mobile service. Methods: Patients presenting to two busy NPEP sites who reported a source partner of unknown HIV status were routinely asked if their source could be traced. If the exposed person indicated that their source partner was traceable they were asked to contact them and discuss the possibility of having an HIV test. Results: No sources were enrolled and the study was terminated. Conclusion: We hypothesize that there are a number of differences between Australia and Switzerland that make source tracing unfeasible in Australia. © 2012 British HIV Association.

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